Despedidas

Jean-Luc Godard por Susan Sontag: cine con identidad literaria

La muerte por suicidio asistido de Jean-Luc Godard, a los 91 años, coloca sobre la mesa de la actualidad la obra de uno de los cineastas más particulares del siglo XX. Referente indiscutible del cine europeo y mundial, revolucionó el lenguaje audiovisual como primer espada de la Nouvelle Vague y a través de una particularísima manera de entender el arte. «El cine es lo único que nos ha dado un signo. Los demás nos han dado órdenes. El cine es un signo para interpretar, para jugar con él, y hay que vivir con él», dejó dicho un director al que pocos entendieron como Susan Sontag, quien le dedicó varios textos. Incluidos en el ensayo «Godard», escrito en 1968 y compilado primero en «Estilos radicales» (DeBolsillo) y ahora en «Obra imprescindible» (Random House), los siguientes párrafos son apenas una muestra del amor que le profesó Sontag al autor francés, el más «discutido» y «literario» de aquel cine contemporáneo de finales de los sesenta.

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Referente indiscutible del cine europeo y mundial, revolucion\u00f3 el lenguaje audiovisual como primer espada de la Nouvelle Vague y a trav\u00e9s de una particular\u00edsima manera de entender el arte. \u00abEl cine es lo \u00fanico que nos ha dado un signo. Los dem\u00e1s nos han dado \u00f3rdenes. El cine es un signo para interpretar, para jugar con \u00e9l, y hay que vivir con \u00e9l\u00bb, dej\u00f3 dicho un director al que pocos entendieron como Susan Sontag, quien le dedic\u00f3 varios textos. Incluidos en el ensayo \u00abGodard\u00bb, escrito en 1968 y compilado primero en \u00abEstilos radicales\u00bb (DeBolsillo) y ahora en \u00abObra imprescindible\u00bb (Random House), los siguientes p\u00e1rrafos son apenas una muestra del amor que le profes\u00f3 Sontag al autor franc\u00e9s, el m\u00e1s \u00abdiscutido\u00bb y \u00abliterario\u00bb de aquel cine contempor\u00e1neo de finales de los sesenta.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"d5kxnr3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Jean-Luc Godard en el set de rodaje de \u00abSympathy For The Devil\u00bb (1968), documental que reflexiona sobre la contracultura occidental. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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actitud que Godard introduce en el medio cinematogr\u00e1fico recibe a menudo la denominaci\u00f3n despectiva de \u00abliteraria\u00bb. Generalmente, esta imputaci\u00f3n da a entender \u2013como cuando Satie fue acusado de componer m\u00fasica literaria o Magritte de pintar cuadros literarios\u2013 que el autor se preocupa por las ideas, por la conceptualizaci\u00f3n, a expensas de la integridad sensual y de la fuerza emocional de la obra, o en t\u00e9rminos m\u00e1s amplios, que tiene el h\u00e1bito (una suerte de mal gusto, seg\u00fan se supone) de violar la unidad esencial de una forma determinada de arte mediante la introducci\u00f3n en ella de elementos ajenos. Es innegable que Godard se ha consagrado valerosamente a la empresa de representar o encarnar ideas abstractas como ning\u00fan cineasta lo ha hecho antes que \u00e9l. En varias pel\u00edculas incluso intervienen intelectuales invitados: un personaje de ficci\u00f3n tropieza con un fil\u00f3sofo de carne y hueso (la hero\u00edna de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film693648.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Vivir su vida<\/em><\/a><\/span> interroga en un caf\u00e9 a Brice Parain sobre el lenguaje y la sinceridad; en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film659187.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La Chinoise<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0la joven mao\u00edsta discute en un tren con Francis Jeanson sobre la \u00e9tica del terrorismo); un cr\u00edtico y cineasta recita un mon\u00f3logo especulativo (Roger Leenhardt, vehemente y comprometedor, sobre la inteligencia, en <em>Una mujer casada);<\/em> un veterano portentoso de la historia del cine tiene la oportunidad de reinventar su imagen personal un poco empa\u00f1ada (Fritz Lang interpret\u00e1ndose a s\u00ed mismo, una figura del coro meditando sobre poes\u00eda alemana, Homero, el cine y la integridad moral, en <em>El desprecio).