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Cristina Rivera Garza por Laura Fernández: el diálogo con Liliana que no termina, ni terminará

Ella quería que su hermana viajase. Que viajase todo lo que no pudo viajar. «Fue lo primero que le dije a mi editor inglés. Él quería saber qué había pensado para el libro, cuáles eran mis expectativas respecto a la edición inglesa. Y yo le contesté: "I want Liliana to go places". Que es como decir que quería que Liliana tuviera un futuro, que llegase lejos. Todo lo lejos que fuese posible. Porque ese ha sido mi compromiso con ella desde el principio». La que habla es Cristina Rivera Garza (Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México), que no podía imaginar, en esa reunión con su editor, la reunión que tuvo cuando la traducción de «El invencible verano de Liliana» (Random House) estuvo lista, que ese libro que contiene, y contendrá para siempre, a su hermana, que la invoca y la vuelve «real», la coloca junto al lector, que está con él mientras lee, ganaría el Premio Pulitzer. Algo, admite, inimaginable. «Sólo ha podido ocurrir porque el libro fue escrito originalmente en ambas lenguas, inglés y español», dice. Con un pie y un pedazo de su mente, esa mente siempre inquieta, siempre en busca de algo que devolver a la vida, que reinterpretar, algo a lo que darle el espacio que se le negó, en Estados Unidos y otro en México, la escritora ha hecho Historia, con mayúsculas, con un delicado y potente, valiosísimo artefacto que sirve de amuleto para nombrar aquello que no se nombra, y para permitir que exista, y así poder huir de él, o aprender a desactivarlo. Porque no puede lucharse contra el monstruo si nadie lo está viendo. Porque el monstruo —aquí, el feminicidio, que aún no era palabra cuando ocurrió, cuando le ocurrió a su hermana Liliana— no existe si no se le nombra. O, mejor dicho, existe, pero no hay forma de darle «caza» porque se esconde en otras «formas». «En inglés sigue sin existir una palabra para el feminicidio. No hacen más que traducirme mal cuando la digo. El feminicida es un simple "killer" para ellos. Y no es así. Si mi hermana hubiera tenido las herramientas que tenemos hoy, lo que ocurrió se podría haber evitado. Habríamos visto más de lo que vimos», dice. Lo que vieron, y lo que no, está dentro de ese libro que, además de un brillante, casi palpable —su lectura es por completo sensorial, las palabras producen imágenes a la manera de un poema que estuviese «pensando» mientras se escribe— ejercicio literario, una invocación de no personaje sino «alma» de ese personaje, un alguien real al que la escritura ama, y el lector «conoce»—, es un manual de detección de monstruos, o de ese tipo de monstruos. Aquí, Rivera Garza le cuenta a la periodista y escritora Laura Fernández cómo gestó su obra, pensando siempre en el otro.

