Cómic

Tom Gauld: «Es mucho más fácil reírte de aquello que amas que de lo que no»

La literatura y la ciencia probablemente tengan en el ingenio y el sentido del humor de Tom Gauld (Escocia, 1976) el mecanismo de desactivación de cualquier conato de solemnidad y pretenciosidad que más pasiones y risas despierta a nivel global. En «La venganza de los bibliotecarios» (Salamandra Graphic), el autor de álbumes ilustrados y tiras cómicas reúne ahora las viñetas sobre el mundo literario que han ido apareciendo recientemente en el diario «The Guardian».

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fatuos, editores miserables, cr\u00edticos perezosos, libreros mezquinos, bibliotecarios vengativos, libros que acuden a terapia\u2026 pero tambi\u00e9n relecturas inventivas de cl\u00e1sicos universales, bromas anacr\u00f3nicas, vueltas de tuerca a distop\u00edas y ucron\u00edas, chascarrillos a costa del acervo cultural, un uso par\u00f3dico de los g\u00e9neros narrativos\u2026 bajo la aguda, imaginativa, desmitificadora y desternillante mirada de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9969-tom-gauld\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Tom Gauld<\/a><\/span> el lector nunca ha tenido una oferta m\u00e1s expansiva de ideas geniales acerca de cuanto rodea a su gran pasi\u00f3n. Pero lo mismo podr\u00edamos decir del \u00e1mbito cient\u00edfico, sobre cuyas infinitas posibilidades para la mofa ha dejado prueba en libros como <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/los-mejores-comic\/27340-ebook-el-departamento-de-teorias-alucinantes-9788416131761\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Departamento de Teor\u00edas Alucinantes<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0o <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/27379-ebook-todo-el-mundo-tiene-envidia-de-mi-mochila-voladora-9788418347252\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo el mundo tiene envidia de mi mochila voladora<\/a><\/span><\/em>. Diecisiete a\u00f1os lleva el artista escoc\u00e9s publicando tiras c\u00f3micas semanales para <em>The Guardian<\/em> y <em>New Scientist,<\/em> a lo que se suman c\u00f3mics sueltos<em> (Goliat, Un polic\u00eda en la luna),<\/em> un \u00e1lbum ilustrado infantil <em>(El peque\u00f1o robot de madera y la princesa tronco)<\/em> y ocasionales portadas para el semanario <em>The New Yorker.<\/em> Sus chistes son celebrados con alborozo por todos los sectores retratados\/ridiculizados, incendian las redes sociales y sus versiones en forma de postal o fotocopia pueblan los corchos, neveras y otros espacios de muy variados departamentos profesionales.<\/p><p>LENGUA aprovech\u00f3 para conversar con \u00e9l durante su reciente parada en Barcelona para promocionar su \u00faltimo libro,\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/311637-ebook-la-venganza-de-los-bibliotecarios-9788418621796\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La venganza\u00a0de los 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\u00bfC\u00f3mo dir\u00eda que le molde\u00f3 el car\u00e1cter y qu\u00e9 influencia sobre su creatividad en general pudo tener el hecho de crecer en la Escocia rural?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong> Crecer en el campo en los tiempos previos a internet supuso contar con un mont\u00f3n de tiempo para m\u00ed. Jugaba mucho con mi hermano y tambi\u00e9n dedicaba largas horas a dibujar, a leer c\u00f3mics y a hacer volar la imaginaci\u00f3n. Me pregunto si de haber sido ni\u00f1o hoy, tanto en el campo como en la ciudad, habr\u00eda tenido una infancia as\u00ed. Y es que tambi\u00e9n hay que decir que me aburr\u00eda much\u00edsimo y deb\u00eda buscar formas de entretenimiento todo el rato, lo que me llevaba con frecuencia al dibujo, algo que visto en retrospectiva seguramente tuvo un papel clave en mi trayectoria profesional. En mis novelas gr\u00e1ficas, como <em>Goliat<\/em> o<em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/27383-ebook-un-policia-en-la-luna-9788418347337\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El polic\u00eda en la luna<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> quiz\u00e1 refleje m\u00e1s la tranquilidad y los grandes espacios que definieron la primera parte de mi vida. Disfruto mucho introduciendo silencios y pausas en mi obra, aunque las tiras c\u00f3micas apenas me lo permiten.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfEl hecho de que su padre fuera arquitecto apuntal\u00f3 de alguna forma su vocaci\u00f3n?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Todos los ni\u00f1os dibujan pero, a medida que creces, te das cuenta que el n\u00famero de tus amigos que siguen haci\u00e9ndolo va decreciendo hasta que llegas al instituto y apenas qued\u00e1is cinco con inquietudes art\u00edsticas. Uno de los est\u00edmulos que me llevaron a perseverar fue sin duda ver a mi padre hacerlo y que me trajera a casa papel de dibujo, gracias a \u00e9l tom\u00e9 conciencia de que no era una p\u00e9rdida de tiempo y que exist\u00edan carreras profesionales detr\u00e1s de la actividad. Fui muy afortunado al poder contar con su respaldo, igual que con el de mi madre, que por entonces era maestra de escuela, un oficio que consiste precisamente en motivar a los ni\u00f1os (aunque, como cualquier madre, me habr\u00eda apoyado aunque le hubiera salido un asesino en serie). Ambos entendieron que dibujar era mi pasi\u00f3n y se volcaron en ayudarme a 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\u00bfEstudi\u00f3 Bellas Artes con la mente puesta en alguna salida profesional en concreto?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Buscaba una formaci\u00f3n que me permitiera pasarme el d\u00eda dibujando, era mi \u00fanico objetivo. Una vez ah\u00ed confirm\u00e9 que estaba mucho m\u00e1s interesado en dibujar que en pintar o esculpir, y puesto que la ilustraci\u00f3n me brindaba las mejores oportunidades, no tard\u00e9 en centrarme en ella. En un primer momento pens\u00e9 en dejar que otros se encargaran de los textos que acompa\u00f1ar\u00edan a mis ilustraciones (que empezaron siendo oscuras, <em>fe\u00edstas<\/em> y pretenciosas en su anhelo de profundidad) pero los profesores no tardaron en animarme a asumir tambi\u00e9n de la parte escrita. As\u00ed descubr\u00ed que con lo que m\u00e1s disfrutaba era contando historias a las que aportaba tanto la imagen como las palabras. Mis primeras tentativas en el mundo del comic fueron horribles, por descontado, pero no tard\u00e9 en advertir que como me sent\u00eda m\u00e1s a gusto era con el humor. Tan pronto abandon\u00e9 mi fachada de artista presuntamente torturado y tenebroso para focalizarme en contar historias divertidas, encontr\u00e9 mi camino. Dejar de buscar un estilo espec\u00edfico parad\u00f3jicamente hizo que brotara mi verdadero estilo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r6clbns\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Art Spiegelman: \u00abAuschwitz estaba en mi patio trasero: era mi casa\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/las-mil-y-una-vidas-de-josephine-baker\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Criada, esp\u00eda, activista y leyenda: las mil y una vidas de Josephine Baker<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/carlos-gimenez-alvaro-pons\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Inmortal Carlos Gim\u00e9nez: \u00abSoy quiz\u00e1 el autor de historietas en activo mas viejo de la profesi\u00f3n\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/alison-bechdel-fun-home-test-de-bechdel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Alison Bechdel: la verdad est\u00e1 ah\u00ed dentro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/ilu-ros-federico-garcia-lorca\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lorca por Ilu Ros: el a\u00f1o que hizo Federico<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"byg1skk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfSe definir\u00eda como una persona divertida por naturaleza?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Soy demasiado t\u00edmido para haber sido el payaso de la clase desde mi m\u00e1s tierna infancia. 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En el apartado de influencias tempranas tuvo los c\u00f3mics de Tintin y Ast\u00e9rix.<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Eran los \u00fanicos que pod\u00edan encontrarse en la biblioteca p\u00fablica a la que me llevaban mis padres. Por entonces, hablamos de los a\u00f1os 80, los c\u00f3mics estaban desterrados de las bibliotecas de mi pa\u00eds. Imagino que el toque europeo de Tintin y Ast\u00e9rix les confer\u00eda una p\u00e1tina de alta cultura, un halo de intelectualidad, una promesa de que nos empapar\u00edamos de lo chic franc\u00e9s. Eso los convirti\u00f3 en la excepci\u00f3n, les permiti\u00f3 sortear una postura ciertamente esnob que ve\u00eda el g\u00e9nero como algo menor. Por suerte esa misma biblioteca re\u00fane hoy una inmensa y plural selecci\u00f3n de c\u00f3mics.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Sin duda la l\u00ednea clara de Herg\u00e9 y Goscinny est\u00e1 muy presente en sus propias creaciones.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Sospecho que ambos grabaron en mi mente la idea plat\u00f3nica de lo que es un c\u00f3mic pero he pasado por muchos intereses e influencias, entre los que destacar\u00eda los c\u00f3mics de ciencia ficci\u00f3n y las tiras c\u00f3micas de Gary Larsson, que devoraba en la prensa local. No es ning\u00fan secreto que buena parte de mi sentido del humor bebe de su serie <em>The Far Side Gallery.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s5obdz9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMis primeras tentativas en el mundo del comic fueron horribles, por descontado, pero no tard\u00e9 en advertir que como me sent\u00eda m\u00e1s a gusto era con el humor. Tan pronto abandon\u00e9 mi fachada de artista presuntamente torturado y tenebroso para focalizarme en contar historias divertidas, encontr\u00e9 mi camino\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"61e0avs\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfC\u00f3mo acab\u00f3 el mundo literario tan representado en sus tiras c\u00f3micas?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Una vez instalado en Londres para ampliar mi formaci\u00f3n art\u00edstica me dediqu\u00e9 a la autoedici\u00f3n de c\u00f3mics junto con un amigo -los fotocopi\u00e1bamos en la universidad y los vend\u00edamos en sus aleda\u00f1os- y luego busqu\u00e9 trabajo como ilustrador porque publicar c\u00f3mics me pareci\u00f3 una quimera. Consegu\u00ed colaboraciones en <em>The Guardian<\/em> y un d\u00eda su director de arte me dijo que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/Posy-Simmonds-Tamara-Drewe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Posy Simmonds, cuyas tiras c\u00f3micas sobre el mundillo literario son una instituci\u00f3n en Gran Breta\u00f1a<\/a>,<\/span>\u00a0se iba a tomar un par de meses libres y si estaba interesado en sustituirla. Me qued\u00e9 aterrado porque era un jovenzuelo sin apenas experiencia pero no pod\u00eda negarme, as\u00ed que entregu\u00e9 ocho tiras c\u00f3micas que parecieron gustar. Luego Simmonds regres\u00f3 a la secci\u00f3n pero, transcurridos unos meses, me tantearon de cara a ofrecerme un espacio propio para proseguir con mis tiras c\u00f3micas sobre libros. 