\u00a0<\/em>Por su parte, muchos de los personajes de Godard musitan aforismos para sus adentros o entablan discusiones con sus amigos sobre temas como la diferencia entre la derecha y la izquierda, la naturaleza del cine, el misterio del lenguaje y el vac\u00edo espiritual que se oculta tras las satisfacciones de la sociedad de consumo. Adem\u00e1s, las pel\u00edculas de Godard no solo est\u00e1n plet\u00f3ricas de ideas, sino que muchos de sus personajes tienen <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una ostensible cultura 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verdad, a juzgar por las m\u00faltiples <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">referencias a libros<\/a><\/span>, menciones de nombres de escritores, y citas y extractos m\u00e1s largos de textos literarios que aparecen en sus pel\u00edculas, Godard parece estar empe\u00f1ado en una interminable competencia con el hecho mismo de la literatura, competencia que \u00e9l intenta resolver mediante<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la incorporaci\u00f3n de la literatura y las identidades literarias a sus pel\u00edculas<\/a><\/span>. Y, aparte del uso original que hace de ella como objeto cinematogr\u00e1fico, Godard se interesa por la literatura como modelo para el cine y como medio para revitalizarlo y crearle alternativas. La relaci\u00f3n entre el cine y la literatura es un tema que aflora reiteradamente en las entrevistas que concede y en sus propios escritos cr\u00edticos. Una de las diferencias que subraya Godard consiste en que la literatura existe \u00abcomo arte desde el principio\u00bb, pero el cine no. 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m\u00fasicos\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6e7hxme\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Godard 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pel\u00edculas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q8w8pvb\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Al encarar el cine como algo que es sobre todo un ejercicio de la inteligencia, Godard descarta cualquier distinci\u00f3n tajante entre inteligencia \u00abliteraria\u00bb y \u00abvisual\u00bb (o cinematogr\u00e1fica). Si la pel\u00edcula es, seg\u00fan la definici\u00f3n lac\u00f3nica de Godard, el \u00aban\u00e1lisis\u00bb de algo \u00abmediante im\u00e1genes y sonidos\u00bb, no es en modo alguno incongruente convertir la literatura en sujeto del an\u00e1lisis cinematogr\u00e1fico. Aunque este tipo de material pueda parecer ajeno al cine, por lo menos cuando aparece con tama\u00f1a profusi\u00f3n, Godard argumentar\u00eda indudablemente que los libros y otros veh\u00edculos de la conciencia cultural forman parte del mundo, y por tanto pertenecen al \u00e1mbito del cine. En verdad, al poner en el mismo plano el hecho de que las personas leen, piensan y van seriamente al cine, y el hecho de que lloran, corren y hacen el amor, Godard ha descubierto una nueva veta de lirismo y patetismo para el cine: en el esp\u00edritu libresco, en la aut\u00e9ntica pasi\u00f3n cultural, en la inexperiencia intelectual, en la desgracia de alguien que se estrangula con sus propios pensamientos. (La secuencia de doce minutos en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film300030.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Los carabineros<\/em><\/a><\/span> en que los soldados desempaquetan sus trofeos fotogr\u00e1ficos es un ejemplo de la forma original en que Godard aborda un tema m\u00e1s familiar: la poes\u00eda del analfabetismo zafio.) Lo que quiere demostrar es que ning\u00fan material es, por naturaleza, imposible de asimilar.<\/p><p>Pero lo que hace falta es que la literatura se transforme realmente en material, como todo lo dem\u00e1s. Solo se pueden suministrar extractos literarios, fragmentos de literatura. 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en la medida en que las pel\u00edculas de Godard son \u00abliterarias\u00bb en determinado sentido, resulta evidente que su alianza con la literatura descansa sobre intereses muy distintos de los que vincularon a los anteriores cineastas experimentales a los textos avanzados de su tiempo. Si Godard envidia la literatura, no es tanto por las innovaciones formales que se registraron en el siglo xx como por la cantidad ingente de ideas expl\u00edcitas que se acomodan dentro de las formas literarias en prosa. Cualesquiera que sean los aportes que Godard pueda haber extra\u00eddo de la lectura