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La que habla es Cristina Rivera Garza (Matamoros, Tamaulipas, M\u00e9xico), que no pod\u00eda imaginar, en esa reuni\u00f3n con su editor, la reuni\u00f3n que tuvo cuando la traducci\u00f3n de \u00abEl invencible verano de Liliana\u00bb (Random House) estuvo lista, que ese libro que contiene, y contendr\u00e1 para siempre, a su hermana, que la invoca y la vuelve \u00abreal\u00bb, la coloca junto al lector, que est\u00e1 con \u00e9l mientras lee, ganar\u00eda el Premio Pulitzer. Algo, admite, inimaginable. \u00abS\u00f3lo ha podido ocurrir porque el libro fue escrito originalmente en ambas lenguas, ingl\u00e9s y espa\u00f1ol\u00bb, dice. Con un pie y un pedazo de su mente, esa mente siempre inquieta, siempre en busca de algo que devolver a la vida, que reinterpretar, algo a lo que darle el espacio que se le neg\u00f3, en Estados Unidos y otro en M\u00e9xico, la escritora ha hecho Historia, con may\u00fasculas, con un delicado y potente, valios\u00edsimo artefacto que sirve de amuleto para nombrar aquello que no se nombra, y para permitir que exista, y as\u00ed poder huir de \u00e9l, o aprender a desactivarlo. Porque no puede lucharse contra el monstruo si nadie lo est\u00e1 viendo. Porque el monstruo \u2014aqu\u00ed, el feminicidio, que a\u00fan no era palabra cuando ocurri\u00f3, cuando le ocurri\u00f3 a su hermana Liliana\u2014 no existe si no se le nombra. O, mejor dicho, existe, pero no hay forma de darle \u00abcaza\u00bb porque se esconde en otras \u00abformas\u00bb. \u00abEn ingl\u00e9s sigue sin existir una palabra para el feminicidio. No hacen m\u00e1s que traducirme mal cuando la digo. 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ma\u00f1ana es una ma\u00f1ana cualquiera de junio. En un mes y algunos d\u00edas se cumplir\u00e1n 34 a\u00f1os desde que Liliana Rivera Garza fue asesinada. Lo \u00fanico que hab\u00eda hecho era enamorarse de un tipo que nada ten\u00eda que ver con ella. Un tipo que pensaba demasiado en s\u00ed mismo. Un tipo que era un (YO) <em>andante,<\/em> y que no pod\u00eda soportar, de tan peque\u00f1o como se sent\u00eda, y tan grande como se pretend\u00eda, que ella no estuviese a su alcance. Sab\u00eda de su valor. Y trat\u00f3 de quit\u00e1rselo. Liliana arrastr\u00f3 esa relaci\u00f3n durante a\u00f1os. La sufri\u00f3, casi siempre en silencio. No era la clase de chica que pod\u00eda sufrir algo as\u00ed. \u00bfO s\u00ed? \u00bfExiste esa clase de chica? El a\u00f1o era 1990, se hab\u00edan conocido en 1986. Y se hab\u00edan convertido en una suerte de extra\u00f1a pareja. Ella, la intelectual, la lectora, la escritora, la chica con una c\u00e1mara colgada, siempre lista para hacer del momento algo trascendente. \u00c9l, el chico duro, guapo, al volante a menudo de coches, el tipo al que le costaba formar parte del grupo, pura oscuridad por momentos. Nadie sab\u00eda de lo peligroso que pod\u00eda llegar a resultar. Ni de c\u00f3mo iba a volverse la relaci\u00f3n una habitaci\u00f3n cerrada. Una habitaci\u00f3n cerrada que Liliana sufr\u00eda pero que no sab\u00eda c\u00f3mo comunicar. Porque era ella quien se hab\u00eda metido all\u00ed. Y \u00bfc\u00f3mo era que no pod\u00eda salir? \u00bfNo sal\u00eda todo el mundo? \u00bfNo estaba intentando salir? En las \u00faltimas p\u00e1ginas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libro-de-biografias\/246022-libro-el-invencible-verano-de-liliana-9788439739456\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El invencible verano de Liliana<\/a><\/em><\/span>, Cristina, su hermana, la distingue, en la distancia, tratando de <em>salir.<\/em> Y lo hace a trav\u00e9s de lo que de ella sabe en ese momento. De lo que encuentra. De c\u00f3mo la encuentra en aquello que tomaba el pulso a sus d\u00edas. Las canciones que escuchaba, las cartas que escrib\u00eda, las anotaciones en cuadernos, y en su diario, los recados sueltos que, cuando abri\u00f3 las cajas que la conten\u00edan, salieron, literalmente, recuerda, \u00abvolando\u00bb. \u00abElla era aficionada al origami, y hac\u00eda peque\u00f1as bombas con sus cartas, que te saltaban encima cuando las abr\u00edas\u00bb, recuerda. Eso fue lo que pas\u00f3 cuando, casi 30 a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su muerte, el a\u00f1o 2020, Cristina Rivera Garza entr\u00f3 en la casa familiar, la casa en la que el nombre de su hermana hab\u00eda dejado de pronunciarse, para echar un vistazo a los papeles de Liliana, con el fin de reabrir el caso. \u00abYo iba buscando una libreta de direcciones, para intentar dar con los amigos de entonces, y que me contasen lo que recordaban de la \u00e9poca. Mi intenci\u00f3n era puramente pragm\u00e1tica. Pero cuando abr\u00ed la primera caja, y salieron aquellos papeles volando, fue como liberarla\u00bb, dice. Recuerda que era un 9 de enero. 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Fern\u00e1ndez: \u00bfHab\u00edas intentado escribir antes sobre ella?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> S\u00ed. Lo hab\u00eda hecho. Tengo dos manuscritos fracasados que escrib\u00ed en dos momentos distintos. Los dos est\u00e1n completos. Pero por fortuna pasar\u00e1n el resto de la eternidad escondidos. Cuando abr\u00ed aquellas cajas y me encontr\u00e9 con su voz, me di cuenta de por qu\u00e9 aquellos manuscritos hab\u00edan fracasado. Les faltaba lo m\u00e1s importante. Les faltaba Liliana. Les faltaba su voz. Cuando encontr\u00e9 todas aquellas notas, aquel archivo completo de s\u00ed misma, lo met\u00ed en una maleta y me lo llev\u00e9 a Houston conmigo. La presencia de mi hermana all\u00ed era abrumadora. Supe que lo que hab\u00eda hecho mal era tratar de escribir un libro sobre ella. Ten\u00eda que escribir un libro <em>con<\/em> ella. Ten\u00eda que dejar la rabia de lado, <em>mi<\/em> rabia, la rabia que agrandaba al feminicida, y centrarme en la persona que hab\u00eda sido Liliana. Alguien que jam\u00e1s se sinti\u00f3 una v\u00edctima. Una chica con un humor genial, que sab\u00eda disfrutar de la vida, con amigos cercanos, con amores tambi\u00e9n. Ten\u00eda que conocerla en sus t\u00e9rminos, no proyectar desde el futuro. Ten\u00eda que detener mi voz narrativa, no quer\u00eda traducirla de m\u00e1s.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4ogliqj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abA Liliana le hab\u00edan quitado el aire y la vida. Por eso era tan importante crear un espacio en el que devolv\u00e9rselo, de alguna forma. Un espacio seguro en el que tuviera la palabra. Yo s\u00f3lo deb\u00eda ser la responsable de la invocaci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cffun32\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: Hablas de traducir, y de alguna forma, eso es lo que ocurre en el libro. En la transcripci\u00f3n de Liliana, de todas esas notas que dej\u00f3, sus cartas, lo que de ella recuerdan los amigos y las amigas, sus otros novios, hay una <em>mediaci\u00f3n,<\/em> hay una interpretaci\u00f3n, pero siempre pegada a lo que se dice, pegada a la voz, que es lo que trae a tu hermana de vuelta. \u00bfC\u00f3mo se hace algo as\u00ed, soportando a la vez tanto dolor?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong>\u00a0Quer\u00eda que las cartas estuviesen ah\u00ed tal y como son y que fuese el que las leyese el que sacase sus conclusiones. Lo que hace mi voz es reconocer las cosas que ella no pod\u00eda ver ni interpretar. Lo crucial que es tener palabras para poder identificar el peligro. Se nota un malestar en sus escritos, que est\u00e1 empa\u00f1ado por un lenguaje muy concreto, el del amor rom\u00e1ntico, muy complejo, que impide ver lo que est\u00e1 pasando. Es \u00e9l, el lenguaje, el que decide qu\u00e9 vemos. Digamos que fui dejando que surgieran las reglas del libro. A Liliana le hab\u00edan quitado el aire y la vida. Por eso era tan importante crear un espacio en el que devolv\u00e9rselo, de alguna forma. Un espacio seguro en el que tuviera la palabra. Yo s\u00f3lo deb\u00eda ser la responsable de la invocaci\u00f3n. La protagonista iba a ser ella. Y, dicho esto, transcrib\u00ed, s\u00ed, todas esas cartas, y los pedazos de sus diarios. Lo transcrib\u00ed <em>todo.