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Esto le sienta muy bien al humor, que es mejor cuanto m\u00e1s directo se dirige a tu cerebro, de aqu\u00ed que la simplicidad y la claridad sean fundamentales. Siempre procuro reducir las tiras a lo esencial, utilizando el minimalismo como divisa\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rwbqvzw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Simplificando mucho, su trabajo con las tiras c\u00f3micas implica disponer de una p\u00e1gina, unos pocos dibujos y algunas palabras para comunicar al lector una idea revestida de humor. Hablamos de algo parecido a un <em>haiku:<\/em> comprimir algo significativo en condiciones de escasez. \u00bfCu\u00e1les dir\u00eda que son los principales desaf\u00edos y recompensas detr\u00e1s de semejante formato?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0De muchas maneras creo que unos y otros son la misma cosa. Las restricciones de espacio te fuerzan a ser un buen editor, es decir, a cortar lo que es superfluo. Esto le sienta muy bien al humor, que es mejor cuanto m\u00e1s directo se dirige a tu cerebro, de aqu\u00ed que la simplicidad y la claridad sean fundamentales. Siempre procuro reducir las tiras a lo esencial, utilizando el minimalismo como divisa. Otro reto nace por descontado del hecho de tener que hacerlo semanalmente y aqu\u00ed es donde he procurado jugar un poco con la forma, dudo que hubiera aguantado tantos a\u00f1os de haberme visto en la obligaci\u00f3n de limitarme a tres paneles. Para mantener la motivaci\u00f3n propia y el inter\u00e9s ajeno he ido introduciendo novedades como tiras que se leen de atr\u00e1s hacia delante o que suman hasta veinticinco paneles o que adoptan el aspecto de un tablero de juego.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: <em>Comunicar<\/em> es un t\u00e9rmino al que vuelve una y otra vez al hablar de sus tiras c\u00f3micas.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Si por un momento al lector le embarga la confusi\u00f3n o debe salir de la experiencia para preguntarse qu\u00e9 panel toca a continuaci\u00f3n, se pierde el componente l\u00fadico, la magia, la chispa, as\u00ed que dedico mucho tiempo a rumiar la disposici\u00f3n, a los bocetos en papel, a dibujar y volver a dibujar. Mi deseo no es expresarme como un artista que busca desahogarse o rozar lo sublime, sino comunicar algo al lector y esta voluntad es la que marca de principio a fin el proceso creativo. En este sentido, tengo muy presente que muchos de mis seguidores no son lectores habituales de c\u00f3mics por lo que no quisiera que se sintieran excluidos si me pongo muy experimental. 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Mis referencias culturales son del dominio p\u00fablico por lo que espero que una tira c\u00f3mica sobre Jane Austen, por ejemplo, pueda divertir tanto a la que escribi\u00f3 su tesis doctoral sobre ella como a quien no ha abierto jam\u00e1s uno de sus libros. Y no hemos de perder de vista que las tiras tienen una segunda y mucho m\u00e1s expandida vida en las redes sociales, de modo que si aparecen entre la \u00faltima burrada de Donald Trump y la cr\u00edtica del nuevo \u00e1lbum de los White Stripes, deben conectar de inmediato con una audiencia global y transversal.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Parece pas\u00e1rselo en grande disparando contra la vanidad o la pereza de los escritores. \u00bfDir\u00eda que ridiculizar en general la solemnidad que tantas veces acompa\u00f1a a la literatura es de las mayores recompensas de su trabajo con las tiras c\u00f3micas?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Es una de las cosas m\u00e1s f\u00e1ciles de hacer porque me basta con imaginarme a m\u00ed mismo, por ejemplo sintiendo celos del \u00e9xito de un colega o perdiendo miserablemente el tiempo cuando deber\u00eda estar trabajando. El humor consiste por lo general en mostrar el fracaso, la estupidez o aquello que se tuerce, de aqu\u00ed que los creadores, y yo el primero en mi trabajo, seamos unas dianas tan recurrentes. Pero mis tiras c\u00f3micas van dirigidas a los lectores por lo que no quiero mostrar a escritores cada semana, apostando en cambio por recorrer todo el circuito: libreros, agentes, cr\u00edticos, editores, bibliotecarios, a veces insuflo vida a los propios libros\u2026<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nsvmo5m\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abHuyo de lo pretencioso y esnob, de atemorizar a los que no estudiaron Literatura en la universidad. Mis referencias culturales son del dominio p\u00fablico por lo que espero que una tira c\u00f3mica sobre Jane Austen, por ejemplo, pueda divertir tanto a la que escribi\u00f3 su tesis doctoral sobre ella como a quien no ha abierto jam\u00e1s uno de sus libros\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9pmqhcd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Hablando de estos colectivos, estoy seguro que nadie se ofende porque su tono nunca es ofensivo o cruel.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Cierto, a\u00fan no se me ha quejado nadie y debo decir que entre mis mayores fans est\u00e1n los bibliotecarios, de aqu\u00ed que detr\u00e1s del t\u00edtulo <em>La\u00a0venganza de los bibliotecarios<\/em> hubo algo de operaci\u00f3n de c\u00e1lculo. Hay que saber hasta d\u00f3nde puedes ser sarc\u00e1stico y malicioso, imagino que cualquier lector percibe el amor y el respeto hacia la literatura y todos los agentes del libro que hay detr\u00e1s de mis tiras c\u00f3micas. Adem\u00e1s, es mucho m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil re\u00edrte de aquello que entiendes y amas que de lo que no. Me abstengo de hacer tiras c\u00f3micas sobre cosas que me disgustan para no mostrarme agrio.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfDe qu\u00e9 otras formas es la literatura agradecida para las tiras c\u00f3micas?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Ayuda mucho el hecho de que exista un conjunto monumental de historias de las que puedo tirar. Si en alg\u00fan momento me siento bloqueado, siempre puedo detenerme a preguntarme: \u00bfQu\u00e9 cl\u00e1sicos conoce todo el mundo? \u00bfQu\u00e9 chiste podemos hacer con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36770-libro-moby-dick-edicion-conmemorativa-9788491054290\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Moby Dick<\/a><\/em><\/span>? \u00bf<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El <em>Ulises<\/em> de Joyce<\/a><\/span> me permite otra vuelta de tuerca? 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La ciencia es el otro gran tema de sus tiras c\u00f3micas. \u00bfC\u00f3mo piensa que el hecho de que sea el terreno de la racionalidad (mientras que la literatura probablemente ser\u00eda el de la imaginaci\u00f3n) facilita una aproximaci\u00f3n c\u00f3mica?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Cuando empec\u00e9 con ellas llevaba ya una d\u00e9cada con las literarias y carec\u00eda de cualquier formaci\u00f3n acad\u00e9mica en el \u00e1mbito cient\u00edfico, por lo que tem\u00ed que no tuviera nada interesante que aportar. Pero pronto descubr\u00ed que hab\u00eda m\u00e1s similitudes de las aparentes entre escritores y cient\u00edficos, en \u00faltima instancia ambos intentan crear o descubrir cosas nuevas, publicar libros o art\u00edculos. A veces me ocurre que tengo una idea para una tira c\u00f3mica y s\u00f3lo peque\u00f1os cambios inclinar\u00e1n la balanza hacia lo cient\u00edfico o lo literario. Dicho esto, una de las diferencias entre ambas disciplinas que encuentro interesante es el factor humano: la ciencia puede ser el terreno de la racionalidad pero los cient\u00edficos no dejan de ser personas, por tanto tan irracionales y proclives al error y al fracaso como cualquier individuo, pero que vivan en un mundo de exactitudes y n\u00fameros resalta la tragedia de su humanidad imperfecta. Nos hemos cansado de o\u00edrles decir que no existe el experimento fallido sino el experimento de resultados no esperados, pero como seres humanos que aspiran a conclusiones irrebatibles seguro que les sienta fatal. La brecha entre lo que debes sentir como cient\u00edfico y lo que est\u00e1s dise\u00f1ado para sentir como persona me resulta especialmente hilarante.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Es muy peculiar el modo en que la ciencia y la ciencia ficci\u00f3n parecen funcionar de modo opuesto en sus tiras c\u00f3micas, con la primera vi\u00e9ndose capaz de conseguir lo imposible o acerc\u00e1ndose a la magia, y la segunda siendo de lo m\u00e1s realista y cotidiana.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Uno de mis disparaderos de ideas nace de preguntarme qu\u00e9 es lo opuesto de algo. De la ciencia ficci\u00f3n esperamos algo extremo, ya sea por la vertiente dist\u00f3pica o la ut\u00f3pica, lo que me lleva por instinto a tener a dos individuos actuando con naturalidad en el interior de una nave espacial, me parece mucho m\u00e1s interesante que colocarlos en una posici\u00f3n heroica. Al final se trata de romper las expectativas del lector. Es mucho m\u00e1s divertido jugar con los g\u00e9neros que tener -como con frecuencia me ocurre en mis tiras c\u00f3micas de tema literario-, a tipos encerrados en habitaciones conversando. Si recurres a un robot, a un <em>cowboy<\/em> o a un vampiro, sabes que dispones de un arquetipo que de inmediato resulta visualmente reconocible y que acarrea multitud de connotaciones sobre las que proponer un giro peculiar.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ijl13it\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abSean bibliotecarios o cient\u00edficos, a todos les chifla que los represente de maneras inusuales. Nada me produce m\u00e1s satisfacci\u00f3n que recibir un email de un ge\u00f3logo pidi\u00e9ndome permiso para utilizar una tira en una de sus conferencias\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6ngs15l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Ha declarado que adora a\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/174933-kurt-vonnegut\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Kurt Vonnegut<\/span>.\u00a0<\/a><\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0A\u00fan recuerdo la impresi\u00f3n que me caus\u00f3 abrir de adolescente uno de sus libros y encontrarme todos esos dibujitos tontos que hab\u00eda confeccionado \u00e9l mismo, algo as\u00ed me gan\u00f3 de inmediato. Me fascina su equilibrio entre el humor y la tristeza, la seriedad y lo absurdo, algo que tambi\u00e9n encuentro en los libros de George Saunders, otro autor al que idolatro, y que procuro trasladar a mi trabajo.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Los libreros y los bibliotecarios son una constante en su trabajo. Sorprende comprobar el partido que les saca a unas figuras cuya labor con los libros es tan pautada y con frecuencia gris.