de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/414-william-faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Faulkner<\/a><\/span>,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1462-simon-beckett\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Beckett<\/a><\/span> o Maiakovski para practicar innovaciones formales en el cine, el hecho de introducir en sus pel\u00edculas un marcado gusto literario (\u00bfpropio?) le sirve sobre todo como medio para asumir una voz m\u00e1s p\u00fablica o para elaborar enunciados m\u00e1s generales. En tanto que el cine vanguardista ha sido por tradici\u00f3n esencialmente \u00abpo\u00e9tico\u00bb (pel\u00edculas como las que filmaron los surrealistas en los a\u00f1os veinte y treinta, inspiradas por la emancipaci\u00f3n de la poes\u00eda moderna respecto de la narraci\u00f3n argumental y del discurso secuencial para pasar a la presentaci\u00f3n directa y a la asociaci\u00f3n sensual y polivalente de ideas e im\u00e1genes), Godard ha creado un cine primordialmente antipo\u00e9tico, entre cuyos principales modelos literarios se cuenta el ensayo en prosa. Godard ha llegado a decir: \u00abMe considero un ensayista. Escribo ensayos con forma de novelas, o novelas con forma de ensayos\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r60iz5m\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Al poner en el mismo plano el hecho de que las personas leen, piensan y van seriamente al cine, y el hecho de que lloran, corren y hacen el amor, Godard ha descubierto una nueva veta de lirismo y patetismo para el cine.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"quw4u8f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Obs\u00e9rvese que aqu\u00ed Godard ha hecho a la novela intercambiable con el cine, lo cual es hasta cierto punto correcto, porque es la tradici\u00f3n de la novela la que m\u00e1s influye sobre el cine, y porque lo que estimula a Godard es el ejemplo de aquello en que \u00faltimamente se ha convertido la novela. \u00abSe me ha ocurrido una idea para una novela\u00bb, murmura el protagonista de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film336467.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Pierrot el loco<\/em><\/a><\/span> en determinado momento, casi burl\u00e1ndose de s\u00ed mismo al imitar la voz tr\u00e9mula de Michel Simon. \u00abNo se trata deescribir la vida de un hombre, sino solo la vida, la vida misma. Lo que hay entre las personas, el espacio [\u2026] los sonidos y colores [\u2026]. Debe de existir una manera de lograrlo; Joyce lo intent\u00f3, pero uno debe, debe ser capaz [\u2026] de hacerlo mejor\u00bb. Por supuesto, Godard habla aqu\u00ed en su propio nombre, como director, y parece confiar en que el cine podr\u00e1 lograr lo que la literatura no logra, incapacidad esta de la literatura que se debe en parte a la situaci\u00f3n cr\u00edtica menos favorable en que se coloca cada obra literaria importante. He dicho que la obra de Godard pretende destruir los viejos convencionalismos cinematogr\u00e1ficos. Pero esta tarea de demolici\u00f3n la ejecuta con el entusiasmo de alguien que explota una forma art\u00edstica considerada joven, que est\u00e1 en el umbral de su mayor desarrollo y no en sus postrimer\u00edas. Godard interpreta la destrucci\u00f3n de las antiguas normas como un esfuerzo constructivo, lo cual contrasta con la opini\u00f3n vigente sobre el destino actual de la literatura. Como ha escrito Godard: \u00abLos cr\u00edticos literarios elogian a menudo\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">obras como<\/a><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> Ulises<\/a><\/span><\/em> o <em>Fin de partida<\/em> porque agotan un determinado g\u00e9nero, porque cierran las puertas tras \u00e9l. Pero en cine siempre elogiamos las obras que abren puertas\u00bb.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/joan-didion-zadie-smith\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joan Didion por Zadie Smith: la otra cara del pensamiento m\u00e1gico<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/cl\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/philip-roth-por-blake-bailey\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Philip Roth por Blake Bailey: el libertino versus el buen jud\u00edo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/james-ellroy-por-rodrigo-fresan-cuidado-con-el-perro\\\">James Ellroy por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: cuidado con el 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15 minutos