<\/em> Me puse literalmente en su piel. Escrib\u00ed cada palabra que ella hab\u00eda escrito. La sent\u00ed muy cerca. Y me gusta pensar que el lector la siente respirar junto a su hombro mientras 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hace. La presencia de Liliana en el libro es poderosa. Es a ella a quien la narradora cede la palabra y quien interviene, en cada caso, desde la inocencia del momento. Una inocencia que no se sabe ahog\u00e1ndose pero que as\u00ed se muestra, en cada escrito, en cada escena que los amigos recuerdan. Nadie, ni la propia Liliana, fue capaz de intuir el peligro. Y no lo fue, dice la escritora, porque no hab\u00eda forma de saber que las alarmas hab\u00edan saltado. Porque estamos hablando de 1990, cuando a\u00fan <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/cimacnoticias.com.mx\/2022\/08\/11\/la-guia-de-jacquelyn-campbell-para-alertar-a-las-mujeres-sobre-violencia-familiar\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la enfermera Jacquelyn Campbell, especialista en violencia dom\u00e9stica<\/a><\/span>, no hab\u00eda elaborado su lista de 22 factores de riesgo, \u00abentre los que se cuentan, de manera preponderante\u00bb, y aqu\u00ed estamos <em>escuchando<\/em> la voz de Cristina Rivera Garza dentro del libro, \u00abel consumo de sustancias t\u00f3xicas, la posesi\u00f3n de armas de fuego y celos extremos\u00bb [...]. \u00abTambi\u00e9n est\u00e1n presentes el aislamiento de amigos y familia, las amenazas de suicidio por parte del depredador y el asedio continuo. Todo un cat\u00e1logo de abuso. El mapa transparente de aquello que no vemos. O que ya vemos\u00bb, dice la voz de la escritora. \u00abLa narrativa que ten\u00edamos entonces, cuando ocurri\u00f3, era da\u00f1ina\u00bb, dice, esa ma\u00f1ana de junio, ante una mesa enorme, una mesa que habr\u00eda querido tener cuando abri\u00f3 todas aquellas cajas, para <em>exponer<\/em> toda la obra de su hermana.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: Dices que la narrativa de la \u00e9poca era da\u00f1ina, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> Porque lo que se dec\u00eda era que la chica lo enga\u00f1\u00f3, y \u00e9l reaccion\u00f3, o que la chica viv\u00eda sola, y c\u00f3mo no iba a pasarle algo as\u00ed si viv\u00eda sola en M\u00e9xico. Ese tipo de narrativa estaba en el aire, y entre rumor y rumor se esparc\u00eda. Es el <em>Catch 22 \u2014la Trampa 22,<\/em> eso de lo que no se puede escapar, pero que jam\u00e1s ha tenido sentido\u2014. Te va mal si lo cuentas, y te va mal si no lo cuentas. En la familia, cuando ocurri\u00f3, nos encerramos en nuestras obsesiones. Yo s\u00f3lo me explico c\u00f3mo pude vivir en Estados Unidos tanto tiempo as\u00ed. Me dediqu\u00e9 a trabajar como una loca. No pod\u00edamos enfrentarnos a lo inconcebible. Estuvo todo muy callado. Fue por completo silenciado. El suyo era un nombre dif\u00edcil de pronunciar en casa. Recuerda la Navidad en que mi madre arregl\u00f3 la mesa para cuatro. Hac\u00eda ya mucho que hab\u00eda muerto, pero ella arregl\u00f3 la mesa para cuatro, y cuando se dio cuenta, se ech\u00f3 a llorar, pero no hablamos. No pod\u00edamos hablar.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: En un momento determinado del libro dices que el duelo es el fin de la soledad, porque cuando alguien como tu hermana deja de estar contigo, empiezas a mirar el mundo como lo mirar\u00eda ella tambi\u00e9n, y estableces un di\u00e1logo con ella que no termina, ni terminar\u00e1 nunca. \u00bfFue as\u00ed desde el principio?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> S\u00ed, yo me acostumbr\u00e9 a tener un di\u00e1logo con Liliana muy particular. El duelo es estar en compa\u00f1\u00eda. Es el fin de la soledad, s\u00ed. Y por eso no quiero que termine. Ese di\u00e1logo que mantengo con ella me ataca en los momentos menos pensados. Ahora mismo estoy viviendo en Berl\u00edn, y pienso que all\u00ed su presencia es m\u00e1s real, porque recuerdo esa pel\u00edcula de Win Wenders, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film143942.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El cielo sobre Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/em><\/span>, y pienso en los \u00e1ngeles que escuchan todo lo que ocurre en la ciudad, y s\u00e9 que est\u00e1n escuchando lo que hablo con mi hermana. Es m\u00e1s real que nunca. Pero todo cambi\u00f3 en casa, y en todas partes, despu\u00e9s de publicar el libro. Ella regres\u00f3. A la conversaci\u00f3n, a nuestras vidas. La primera Navidad que pudimos hablar de ella, traer sus retratos, recordar las cosas que hac\u00eda de ni\u00f1a y adolescente, el duelo se volvi\u00f3 algo compartido. El dolor sigue ah\u00ed, pero la realidad se expandi\u00f3 con su regreso, porque de repente ella jugaba un papel en nuestras vidas, las de todos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q0jha2l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMe acostumbr\u00e9 a tener un di\u00e1logo con Liliana muy particular. El duelo es estar en compa\u00f1\u00eda. Es el fin de la soledad, s\u00ed. Y por eso no quiero que termine. Ese di\u00e1logo que mantengo con ella me ataca en los momentos menos pensados\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"06ocmma\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: Leyendo las cartas y los diarios de Liliana, se ve c\u00f3mo la literatura, y la necesidad de contarse, estuvo en ella desde el principio. \u00bfLo estuvo tambi\u00e9n en tu caso? Es fascinante cuando hablas de c\u00f3mo la que contesta a menudo esos diarios es <em>otra.<\/em><\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> La escritura es la confirmaci\u00f3n de un desdoblamiento, sin duda. Siempre est\u00e1s con otro, cuando escribes. No tiene nada que ver con el ensimismamiento. Es lo contrario. Hace poco andaba leyendo un libro de James Scott sobre el origen del Estado, y c\u00f3mo el grano de trigo lo gener\u00f3 todo, y le dedica un par de p\u00e1ginas a la escritura. La escritura naci\u00f3 como registro. Naci\u00f3 en los libros de cuentas. Es una tecnolog\u00eda que destruye la distancia. Acerca lo que est\u00e1 lejos. Y yo vengo de una familia de migrantes. Hicimos muchos viajes en carretera de ni\u00f1as. Cambi\u00e1bamos constantemente de casa. Siempre est\u00e1bamos y\u00e9ndonos. Alej\u00e1ndonos de comunidades que nos daban sentido, en un cochecito Volskwagen sin radio, y nos dedicamos, Liliana y yo, a construir ese mundo que se estaba yendo. Hay algo de ese anhelo de construcci\u00f3n de un mundo en el inicio de mi escritura. Nos dimos cuenta pronto de que esto que hacemos puede producir realidad.<\/p><p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: \u00bfRecuerdas alguna lectura fundamental en ese inicio?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> Imagino que, como muchas ni\u00f1as, tuve una lectura fundamental que fue el diario de Ana Frank. Lo primero que pens\u00e9 al leerlo fue que si ella hab\u00eda conseguido publicar siendo una ni\u00f1a, yo tambi\u00e9n pod\u00eda hacerlo. Hay un paso entre el ejercicio cotidiano del diario y el <em>what if,<\/em> o el <em>y si,<\/em> que despierta la imaginaci\u00f3n, que en mi caso se dio muy pronto. Y luego llegaron los archivos. Ah\u00ed tuve mi segunda <em>visi\u00f3n.<\/em> Aquello era de verdad lo que quer\u00eda hacer.<\/p><p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: \u00bfLos archivos?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> Estudi\u00e9 Sociolog\u00eda y despu\u00e9s Historia, y un d\u00eda, en un archivo, encontr\u00e9 esos documentos, eran expedientes de un manicomio. Leerlos me llev\u00f3 a hacerme preguntas de corte hist\u00f3rico y escritural. Qu\u00e9 estoy leyendo, me dije, y c\u00f3mo debo interpretarlo, \u00bfdeber\u00eda yo poder <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">escribir sobre una mujer pobre que vivi\u00f3 a principios de siglo en un manicomio en M\u00e9xico<\/a><\/span> yo, una joven estudiante becada por una universidad gringa? Me entusiasm\u00f3 la materialidad del archivo, c\u00f3mo se enunciaba lo que all\u00ed hab\u00eda ocurrido, qu\u00e9 espacio ocupaban las palabras en los informes, y qu\u00e9 representaban. Fue entonces que decid\u00ed que quer\u00eda, y pod\u00eda, interpretar todo eso. Que pod\u00eda traer a esa gente de vuelta, y tratar de entender por lo que hab\u00edan pasado, y lo que hab\u00eda pasado. Enlaza muy bien con cierta escritura experimental que ha estado siempre en el centro de mi coraz\u00f3n como 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Cr\u00e9dito: Lisbeth Salas.