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0De nuevo la clave es subvertir los lugares comunes. Uno se espera que un bibliotecario sea alguien tranquilo, silencioso y con un punto retra\u00eddo, lo que me condujo a titular mi libro<em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/310327-libro-la-venganza-de-los-bibliotecarios-9788418621239\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La venganza de los bibliotecarios<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> es decir, los situ\u00e9 en una posici\u00f3n agresiva e irascible. Tengo una biblioteca muy cerca de casa a la que me encanta acudir y me tom\u00e9 como una afrenta personal cuando el gobierno brit\u00e1nico empez\u00f3 a recortar los fondos presupuestarios para bibliotecas. Mi primera reacci\u00f3n fue hacer una airada tira c\u00f3mica sobre ello pero habr\u00eda sido una respuesta previsible y movida por la rabia, de manera que me decant\u00e9 por presentar a los bibliotecarios al modo de granjeros levantados en armas. Respald\u00e9 su causa mostr\u00e1ndolos malvados, lo que se puede antojar parad\u00f3jico pero que funciona en el maravilloso mundo de los c\u00f3mics. Y repito que, sean bibliotecarios o cient\u00edficos, a todos les chifla que los represente de maneras inusuales. Nada me produce m\u00e1s satisfacci\u00f3n que recibir un email de un ge\u00f3logo pidi\u00e9ndome permiso para utilizar una tira en una de sus 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Imagino que acarrea blocs de notas para ir cazando al vuelo cualquier idea que se le cruce por el camino.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0S\u00ed, siempre voy con los ojos bien abiertos y los o\u00eddos bien atentos, apuntando todo lo que me llama la atenci\u00f3n. Salir con dos ideas semanales para mis tiras c\u00f3micas ya me parece complicado por lo que no querr\u00eda verme en la piel de quienes deben salir con una tira diaria. Tengo la teor\u00eda que una mala idea puede ser el comienzo de una buena idea o aguardar a ser rescatada meses despu\u00e9s, en un momento de apuro, y que genere asociaciones diferentes a las que inspir\u00f3 en el momento de ser registrada. Mi tiempo de reflexi\u00f3n se concentra en la observaci\u00f3n atenta y prolongada de mi bloc de notas m\u00e1s que en mi mesa de dibujo o frente al ordenador, ah\u00ed las ideas parecen estar llenas de promesa y libertad.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfLas ideas le llegan m\u00e1s en forma de imagen o de texto?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Por igual. En ocasiones una idea no adopta la forma ni de una imagen ni de un texto y he de romperme los cascos para averiguar qu\u00e9 hay detr\u00e1s de ella. Si lo primero que me llega es un texto divertido, s\u00e9 que debo traducirlo al lenguaje visual. Mi trabajo se incrusta en un peri\u00f3dico abarrotado de palabras y mi papel no es ser un escritor, sino un confeccionador de tiras c\u00f3micas; por lo tanto, la parte visual tiene preponderancia. Tambi\u00e9n puede ocurrir lo opuesto, que tengo una idea visual que me guste y deba buscarle las palabras que la complementen. No pocas veces me cuesta horrores. Recuerdo, por ejemplo, cuando me vino a la cabeza la imagen de un libro con brazos y piernas recostado en el div\u00e1n de un psicoanalista. Lo dibuj\u00e9 en cinco minutos pensando que el bocadillo ser\u00eda coser y cantar, pero me tir\u00e9 siete horas en dar con el texto<em> (spoiler alert:<\/em> al libro le angustiaba la posibilidad de que su due\u00f1o le enga\u00f1ara apostando por el audiolibro). Sobre el proceso en general habr\u00e1 quienes piensen que me sale todo r\u00e1pido y f\u00e1cil cuando la verdad es que hago muchos esbozos y dedico mucho tiempo a editar la caja de texto pensando en el efecto de cada palabra.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ujn3tz3\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMi trabajo se incrusta en un peri\u00f3dico abarrotado de palabras y mi papel no es ser un escritor, sino un confeccionador de tiras c\u00f3micas; por lo tanto, la parte visual tiene preponderancia. Tambi\u00e9n puede ocurrir lo opuesto, que tengo una idea visual que me guste y deba buscarle las palabras que la complementen\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"eo93h8c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Ligado a esto, hablemos de la composici\u00f3n de sus tiras c\u00f3micas.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Casi te dir\u00eda que es la parte m\u00e1s importante. Lo que en \u00faltima instancia convierte al c\u00f3mic en una forma art\u00edstica es c\u00f3mo se despliegan las im\u00e1genes y las palabras en el texto, dir\u00eda incluso que es m\u00e1s determinante que el hecho de que las im\u00e1genes y las palabras sean las id\u00f3neas. Me encanta jugar con la composici\u00f3n, darle vueltas a cuestiones como: \u00bfSi alargo este panel, la pausa tambi\u00e9n se prolongar\u00e1 o es mejor dividirlo en dos para reforzar el impacto del punchline? Puede suceder que en vez de una imagen o un texto el origen de una tira se halle en la composici\u00f3n, en preguntarme c\u00f3mo dar con una estructura o una forma que se salga de la norma.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Tambi\u00e9n ha firmado \u00e1lbumes ilustrados como <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/27383-ebook-un-policia-en-la-luna-9788418347337\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El polic\u00eda en la luna<\/a><\/span>\u00a0o Goliat.<\/em> Fuera de desarrollar historias m\u00e1s largas y complejas, \u00bfqu\u00e9 permite el formato que le est\u00e9 vetado a las tiras c\u00f3micas?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Los \u00e1lbumes permiten jugar mejor con las pausas y los silencios, con esos momentos en los que pareces encontrarte a solas con los personajes y procuras imaginar lo que estar\u00e1n pensando.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfA qu\u00e9 trucos recurre cuando la inspiraci\u00f3n se le resiste?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Me funciona salir a caminar y beber cierta cantidad de caf\u00e9 para disparar mis neuronas de modo que con frecuencia me doy un paseo hasta un caf\u00e9, tambi\u00e9n porque el mero hecho de cambiar de ambiente me resulta estimulante. A veces simplemente necesito parar y distraerme haciendo alguna otra cosa como leer o ver la televisi\u00f3n.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Ha ilustrado diversas portadas para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.newyorker.com\/contributors\/tom-gauld\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el semanario<\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.newyorker.com\/contributors\/tom-gauld\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> The New Yorker<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> \u00bfC\u00f3mo es trabajar para la m\u00edtica publicaci\u00f3n?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Las portadas para <em>The New Yorker<\/em> me resultan muy dif\u00edciles porque yo vengo de las tiras c\u00f3micas, donde se me permite un poco de texto para explicar una historia. Les hago pocas propuestas porque encajar una buena idea que me estimule con sus necesidades no es sencillo. Me habr\u00e1n aprobado la mitad de mis propuestas y luego siempre han sido de mucha ayuda y tambi\u00e9n muy rigurosos porque recurren a <em>fact checkers<\/em> para no cometer errores. As\u00ed, por ejemplo, en una ocasi\u00f3n un profesor de m\u00fasica me corrigi\u00f3 las anotaciones musicales que hab\u00eda incluido en una serie de bocadillos y en otra se me indic\u00f3 que hab\u00eda dibujado un <em>pretzel<\/em> boca abajo (yo cre\u00eda que los pretzels ni siquiera ten\u00edan un arriba y un abajo pero parece ser que es as\u00ed, por lo menos para los neoyorquinos).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Es autor de un \u00e1lbum ilustrado para ni\u00f1os, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-infantiles-a-partir-de-4-anos\/290370-libro-el-pequeno-robot-de-madera-y-la-princesa-tronco-9788416131426\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El peque\u00f1o robot de madera y la princesa tronco<\/a><\/em><\/span>. \u00bfFue una experiencia creativa diferente al resto?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0La idea fue gest\u00e1ndose a lo largo de los cinco a\u00f1os que me pas\u00e9 ley\u00e9ndoles cuentos a mis hijos antes de acostarse, pr\u00e1cticamente cada noche. Ese ejercicio supuso un gran aprendizaje sobre los que les gustaba y lo que no, al tiempo que descubr\u00ed que el texto reclamaba tener en cuenta que iba a ser declamado, que revest\u00eda pues un componente de actuaci\u00f3n. Tu p\u00fablico escucha y mira los dibujos, no ocurre como en los c\u00f3mics, donde todo transcurre dentro de tu cabeza. El cuento me llev\u00f3 mucho tiempo porque tanto mis hijos como mi esposa me iban haciendo sugerencias, fue como un proyecto familiar, lo que lo hizo muy especial. Iron\u00edas de la vida, cuando finamente vio la luz, mis hijos ya eran demasiado mayores para disfrutarlo\u2026<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Las redes sociales son muy importantes para difundir su trabajo pero me pregunto si tambi\u00e9n les detecta efectos negativos, por ejemplo condicionando en algo su creatividad.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0El problema es b\u00e1sicamente lo mucho que me distraen, pierdo ingentes cantidades de tiempo en Instagram o Twitter. Por otro lado, quiz\u00e1 no estar\u00eda aqu\u00ed sin ellas porque expandieron mi p\u00fablico m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del Reino Unido y los lectores de <em>The Guardian.<\/em> A veces quiz\u00e1 reciba demasiado <em>feedback<\/em> sobre mi trabajo y ello me lleve a ciertas dudas pero pulsar la respuesta de la gente tambi\u00e9n tiene su lado enriquecedor.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfSe le han acercado para llevar sus \u00e1lbumes o tiras c\u00f3micas al formato audiovisual?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Tom Gauld:<\/strong>\u00a0Hay proyectos de animaci\u00f3n en marcha sobre los que no puedo hablar pero mi implicaci\u00f3n ser\u00e1 relativa ya que lo que a m\u00ed me hace feliz es estar con mis dibujos delante de mi mesa de trabajo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"obv1aly\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/liv-stromquist-no-siento-nada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Feminismo, nuevas masculinidades y tab\u00faes sociopol\u00edticos: un viaje de ida al universo de Liv Str\u00f6mquist<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/Posy-Simmonds-Tamara-Drewe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Posy Simmonds o por qu\u00e9 dibujar los cl\u00e1sicos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/juan-padron-mi-vida-en-cuba\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Padr\u00f3n, el hombre que salv\u00f3 a los ni\u00f1os cubanos del sopor sovi\u00e9tico<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/liniers-gustavo-sala-buenos-aires-en-pelotas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mi Buenos Aires 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20 minutos
Tom Gauld. Crédito: Getty Images.