Jean-Luc Godard en el set de rodaje de «Sympathy For The Devil» (1968), documental que reflexiona sobre la contracultura occidental. Crédito: Getty Images.

La actitud que Godard introduce en el medio cinematográfico recibe a menudo la denominación despectiva de «literaria». Generalmente, esta imputación da a entender –como cuando Satie fue acusado de componer música literaria o Magritte de pintar cuadros literarios– que el autor se preocupa por las ideas, por la conceptualización, a expensas de la integridad sensual y de la fuerza emocional de la obra, o en términos más amplios, que tiene el hábito (una suerte de mal gusto, según se supone) de violar la unidad esencial de una forma determinada de arte mediante la introducción en ella de elementos ajenos. Es innegable que Godard se ha consagrado valerosamente a la empresa de representar o encarnar ideas abstractas como ningún cineasta lo ha hecho antes que él. En varias películas incluso intervienen intelectuales invitados: un personaje de ficción tropieza con un filósofo de carne y hueso (la heroína de Vivir su vida interroga en un café a Brice Parain sobre el lenguaje y la sinceridad; en La Chinoise la joven maoísta discute en un tren con Francis Jeanson sobre la ética del terrorismo); un crítico y cineasta recita un monólogo especulativo (Roger Leenhardt, vehemente y comprometedor, sobre la inteligencia, en Una mujer casada); un veterano portentoso de la historia del cine tiene la oportunidad de reinventar su imagen personal un poco empañada (Fritz Lang interpretándose a sí mismo, una figura del coro meditando sobre poesía alemana, Homero, el cine y la integridad moral, en El desprecio). Por su parte, muchos de los personajes de Godard musitan aforismos para sus adentros o entablan discusiones con sus amigos sobre temas como la diferencia entre la derecha y la izquierda, la naturaleza del cine, el misterio del lenguaje y el vacío espiritual que se oculta tras las satisfacciones de la sociedad de consumo. Además, las películas de Godard no solo están pletóricas de ideas, sino que muchos de sus personajes tienen una ostensible cultura literaria

En verdad, a juzgar por las múltiples referencias a libros, menciones de nombres de escritores, y citas y extractos más largos de textos literarios que aparecen en sus películas, Godard parece estar empeñado en una interminable competencia con el hecho mismo de la literatura, competencia que él intenta resolver mediante la incorporación de la literatura y las identidades literarias a sus películas. Y, aparte del uso original que hace de ella como objeto cinematográfico, Godard se interesa por la literatura como modelo para el cine y como medio para revitalizarlo y crearle alternativas. La relación entre el cine y la literatura es un tema que aflora reiteradamente en las entrevistas que concede y en sus propios escritos críticos. Una de las diferencias que subraya Godard consiste en que la literatura existe «como arte desde el principio», pero el cine no. Sin embargo, también observa una fuerte semejanza entre los dos artes: que «nosotros, los novelistas y los cineastas, estamos condenados a analizar el mundo, lo real; no así los pintores y los músicos».

Godard parece estar empeñado en una interminable competencia con el hecho mismo de la literatura, competencia que él intenta resolver mediante la incorporación de la literatura y las identidades literarias a sus películas.

Al encarar el cine como algo que es sobre todo un ejercicio de la inteligencia, Godard descarta cualquier distinción tajante entre inteligencia «literaria» y «visual» (o cinematográfica). Si la película es, según la definición lacónica de Godard, el «análisis» de algo «mediante imágenes y sonidos», no es en modo alguno incongruente convertir la literatura en sujeto del análisis cinematográfico. Aunque este tipo de material pueda parecer ajeno al cine, por lo menos cuando aparece con tamaña profusión, Godard argumentaría indudablemente que los libros y otros vehículos de la conciencia cultural forman parte del mundo, y por tanto pertenecen al ámbito del cine. En verdad, al poner en el mismo plano el hecho de que las personas leen, piensan y van seriamente al cine, y el hecho de que lloran, corren y hacen el amor, Godard ha descubierto una nueva veta de lirismo y patetismo para el cine: en el espíritu libresco, en la auténtica pasión cultural, en la inexperiencia intelectual, en la desgracia de alguien que se estrangula con sus propios pensamientos. (La secuencia de doce minutos en Los carabineros en que los soldados desempaquetan sus trofeos fotográficos es un ejemplo de la forma original en que Godard aborda un tema más familiar: la poesía del analfabetismo zafio.) Lo que quiere demostrar es que ningún material es, por naturaleza, imposible de asimilar.