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2288s8g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza. 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Fern\u00e1ndez: Qu\u00e9 interesante que la escritura haya sido desde el principio para ti una especie de interpretaci\u00f3n, un traer de vuelta, un volver a contar, o contar con <em>contexto,<\/em> algo que s\u00f3lo se esboz\u00f3, o que ni siquiera se cont\u00f3, algo de lo que apenas qued\u00f3 registro. \u00bfDe d\u00f3nde dir\u00edas que te viene esa necesidad?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> De la incomodidad. Si pens\u00e1ramos que el mundo est\u00e1 bien no habr\u00eda necesidad de escribir. Hay una incomodidad radical en el escritor y, en lugar de anestesiarla, como har\u00edan los dem\u00e1s, con dinero o adicciones, o lo que sea, el escritor busca exacerbarla, explorar sus ra\u00edces. Y tiene algo de pr\u00e1ctica \u00e9tica, porque considera que algo puede ser de otra manera, no s\u00e9 si peor o mejor, pero de otra manera. Cuando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/lecturas\/annie-ernaux-premios-nobel-audiolibro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Annie Ernaux gan\u00f3 el Premio Nobel<\/a><\/span> dijo algo con lo que me sent\u00ed completamente identificada. Dijo: \u00abEscribo para vengar a los m\u00edos\u00bb. Pens\u00e9 entonces, al escucharla, que es lo que yo siempre hab\u00eda hecho. Lo que sigo haciendo. Que es cierto. Hay una serie de experiencias, en el mundo, de razas, clases, grupos, que pasan dejando una huella que no atendemos, o que el poder busca borrar una y otra vez. Y s\u00f3lo as\u00ed puedo explicar lo que escribo.<\/p><p><strong>Laura Fern\u00e1ndez: Tratas de encontrar las huellas que no pudieron borrar.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Cristina Rivera Garza:<\/strong> A veces es incluso un trabajo f\u00edsico. Para escribir <em>Nadie me ver\u00e1 llorar,<\/em> transcrib\u00ed diarios de internos en aquel manicomio de M\u00e9xico. Pon\u00eda un papel cebolla directamente sobre la p\u00e1gina original y escrib\u00eda con su mismo trazo, para sentir que, de alguna forma, yo tambi\u00e9n lo hab\u00eda escrito. Quer\u00eda tener que poner el cuerpo exactamente como lo hab\u00edan puesto ellos. Se notaba, en todos los casos, que hab\u00edan aprendido a escribir hac\u00eda poco, porque las palabras estaban escritas de manera extra\u00f1a. De manera natural, enseguida, empec\u00e9 a mezclar ficci\u00f3n y no ficci\u00f3n. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/wmagazin.com\/relatos\/cristina-rivera-garza-juan-rulfo-un-siglo-de-un-creador-interdisciplinar\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Escrib\u00ed un libro sobre Rulfo<\/a><\/span>, pero desde su lado m\u00e1s d\u00e9bil, el de su experiencia laboral, tan contradictoria. Luego escrib\u00ed sobre mis abuelos migrantes, y despu\u00e9s sobre Liliana.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9qqwp40\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abCuando Annie Ernaux gan\u00f3 el Premio Nobel dijo algo con lo que me sent\u00ed completamente identificada. 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Estoy en todos lados, en realidad. No estoy presente de manera central, pero estoy ah\u00ed. En el caso de Liliana, aparezco en m\u00e1s de una ocasi\u00f3n, pero como algo secundario, porque era importante no estar, no arrebatar la atenci\u00f3n. No me gusta cierta literatura del yo que suele ser muy ensimismada. No me gusta cuando parte del yo como hecho aislado, como si ya lo conociera todo. No me interesa la idea de la inmediatez, sino la idea de la mediaci\u00f3n. La inmediatez que rechaza la mediaci\u00f3n es parte del ciclo del capital contempor\u00e1neo. Aquel a quien s\u00f3lo le interesa su historia personal porque cree que es lo \u00fanico que le pertenece. Para traer a Liliana de vuelta necesitaba de m\u00faltiples mediaciones. Estoy en contra del t\u00e9rmino <em>memoir,<\/em> porque es muy acotado, no parte de la experiencia personal sino de un mont\u00f3n de investigaci\u00f3n, cosas que no sab\u00eda, el ir sabiendo tambi\u00e9n forma parte de la experiencia del libro, y de la escritura.<\/p><p><br \/>No, pese a que <em>invoca<\/em> a menudo <em>manuscritamente<\/em> a otros, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/109148-cristina-rivera-garza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza<\/a><\/span> no escribe a mano. \u00abNo lo hago desde hace mucho. Ni siquiera mis dedicatorias son comprensibles ya. Tuve un problema de s\u00edndrome carpiano, y me resulta doloroso\u00bb, dice. Tambi\u00e9n dice que, si puede elegir, escribe siempre por la ma\u00f1ana. Justo cuando se despierta. \u00abEs el mejor momento, entre la vigilia y el sue\u00f1o\u00bb, asegura. Cosa complicada para alguien que siempre ha tenido un trabajo de jornada completa como profesora universitaria. Lleva un tiempo, tal vez demasiado, dice, pele\u00e1ndose con una novela \u00abque ofrece resistencia\u00bb. Pero sabe que es cuesti\u00f3n de tiempo que la termine. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=7cvsm65t7wU\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfY qu\u00e9 me dices del Pulitzer?<\/a><\/span> \u00abQue no me lo cre\u00ed. Estaba en una reuni\u00f3n de Zoom cuando me lleg\u00f3 un mensaje de una amiga dici\u00e9ndome que me hab\u00eda ganado el Pulitzer. No la cre\u00ed. Ella dijo que hab\u00eda ido a la web oficial y que de verdad era cierto. Segu\u00ed sin cre\u00e9rmela, termin\u00e9 la reuni\u00f3n, y cuando vi que me hab\u00eda llamado mi agente norteamericano y mi editor ingl\u00e9s, me dije que a lo mejor s\u00ed, y s\u00ed\u00bb, responde, feliz, tranquila, la sensaci\u00f3n de que el trabajo est\u00e1 hecho, de que Liliana ha llegado lejos, <em>went to see places,<\/em> y de paso, abri\u00f3 una puerta enorme al espa\u00f1ol haci\u00e9ndolo, porque \u00abes cierto que eso es importante, porque la experiencia del espa\u00f1ol insiste en ser borrada en Estados Unidos, pero mi compromiso es vivir en espa\u00f1ol como escritora en Estados Unidos\u00bb, dice. Y s\u00ed, as\u00ed ser\u00e1, pero lo que importa, lo que para siempre importar\u00e1, es que Liliana est\u00e1 viajando, finalmente, a esos sitios a los que plane\u00f3 viajar, y que una parte de ella vivir\u00e1 para siempre encerrada en un libro escrito para que su luz nunca se apague.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ng4v33b\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Cristina-Rivera-Garza-Selva-Almada-Liliana-Rivera-Garza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza por Selva Almada: Liliana a nuestro lado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza vuelve a \u00abLa Casta\u00f1eda\u00bb: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/tan-poca-vida-hanya-yanagihara-libro-viral-tiktok\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 todo el mundo est\u00e1 hablando (otra vez) sobre \u00abTan poca vida\u00bb?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/bret-easton-ellis-por-rodrigo-fresan-los-destrozos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bret Easton Ellis por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: \u00abModestamente, todo lo m\u00edo empieza y termina en m\u00ed\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/las-damas-de-grace-adieu-susanna-clarke-laura-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abLas damas de Grace Adieu\u00bb, el reino m\u00e1gico de una escritora enigm\u00e1ticamente perfecta: Susanna Clarke<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/ottessa-moshfegh-sabina-urraca-mcglue\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ottessa Moshfegh: \u00abNunca quiero saber nada de los autores a los que leo, no quiero ver ni una foto suya\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"oqinwy3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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20 minutos
Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