Tom Gauld. Crédito: Getty Images.

Escritores fatuos, editores miserables, críticos perezosos, libreros mezquinos, bibliotecarios vengativos, libros que acuden a terapia… pero también relecturas inventivas de clásicos universales, bromas anacrónicas, vueltas de tuerca a distopías y ucronías, chascarrillos a costa del acervo cultural, un uso paródico de los géneros narrativos… bajo la aguda, imaginativa, desmitificadora y desternillante mirada de Tom Gauld el lector nunca ha tenido una oferta más expansiva de ideas geniales acerca de cuanto rodea a su gran pasión. Pero lo mismo podríamos decir del ámbito científico, sobre cuyas infinitas posibilidades para la mofa ha dejado prueba en libros como El Departamento de Teorías Alucinantes o Todo el mundo tiene envidia de mi mochila voladora. Diecisiete años lleva el artista escocés publicando tiras cómicas semanales para The Guardian y New Scientist, a lo que se suman cómics sueltos (Goliat, Un policía en la luna), un álbum ilustrado infantil (El pequeño robot de madera y la princesa tronco) y ocasionales portadas para el semanario The New Yorker. Sus chistes son celebrados con alborozo por todos los sectores retratados/ridiculizados, incendian las redes sociales y sus versiones en forma de postal o fotocopia pueblan los corchos, neveras y otros espacios de muy variados departamentos profesionales.