Pero lo que hace falta es que la literatura se transforme realmente en material, como todo lo demás. Solo se pueden suministrar extractos literarios, fragmentos de literatura. Para que el cine pueda absorberla, la literatura debe ser desmantelada o dividida en unidades irregulares; entonces Godard puede apoderarse de una porción del «contenido» intelectual de cualquier libro (de ficción o no ficción); escoger del acervo público de la cultura cualquier tono de voz discordante (noble o vulgar); invocar en un instante cualquier diagnóstico del malestar contemporáneo que sea pertinente, por el tema, para su narración, aunque no sea coherente con la capacidad psicológica o la competencia mental de los personajes, ya demostrada.

Jean-Luc Godard, Anna Karina y Jean-Paul Belmondo durante el rodaje de «Pierrot el loco» (1965). Crédito: Getty Images.

Así, en la medida en que las películas de Godard son «literarias» en determinado sentido, resulta evidente que su alianza con la literatura descansa sobre intereses muy distintos de los que vincularon a los anteriores cineastas experimentales a los textos avanzados de su tiempo. Si Godard envidia la literatura, no es tanto por las innovaciones formales que se registraron en el siglo xx como por la cantidad ingente de ideas explícitas que se acomodan dentro de las formas literarias en prosa. Cualesquiera que sean los aportes que Godard pueda haber extraído de la lectura de FaulknerBeckett o Maiakovski para practicar innovaciones formales en el cine, el hecho de introducir en sus películas un marcado gusto literario (¿propio?) le sirve sobre todo como medio para asumir una voz más pública o para elaborar enunciados más generales. En tanto que el cine vanguardista ha sido por tradición esencialmente «poético» (películas como las que filmaron los surrealistas en los años veinte y treinta, inspiradas por la emancipación de la poesía moderna respecto de la narración argumental y del discurso secuencial para pasar a la presentación directa y a la asociación sensual y polivalente de ideas e imágenes), Godard ha creado un cine primordialmente antipoético, entre cuyos principales modelos literarios se cuenta el ensayo en prosa. Godard ha llegado a decir: «Me considero un ensayista. Escribo ensayos con forma de novelas, o novelas con forma de ensayos».

Al poner en el mismo plano el hecho de que las personas leen, piensan y van seriamente al cine, y el hecho de que lloran, corren y hacen el amor, Godard ha descubierto una nueva veta de lirismo y patetismo para el cine.

Obsérvese que aquí Godard ha hecho a la novela intercambiable con el cine, lo cual es hasta cierto punto correcto, porque es la tradición de la novela la que más influye sobre el cine, y porque lo que estimula a Godard es el ejemplo de aquello en que últimamente se ha convertido la novela. «Se me ha ocurrido una idea para una novela», murmura el protagonista de Pierrot el loco en determinado momento, casi burlándose de sí mismo al imitar la voz trémula de Michel Simon. «No se trata deescribir la vida de un hombre, sino solo la vida, la vida misma. Lo que hay entre las personas, el espacio […] los sonidos y colores […]. Debe de existir una manera de lograrlo; Joyce lo intentó, pero uno debe, debe ser capaz […] de hacerlo mejor». Por supuesto, Godard habla aquí en su propio nombre, como director, y parece confiar en que el cine podrá lograr lo que la literatura no logra, incapacidad esta de la literatura que se debe en parte a la situación crítica menos favorable en que se coloca cada obra literaria importante. He dicho que la obra de Godard pretende destruir los viejos convencionalismos cinematográficos. Pero esta tarea de demolición la ejecuta con el entusiasmo de alguien que explota una forma artística considerada joven, que está en el umbral de su mayor desarrollo y no en sus postrimerías. Godard interpreta la destrucción de las antiguas normas como un esfuerzo constructivo, lo cual contrasta con la opinión vigente sobre el destino actual de la literatura. Como ha escrito Godard: «Los críticos literarios elogian a menudo obras como Ulises o Fin de partida porque agotan un determinado género, porque cierran las puertas tras él. Pero en cine siempre elogiamos las obras que abren puertas».




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