La mañana es una mañana cualquiera de junio. En un mes y algunos días se cumplirán 34 años desde que Liliana Rivera Garza fue asesinada. Lo único que había hecho era enamorarse de un tipo que nada tenía que ver con ella. Un tipo que pensaba demasiado en sí mismo. Un tipo que era un (YO) andante, y que no podía soportar, de tan pequeño como se sentía, y tan grande como se pretendía, que ella no estuviese a su alcance. Sabía de su valor. Y trató de quitárselo. Liliana arrastró esa relación durante años. La sufrió, casi siempre en silencio. No era la clase de chica que podía sufrir algo así. ¿O sí? ¿Existe esa clase de chica? El año era 1990, se habían conocido en 1986. Y se habían convertido en una suerte de extraña pareja. Ella, la intelectual, la lectora, la escritora, la chica con una cámara colgada, siempre lista para hacer del momento algo trascendente. Él, el chico duro, guapo, al volante a menudo de coches, el tipo al que le costaba formar parte del grupo, pura oscuridad por momentos. Nadie sabía de lo peligroso que podía llegar a resultar. Ni de cómo iba a volverse la relación una habitación cerrada. Una habitación cerrada que Liliana sufría pero que no sabía cómo comunicar. Porque era ella quien se había metido allí. Y ¿cómo era que no podía salir? ¿No salía todo el mundo? ¿No estaba intentando salir? En las últimas páginas de El invencible verano de Liliana, Cristina, su hermana, la distingue, en la distancia, tratando de salir. Y lo hace a través de lo que de ella sabe en ese momento. De lo que encuentra. De cómo la encuentra en aquello que tomaba el pulso a sus días. Las canciones que escuchaba, las cartas que escribía, las anotaciones en cuadernos, y en su diario, los recados sueltos que, cuando abrió las cajas que la contenían, salieron, literalmente, recuerda, «volando». «Ella era aficionada al origami, y hacía pequeñas bombas con sus cartas, que te saltaban encima cuando las abrías», recuerda. Eso fue lo que pasó cuando, casi 30 años después de su muerte, el año 2020, Cristina Rivera Garza entró en la casa familiar, la casa en la que el nombre de su hermana había dejado de pronunciarse, para echar un vistazo a los papeles de Liliana, con el fin de reabrir el caso. «Yo iba buscando una libreta de direcciones, para intentar dar con los amigos de entonces, y que me contasen lo que recordaban de la época. Mi intención era puramente pragmática. Pero cuando abrí la primera caja, y salieron aquellos papeles volando, fue como liberarla», dice. Recuerda que era un 9 de enero. Estaba a punto de desatarse la pandemia.