LENGUA aprovechó para conversar con él durante su reciente parada en Barcelona para promocionar su último libro, La venganza de los bibliotecarios.

LENGUA: ¿Cómo diría que le moldeó el carácter y qué influencia sobre su creatividad en general pudo tener el hecho de crecer en la Escocia rural?

Tom Gauld: Crecer en el campo en los tiempos previos a internet supuso contar con un montón de tiempo para mí. Jugaba mucho con mi hermano y también dedicaba largas horas a dibujar, a leer cómics y a hacer volar la imaginación. Me pregunto si de haber sido niño hoy, tanto en el campo como en la ciudad, habría tenido una infancia así. Y es que también hay que decir que me aburría muchísimo y debía buscar formas de entretenimiento todo el rato, lo que me llevaba con frecuencia al dibujo, algo que visto en retrospectiva seguramente tuvo un papel clave en mi trayectoria profesional. En mis novelas gráficas, como Goliat o El policía en la luna, quizá refleje más la tranquilidad y los grandes espacios que definieron la primera parte de mi vida. Disfruto mucho introduciendo silencios y pausas en mi obra, aunque las tiras cómicas apenas me lo permiten.

LENGUA: ¿El hecho de que su padre fuera arquitecto apuntaló de alguna forma su vocación?

Tom Gauld: Todos los niños dibujan pero, a medida que creces, te das cuenta que el número de tus amigos que siguen haciéndolo va decreciendo hasta que llegas al instituto y apenas quedáis cinco con inquietudes artísticas. Uno de los estímulos que me llevaron a perseverar fue sin duda ver a mi padre hacerlo y que me trajera a casa papel de dibujo, gracias a él tomé conciencia de que no era una pérdida de tiempo y que existían carreras profesionales detrás de la actividad. Fui muy afortunado al poder contar con su respaldo, igual que con el de mi madre, que por entonces era maestra de escuela, un oficio que consiste precisamente en motivar a los niños (aunque, como cualquier madre, me habría apoyado aunque le hubiera salido un asesino en serie). Ambos entendieron que dibujar era mi pasión y se volcaron en ayudarme a potenciarla.

LENGUA: ¿Estudió Bellas Artes con la mente puesta en alguna salida profesional en concreto?

Tom Gauld: Buscaba una formación que me permitiera pasarme el día dibujando, era mi único objetivo. Una vez ahí confirmé que estaba mucho más interesado en dibujar que en pintar o esculpir, y puesto que la ilustración me brindaba las mejores oportunidades, no tardé en centrarme en ella. En un primer momento pensé en dejar que otros se encargaran de los textos que acompañarían a mis ilustraciones (que empezaron siendo oscuras, feístas y pretenciosas en su anhelo de profundidad) pero los profesores no tardaron en animarme a asumir también de la parte escrita. Así descubrí que con lo que más disfrutaba era contando historias a las que aportaba tanto la imagen como las palabras. Mis primeras tentativas en el mundo del comic fueron horribles, por descontado, pero no tardé en advertir que como me sentía más a gusto era con el humor. Tan pronto abandoné mi fachada de artista presuntamente torturado y tenebroso para focalizarme en contar historias divertidas, encontré mi camino. Dejar de buscar un estilo específico paradójicamente hizo que brotara mi verdadero estilo.

LENGUA: ¿Se definiría como una persona divertida por naturaleza?

Tom Gauld: Soy demasiado tímido para haber sido el payaso de la clase desde mi más tierna infancia. Yo no era el que hacía el bailecito tonto o imitaba a la profesora para la hilaridad general sino el que dibujaba algo con la intención de hacer reír. Sólo ahora advierto que ya de niño ejercía de autor de cómics para mi grupo de amigos, a los que intentaba arrancar una sonrisa con caricaturas sobre nuestros grupos de música favoritos, puede decirse que ellos fueron mi primer público.

Tira de «La venganza de los bibliotecarios». Crédito: Salamandra Graphic.

LENGUA: En el apartado de influencias tempranas tuvo los cómics de Tintin y Astérix. 

Tom Gauld: Eran los únicos que podían encontrarse en la biblioteca pública a la que me llevaban mis padres. Por entonces, hablamos de los años 80, los cómics estaban desterrados de las bibliotecas de mi país. Imagino que el toque europeo de Tintin y Astérix les confería una pátina de alta cultura, un halo de intelectualidad, una promesa de que nos empaparíamos de lo chic francés. Eso los convirtió en la excepción, les permitió sortear una postura ciertamente esnob que veía el género como algo menor. Por suerte esa misma biblioteca reúne hoy una inmensa y plural selección de cómics.

LENGUA: Sin duda la línea clara de Hergé y Goscinny está muy presente en sus propias creaciones.

Tom Gauld: Sospecho que ambos grabaron en mi mente la idea platónica de lo que es un cómic pero he pasado por muchos intereses e influencias, entre los que destacaría los cómics de ciencia ficción y las tiras cómicas de Gary Larsson, que devoraba en la prensa local. No es ningún secreto que buena parte de mi sentido del humor bebe de su serie The Far Side Gallery.

«Mis primeras tentativas en el mundo del comic fueron horribles, por descontado, pero no tardé en advertir que como me sentía más a gusto era con el humor. Tan pronto abandoné mi fachada de artista presuntamente torturado y tenebroso para focalizarme en contar historias divertidas, encontré mi camino».

LENGUA: ¿Cómo acabó el mundo literario tan representado en sus tiras cómicas?

Tom Gauld: Una vez instalado en Londres para ampliar mi formación artística me dediqué a la autoedición de cómics junto con un amigo -los fotocopiábamos en la universidad y los vendíamos en sus aledaños- y luego busqué trabajo como ilustrador porque publicar cómics me pareció una quimera. Conseguí colaboraciones en The Guardian y un día su director de arte me dijo que Posy Simmonds, cuyas tiras cómicas sobre el mundillo literario son una institución en Gran Bretaña, se iba a tomar un par de meses libres y si estaba interesado en sustituirla. Me quedé aterrado porque era un jovenzuelo sin apenas experiencia pero no podía negarme, así que entregué ocho tiras cómicas que parecieron gustar. Luego Simmonds regresó a la sección pero, transcurridos unos meses, me tantearon de cara a ofrecerme un espacio propio para proseguir con mis tiras cómicas sobre libros. Era sólo un trabajo que me aportaba unos ingresos por entonces muy necesarios y no pensé que me dedicara mucho tiempo pero si llevo diecisiete años en ello, a razón de una entrega semanal, es porque tocó un interés personal muy profundo en los libros y porque me las he ingeniado para no quedarme sin ideas.

Tira de «La venganza de los bibliotecarios». Crédito: Salamandra Graphic.

LENGUA: ¿Nunca ha pensado que se ha acabado un ciclo?

Tom Gauld: He tenido mis momentos de duda, a veces he creído que debía abandonar porque he sentido que no tenía mucho más que aportar pero lo bueno que tiene un plazo de entrega es que no permite que tus crisis se alarguen mucho, al final has de salir con algo que enviar… Y no pocas veces me ha ocurrido que algo que he entregado con reticencia poque no me ha parecido muy logrado ha acabado siendo una pieza muy apreciada, lo que demuestra que uno nunca es el más fiable crítico de su trabajo.

LENGUA: ¿Necesita pues de cierta presión para trabajar?

Tom Gauld: Mis novelas gráficas y mi libro infantil lo demuestran, fueron procesos mucho más lentos porque no había una fecha límite soplándome en la nuca.

«Las restricciones de espacio te fuerzan a ser un buen editor, es decir, a cortar lo que es superfluo. Esto le sienta muy bien al humor, que es mejor cuanto más directo se dirige a tu cerebro, de aquí que la simplicidad y la claridad sean fundamentales. Siempre procuro reducir las tiras a lo esencial, utilizando el minimalismo como divisa».

LENGUA: Simplificando mucho, su trabajo con las tiras cómicas implica disponer de una página, unos pocos dibujos y algunas palabras para comunicar al lector una idea revestida de humor. Hablamos de algo parecido a un haiku: comprimir algo significativo en condiciones de escasez. ¿Cuáles diría que son los principales desafíos y recompensas detrás de semejante formato?

Tom Gauld: De muchas maneras creo que unos y otros son la misma cosa. Las restricciones de espacio te fuerzan a ser un buen editor, es decir, a cortar lo que es superfluo. Esto le sienta muy bien al humor, que es mejor cuanto más directo se dirige a tu cerebro, de aquí que la simplicidad y la claridad sean fundamentales. Siempre procuro reducir las tiras a lo esencial, utilizando el minimalismo como divisa. Otro reto nace por descontado del hecho de tener que hacerlo semanalmente y aquí es donde he procurado jugar un poco con la forma, dudo que hubiera aguantado tantos años de haberme visto en la obligación de limitarme a tres paneles. Para mantener la motivación propia y el interés ajeno he ido introduciendo novedades como tiras que se leen de atrás hacia delante o que suman hasta veinticinco paneles o que adoptan el aspecto de un tablero de juego. 

LENGUA: Comunicar es un término al que vuelve una y otra vez al hablar de sus tiras cómicas.

Tom Gauld: Si por un momento al lector le embarga la confusión o debe salir de la experiencia para preguntarse qué panel toca a continuación, se pierde el componente lúdico, la magia, la chispa, así que dedico mucho tiempo a rumiar la disposición, a los bocetos en papel, a dibujar y volver a dibujar. Mi deseo no es expresarme como un artista que busca desahogarse o rozar lo sublime, sino comunicar algo al lector y esta voluntad es la que marca de principio a fin el proceso creativo. En este sentido, tengo muy presente que muchos de mis seguidores no son lectores habituales de cómics por lo que no quisiera que se sintieran excluidos si me pongo muy experimental. De aquí que busque por sistema el equilibrio entre cierta libertad de movimientos y la satisfacción de lo reconocible.

El autor y su autorretrato. Crédito: Jonathan Gray (izquierda) y Tom Gauld.

El autor y su autorretrato. Crédito: Jonathan Gray (izquierda) y Tom Gauld.

LENGUA: Esta voluntad de integración explicaría que recurra a clásicos como Dickens, Austen, Kafka o Beckett sabiendo que el lector puede no haberlos leído pero que su simbolismo cultural convierte sus obras en reconocibles para todo el mundo.