  • ¡En oferta!

El invencible verano de Liliana

Cristina Rivera Garza

«Más allá de las partes que hablan con franqueza del inmenso amor entre las hermanas, El invencible verano de Liliana es en sí mismo un acto de amor para Liliana. Una expansión de la hermandad comp...

Laura Fernández: ¿Habías intentado escribir antes sobre ella?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Sí. Lo había hecho. Tengo dos manuscritos fracasados que escribí en dos momentos distintos. Los dos están completos. Pero por fortuna pasarán el resto de la eternidad escondidos. Cuando abrí aquellas cajas y me encontré con su voz, me di cuenta de por qué aquellos manuscritos habían fracasado. Les faltaba lo más importante. Les faltaba Liliana. Les faltaba su voz. Cuando encontré todas aquellas notas, aquel archivo completo de sí misma, lo metí en una maleta y me lo llevé a Houston conmigo. La presencia de mi hermana allí era abrumadora. Supe que lo que había hecho mal era tratar de escribir un libro sobre ella. Tenía que escribir un libro con ella. Tenía que dejar la rabia de lado, mi rabia, la rabia que agrandaba al feminicida, y centrarme en la persona que había sido Liliana. Alguien que jamás se sintió una víctima. Una chica con un humor genial, que sabía disfrutar de la vida, con amigos cercanos, con amores también. Tenía que conocerla en sus términos, no proyectar desde el futuro. Tenía que detener mi voz narrativa, no quería traducirla de más.

«A Liliana le habían quitado el aire y la vida. Por eso era tan importante crear un espacio en el que devolvérselo, de alguna forma. Un espacio seguro en el que tuviera la palabra. Yo sólo debía ser la responsable de la invocación».