Tom Gauld: Sí, huyo de lo pretencioso y esnob, de atemorizar a los que no estudiaron Literatura en la universidad. Mis referencias culturales son del dominio público por lo que espero que una tira cómica sobre Jane Austen, por ejemplo, pueda divertir tanto a la que escribió su tesis doctoral sobre ella como a quien no ha abierto jamás uno de sus libros. Y no hemos de perder de vista que las tiras tienen una segunda y mucho más expandida vida en las redes sociales, de modo que si aparecen entre la última burrada de Donald Trump y la crítica del nuevo álbum de los White Stripes, deben conectar de inmediato con una audiencia global y transversal.

LENGUA: Parece pasárselo en grande disparando contra la vanidad o la pereza de los escritores. ¿Diría que ridiculizar en general la solemnidad que tantas veces acompaña a la literatura es de las mayores recompensas de su trabajo con las tiras cómicas?

Tom Gauld: Es una de las cosas más fáciles de hacer porque me basta con imaginarme a mí mismo, por ejemplo sintiendo celos del éxito de un colega o perdiendo miserablemente el tiempo cuando debería estar trabajando. El humor consiste por lo general en mostrar el fracaso, la estupidez o aquello que se tuerce, de aquí que los creadores, y yo el primero en mi trabajo, seamos unas dianas tan recurrentes. Pero mis tiras cómicas van dirigidas a los lectores por lo que no quiero mostrar a escritores cada semana, apostando en cambio por recorrer todo el circuito: libreros, agentes, críticos, editores, bibliotecarios, a veces insuflo vida a los propios libros…

«Huyo de lo pretencioso y esnob, de atemorizar a los que no estudiaron Literatura en la universidad. Mis referencias culturales son del dominio público por lo que espero que una tira cómica sobre Jane Austen, por ejemplo, pueda divertir tanto a la que escribió su tesis doctoral sobre ella como a quien no ha abierto jamás uno de sus libros».

LENGUA: Hablando de estos colectivos, estoy seguro que nadie se ofende porque su tono nunca es ofensivo o cruel.

Tom Gauld: Cierto, aún no se me ha quejado nadie y debo decir que entre mis mayores fans están los bibliotecarios, de aquí que detrás del título La venganza de los bibliotecarios hubo algo de operación de cálculo. Hay que saber hasta dónde puedes ser sarcástico y malicioso, imagino que cualquier lector percibe el amor y el respeto hacia la literatura y todos los agentes del libro que hay detrás de mis tiras cómicas. Además, es mucho más fácil reírte de aquello que entiendes y amas que de lo que no. Me abstengo de hacer tiras cómicas sobre cosas que me disgustan para no mostrarme agrio. 

LENGUA: ¿De qué otras formas es la literatura agradecida para las tiras cómicas?

Tom Gauld: Ayuda mucho el hecho de que exista un conjunto monumental de historias de las que puedo tirar. Si en algún momento me siento bloqueado, siempre puedo detenerme a preguntarme: ¿Qué clásicos conoce todo el mundo? ¿Qué chiste podemos hacer con Moby Dick? ¿El Ulises de Joyce me permite otra vuelta de tuerca? Esta infinita provisión de relatos históricos en la mente colectiva y al mismo tiempo el flujo constante de novedades son dos fuerzas, presente y pasado, que permiten un juego en apariencia inagotable.

Tira de «La venganza de los bibliotecarios». Crédito: Salamandra Graphic.

LENGUA: La ciencia es el otro gran tema de sus tiras cómicas. ¿Cómo piensa que el hecho de que sea el terreno de la racionalidad (mientras que la literatura probablemente sería el de la imaginación) facilita una aproximación cómica? 

Tom Gauld: Cuando empecé con ellas llevaba ya una década con las literarias y carecía de cualquier formación académica en el ámbito científico, por lo que temí que no tuviera nada interesante que aportar. Pero pronto descubrí que había más similitudes de las aparentes entre escritores y científicos, en última instancia ambos intentan crear o descubrir cosas nuevas, publicar libros o artículos. A veces me ocurre que tengo una idea para una tira cómica y sólo pequeños cambios inclinarán la balanza hacia lo científico o lo literario. Dicho esto, una de las diferencias entre ambas disciplinas que encuentro interesante es el factor humano: la ciencia puede ser el terreno de la racionalidad pero los científicos no dejan de ser personas, por tanto tan irracionales y proclives al error y al fracaso como cualquier individuo, pero que vivan en un mundo de exactitudes y números resalta la tragedia de su humanidad imperfecta. Nos hemos cansado de oírles decir que no existe el experimento fallido sino el experimento de resultados no esperados, pero como seres humanos que aspiran a conclusiones irrebatibles seguro que les sienta fatal. La brecha entre lo que debes sentir como científico y lo que estás diseñado para sentir como persona me resulta especialmente hilarante. 

LENGUA: Es muy peculiar el modo en que la ciencia y la ciencia ficción parecen funcionar de modo opuesto en sus tiras cómicas, con la primera viéndose capaz de conseguir lo imposible o acercándose a la magia, y la segunda siendo de lo más realista y cotidiana.

Tom Gauld: Uno de mis disparaderos de ideas nace de preguntarme qué es lo opuesto de algo. De la ciencia ficción esperamos algo extremo, ya sea por la vertiente distópica o la utópica, lo que me lleva por instinto a tener a dos individuos actuando con naturalidad en el interior de una nave espacial, me parece mucho más interesante que colocarlos en una posición heroica. Al final se trata de romper las expectativas del lector. Es mucho más divertido jugar con los géneros que tener -como con frecuencia me ocurre en mis tiras cómicas de tema literario-, a tipos encerrados en habitaciones conversando. Si recurres a un robot, a un cowboy o a un vampiro, sabes que dispones de un arquetipo que de inmediato resulta visualmente reconocible y que acarrea multitud de connotaciones sobre las que proponer un giro peculiar.

«Sean bibliotecarios o científicos, a todos les chifla que los represente de maneras inusuales. Nada me produce más satisfacción que recibir un email de un geólogo pidiéndome permiso para utilizar una tira en una de sus conferencias».

LENGUA: Ha declarado que adora a Kurt Vonnegut

Tom Gauld: Aún recuerdo la impresión que me causó abrir de adolescente uno de sus libros y encontrarme todos esos dibujitos tontos que había confeccionado él mismo, algo así me ganó de inmediato. Me fascina su equilibrio entre el humor y la tristeza, la seriedad y lo absurdo, algo que también encuentro en los libros de George Saunders, otro autor al que idolatro, y que procuro trasladar a mi trabajo. 

LENGUA: Los libreros y los bibliotecarios son una constante en su trabajo. Sorprende comprobar el partido que les saca a unas figuras cuya labor con los libros es tan pautada y con frecuencia gris. 

Tom Gauld: De nuevo la clave es subvertir los lugares comunes. Uno se espera que un bibliotecario sea alguien tranquilo, silencioso y con un punto retraído, lo que me condujo a titular mi libro La venganza de los bibliotecarios, es decir, los situé en una posición agresiva e irascible. Tengo una biblioteca muy cerca de casa a la que me encanta acudir y me tomé como una afrenta personal cuando el gobierno británico empezó a recortar los fondos presupuestarios para bibliotecas. Mi primera reacción fue hacer una airada tira cómica sobre ello pero habría sido una respuesta previsible y movida por la rabia, de manera que me decanté por presentar a los bibliotecarios al modo de granjeros levantados en armas. Respaldé su causa mostrándolos malvados, lo que se puede antojar paradójico pero que funciona en el maravilloso mundo de los cómics. Y repito que, sean bibliotecarios o científicos, a todos les chifla que los represente de maneras inusuales. Nada me produce más satisfacción que recibir un email de un geólogo pidiéndome permiso para utilizar una tira en una de sus conferencias.

Tira de «La venganza de los bibliotecarios». Crédito: Salamandra Graphic.

LENGUA: Imagino que acarrea blocs de notas para ir cazando al vuelo cualquier idea que se le cruce por el camino.

Tom Gauld: Sí, siempre voy con los ojos bien abiertos y los oídos bien atentos, apuntando todo lo que me llama la atención. Salir con dos ideas semanales para mis tiras cómicas ya me parece complicado por lo que no querría verme en la piel de quienes deben salir con una tira diaria. Tengo la teoría que una mala idea puede ser el comienzo de una buena idea o aguardar a ser rescatada meses después, en un momento de apuro, y que genere asociaciones diferentes a las que inspiró en el momento de ser registrada. Mi tiempo de reflexión se concentra en la observación atenta y prolongada de mi bloc de notas más que en mi mesa de dibujo o frente al ordenador, ahí las ideas parecen estar llenas de promesa y libertad. 

LENGUA: ¿Las ideas le llegan más en forma de imagen o de texto? 

Tom Gauld: Por igual. En ocasiones una idea no adopta la forma ni de una imagen ni de un texto y he de romperme los cascos para averiguar qué hay detrás de ella. Si lo primero que me llega es un texto divertido, sé que debo traducirlo al lenguaje visual. Mi trabajo se incrusta en un periódico abarrotado de palabras y mi papel no es ser un escritor, sino un confeccionador de tiras cómicas; por lo tanto, la parte visual tiene preponderancia. También puede ocurrir lo opuesto, que tengo una idea visual que me guste y deba buscarle las palabras que la complementen. No pocas veces me cuesta horrores. Recuerdo, por ejemplo, cuando me vino a la cabeza la imagen de un libro con brazos y piernas recostado en el diván de un psicoanalista. Lo dibujé en cinco minutos pensando que el bocadillo sería coser y cantar, pero me tiré siete horas en dar con el texto (spoiler alert: al libro le angustiaba la posibilidad de que su dueño le engañara apostando por el audiolibro). Sobre el proceso en general habrá quienes piensen que me sale todo rápido y fácil cuando la verdad es que hago muchos esbozos y dedico mucho tiempo a editar la caja de texto pensando en el efecto de cada palabra.

«Mi trabajo se incrusta en un periódico abarrotado de palabras y mi papel no es ser un escritor, sino un confeccionador de tiras cómicas; por lo tanto, la parte visual tiene preponderancia. También puede ocurrir lo opuesto, que tengo una idea visual que me guste y deba buscarle las palabras que la complementen».

LENGUA: Ligado a esto, hablemos de la composición de sus tiras cómicas.

Tom Gauld: Casi te diría que es la parte más importante. Lo que en última instancia convierte al cómic en una forma artística es cómo se despliegan las imágenes y las palabras en el texto, diría incluso que es más determinante que el hecho de que las imágenes y las palabras sean las idóneas. Me encanta jugar con la composición, darle vueltas a cuestiones como: ¿Si alargo este panel, la pausa también se prolongará o es mejor dividirlo en dos para reforzar el impacto del punchline? Puede suceder que en vez de una imagen o un texto el origen de una tira se halle en la composición, en preguntarme cómo dar con una estructura o una forma que se salga de la norma.

LENGUA: También ha firmado álbumes ilustrados como El policía en la luna o Goliat. Fuera de desarrollar historias más largas y complejas, ¿qué permite el formato que le esté vetado a las tiras cómicas?

Tom Gauld: Los álbumes permiten jugar mejor con las pausas y los silencios, con esos momentos en los que pareces encontrarte a solas con los personajes y procuras imaginar lo que estarán pensando.

LENGUA: ¿A qué trucos recurre cuando la inspiración se le resiste?

Tom Gauld: Me funciona salir a caminar y beber cierta cantidad de café para disparar mis neuronas de modo que con frecuencia me doy un paseo hasta un café, también porque el mero hecho de cambiar de ambiente me resulta estimulante. A veces simplemente necesito parar y distraerme haciendo alguna otra cosa como leer o ver la televisión.

LENGUA: Ha ilustrado diversas portadas para el semanario The New Yorker. ¿Cómo es trabajar para la mítica publicación?

Tom Gauld: Las portadas para The New Yorker me resultan muy difíciles porque yo vengo de las tiras cómicas, donde se me permite un poco de texto para explicar una historia. Les hago pocas propuestas porque encajar una buena idea que me estimule con sus necesidades no es sencillo. Me habrán aprobado la mitad de mis propuestas y luego siempre han sido de mucha ayuda y también muy rigurosos porque recurren a fact checkers para no cometer errores. Así, por ejemplo, en una ocasión un profesor de música me corrigió las anotaciones musicales que había incluido en una serie de bocadillos y en otra se me indicó que había dibujado un pretzel boca abajo (yo creía que los pretzels ni siquiera tenían un arriba y un abajo pero parece ser que es así, por lo menos para los neoyorquinos).  

LENGUA: Es autor de un álbum ilustrado para niños, El pequeño robot de madera y la princesa tronco. ¿Fue una experiencia creativa diferente al resto? 

Tom Gauld: La idea fue gestándose a lo largo de los cinco años que me pasé leyéndoles cuentos a mis hijos antes de acostarse, prácticamente cada noche. Ese ejercicio supuso un gran aprendizaje sobre los que les gustaba y lo que no, al tiempo que descubrí que el texto reclamaba tener en cuenta que iba a ser declamado, que revestía pues un componente de actuación. Tu público escucha y mira los dibujos, no ocurre como en los cómics, donde todo transcurre dentro de tu cabeza. El cuento me llevó mucho tiempo porque tanto mis hijos como mi esposa me iban haciendo sugerencias, fue como un proyecto familiar, lo que lo hizo muy especial. Ironías de la vida, cuando finamente vio la luz, mis hijos ya eran demasiado mayores para disfrutarlo…

LENGUA: Las redes sociales son muy importantes para difundir su trabajo pero me pregunto si también les detecta efectos negativos, por ejemplo condicionando en algo su creatividad.

Tom Gauld: El problema es básicamente lo mucho que me distraen, pierdo ingentes cantidades de tiempo en Instagram o Twitter. Por otro lado, quizá no estaría aquí sin ellas porque expandieron mi público más allá del Reino Unido y los lectores de The Guardian. A veces quizá reciba demasiado feedback sobre mi trabajo y ello me lleve a ciertas dudas pero pulsar la respuesta de la gente también tiene su lado enriquecedor.

LENGUA: ¿Se le han acercado para llevar sus álbumes o tiras cómicas al formato audiovisual?

Tom Gauld: Hay proyectos de animación en marcha sobre los que no puedo hablar pero mi implicación será relativa ya que lo que a mí me hace feliz es estar con mis dibujos delante de mi mesa de trabajo.