Laura Fernández: Hablas de traducir, y de alguna forma, eso es lo que ocurre en el libro. En la transcripción de Liliana, de todas esas notas que dejó, sus cartas, lo que de ella recuerdan los amigos y las amigas, sus otros novios, hay una mediación, hay una interpretación, pero siempre pegada a lo que se dice, pegada a la voz, que es lo que trae a tu hermana de vuelta. ¿Cómo se hace algo así, soportando a la vez tanto dolor?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Quería que las cartas estuviesen ahí tal y como son y que fuese el que las leyese el que sacase sus conclusiones. Lo que hace mi voz es reconocer las cosas que ella no podía ver ni interpretar. Lo crucial que es tener palabras para poder identificar el peligro. Se nota un malestar en sus escritos, que está empañado por un lenguaje muy concreto, el del amor romántico, muy complejo, que impide ver lo que está pasando. Es él, el lenguaje, el que decide qué vemos. Digamos que fui dejando que surgieran las reglas del libro. A Liliana le habían quitado el aire y la vida. Por eso era tan importante crear un espacio en el que devolvérselo, de alguna forma. Un espacio seguro en el que tuviera la palabra. Yo sólo debía ser la responsable de la invocación. La protagonista iba a ser ella. Y, dicho esto, transcribí, sí, todas esas cartas, y los pedazos de sus diarios. Lo transcribí todo. Me puse literalmente en su piel. Escribí cada palabra que ella había escrito. La sentí muy cerca. Y me gusta pensar que el lector la siente respirar junto a su hombro mientras lee.

Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Lo hace. La presencia de Liliana en el libro es poderosa. Es a ella a quien la narradora cede la palabra y quien interviene, en cada caso, desde la inocencia del momento. Una inocencia que no se sabe ahogándose pero que así se muestra, en cada escrito, en cada escena que los amigos recuerdan. Nadie, ni la propia Liliana, fue capaz de intuir el peligro. Y no lo fue, dice la escritora, porque no había forma de saber que las alarmas habían saltado. Porque estamos hablando de 1990, cuando aún la enfermera Jacquelyn Campbell, especialista en violencia doméstica, no había elaborado su lista de 22 factores de riesgo, «entre los que se cuentan, de manera preponderante», y aquí estamos escuchando la voz de Cristina Rivera Garza dentro del libro, «el consumo de sustancias tóxicas, la posesión de armas de fuego y celos extremos» [...]. «También están presentes el aislamiento de amigos y familia, las amenazas de suicidio por parte del depredador y el asedio continuo. Todo un catálogo de abuso. El mapa transparente de aquello que no vemos. O que ya vemos», dice la voz de la escritora. «La narrativa que teníamos entonces, cuando ocurrió, era dañina», dice, esa mañana de junio, ante una mesa enorme, una mesa que habría querido tener cuando abrió todas aquellas cajas, para exponer toda la obra de su hermana.

Laura Fernández: Dices que la narrativa de la época era dañina, ¿por qué?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Porque lo que se decía era que la chica lo engañó, y él reaccionó, o que la chica vivía sola, y cómo no iba a pasarle algo así si vivía sola en México. Ese tipo de narrativa estaba en el aire, y entre rumor y rumor se esparcía. Es el Catch 22 —la Trampa 22, eso de lo que no se puede escapar, pero que jamás ha tenido sentido—. Te va mal si lo cuentas, y te va mal si no lo cuentas. En la familia, cuando ocurrió, nos encerramos en nuestras obsesiones. Yo sólo me explico cómo pude vivir en Estados Unidos tanto tiempo así. Me dediqué a trabajar como una loca. No podíamos enfrentarnos a lo inconcebible. Estuvo todo muy callado. Fue por completo silenciado. El suyo era un nombre difícil de pronunciar en casa. Recuerda la Navidad en que mi madre arregló la mesa para cuatro. Hacía ya mucho que había muerto, pero ella arregló la mesa para cuatro, y cuando se dio cuenta, se echó a llorar, pero no hablamos. No podíamos hablar. 

Laura Fernández: En un momento determinado del libro dices que el duelo es el fin de la soledad, porque cuando alguien como tu hermana deja de estar contigo, empiezas a mirar el mundo como lo miraría ella también, y estableces un diálogo con ella que no termina, ni terminará nunca. ¿Fue así desde el principio?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Sí, yo me acostumbré a tener un diálogo con Liliana muy particular. El duelo es estar en compañía. Es el fin de la soledad, sí. Y por eso no quiero que termine. Ese diálogo que mantengo con ella me ataca en los momentos menos pensados. Ahora mismo estoy viviendo en Berlín, y pienso que allí su presencia es más real, porque recuerdo esa película de Win Wenders, El cielo sobre Berlín, y pienso en los ángeles que escuchan todo lo que ocurre en la ciudad, y sé que están escuchando lo que hablo con mi hermana. Es más real que nunca. Pero todo cambió en casa, y en todas partes, después de publicar el libro. Ella regresó. A la conversación, a nuestras vidas. La primera Navidad que pudimos hablar de ella, traer sus retratos, recordar las cosas que hacía de niña y adolescente, el duelo se volvió algo compartido. El dolor sigue ahí, pero la realidad se expandió con su regreso, porque de repente ella jugaba un papel en nuestras vidas, las de todos.

«Me acostumbré a tener un diálogo con Liliana muy particular. El duelo es estar en compañía. Es el fin de la soledad, sí. Y por eso no quiero que termine. Ese diálogo que mantengo con ella me ataca en los momentos menos pensados».

Laura Fernández: Leyendo las cartas y los diarios de Liliana, se ve cómo la literatura, y la necesidad de contarse, estuvo en ella desde el principio. ¿Lo estuvo también en tu caso? Es fascinante cuando hablas de cómo la que contesta a menudo esos diarios es otra.

Cristina Rivera Garza: La escritura es la confirmación de un desdoblamiento, sin duda. Siempre estás con otro, cuando escribes. No tiene nada que ver con el ensimismamiento. Es lo contrario. Hace poco andaba leyendo un libro de James Scott sobre el origen del Estado, y cómo el grano de trigo lo generó todo, y le dedica un par de páginas a la escritura. La escritura nació como registro. Nació en los libros de cuentas. Es una tecnología que destruye la distancia. Acerca lo que está lejos. Y yo vengo de una familia de migrantes. Hicimos muchos viajes en carretera de niñas. Cambiábamos constantemente de casa. Siempre estábamos yéndonos. Alejándonos de comunidades que nos daban sentido, en un cochecito Volskwagen sin radio, y nos dedicamos, Liliana y yo, a construir ese mundo que se estaba yendo. Hay algo de ese anhelo de construcción de un mundo en el inicio de mi escritura. Nos dimos cuenta pronto de que esto que hacemos puede producir realidad.

Laura Fernández: ¿Recuerdas alguna lectura fundamental en ese inicio?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Imagino que, como muchas niñas, tuve una lectura fundamental que fue el diario de Ana Frank. Lo primero que pensé al leerlo fue que si ella había conseguido publicar siendo una niña, yo también podía hacerlo. Hay un paso entre el ejercicio cotidiano del diario y el what if, o el y si, que despierta la imaginación, que en mi caso se dio muy pronto. Y luego llegaron los archivos. Ahí tuve mi segunda visión. Aquello era de verdad lo que quería hacer.

Laura Fernández: ¿Los archivos?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Estudié Sociología y después Historia, y un día, en un archivo, encontré esos documentos, eran expedientes de un manicomio. Leerlos me llevó a hacerme preguntas de corte histórico y escritural. Qué estoy leyendo, me dije, y cómo debo interpretarlo, ¿debería yo poder escribir sobre una mujer pobre que vivió a principios de siglo en un manicomio en México yo, una joven estudiante becada por una universidad gringa? Me entusiasmó la materialidad del archivo, cómo se enunciaba lo que allí había ocurrido, qué espacio ocupaban las palabras en los informes, y qué representaban. Fue entonces que decidí que quería, y podía, interpretar todo eso. Que podía traer a esa gente de vuelta, y tratar de entender por lo que habían pasado, y lo que había pasado. Enlaza muy bien con cierta escritura experimental que ha estado siempre en el centro de mi corazón como escritora.

Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Cristina Rivera Garza. Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Laura Fernández: Qué interesante que la escritura haya sido desde el principio para ti una especie de interpretación, un traer de vuelta, un volver a contar, o contar con contexto, algo que sólo se esbozó, o que ni siquiera se contó, algo de lo que apenas quedó registro. ¿De dónde dirías que te viene esa necesidad?

Cristina Rivera Garza: De la incomodidad. Si pensáramos que el mundo está bien no habría necesidad de escribir. Hay una incomodidad radical en el escritor y, en lugar de anestesiarla, como harían los demás, con dinero o adicciones, o lo que sea, el escritor busca exacerbarla, explorar sus raíces. Y tiene algo de práctica ética, porque considera que algo puede ser de otra manera, no sé si peor o mejor, pero de otra manera. Cuando Annie Ernaux ganó el Premio Nobel dijo algo con lo que me sentí completamente identificada. Dijo: «Escribo para vengar a los míos». Pensé entonces, al escucharla, que es lo que yo siempre había hecho. Lo que sigo haciendo. Que es cierto. Hay una serie de experiencias, en el mundo, de razas, clases, grupos, que pasan dejando una huella que no atendemos, o que el poder busca borrar una y otra vez. Y sólo así puedo explicar lo que escribo.

Laura Fernández: Tratas de encontrar las huellas que no pudieron borrar.

Cristina Rivera Garza: A veces es incluso un trabajo físico. Para escribir Nadie me verá llorar, transcribí diarios de internos en aquel manicomio de México. Ponía un papel cebolla directamente sobre la página original y escribía con su mismo trazo, para sentir que, de alguna forma, yo también lo había escrito. Quería tener que poner el cuerpo exactamente como lo habían puesto ellos. Se notaba, en todos los casos, que habían aprendido a escribir hacía poco, porque las palabras estaban escritas de manera extraña. De manera natural, enseguida, empecé a mezclar ficción y no ficción. Escribí un libro sobre Rulfo, pero desde su lado más débil, el de su experiencia laboral, tan contradictoria. Luego escribí sobre mis abuelos migrantes, y después sobre Liliana.

«Cuando Annie Ernaux ganó el Premio Nobel dijo algo con lo que me sentí completamente identificada. Dijo: "Escribo para vengar a los míos". Pensé entonces, al escucharla, que es lo que yo siempre había hecho, lo que sigo haciendo».

Laura Fernández: ¿Y dónde quedas tú, en una obra así, tan abierta a que sean los demás quienes tomen la palabra?

Cristina Rivera Garza: Yo quedo en las decisiones. Estoy en todos lados, en realidad. No estoy presente de manera central, pero estoy ahí. En el caso de Liliana, aparezco en más de una ocasión, pero como algo secundario, porque era importante no estar, no arrebatar la atención. No me gusta cierta literatura del yo que suele ser muy ensimismada. No me gusta cuando parte del yo como hecho aislado, como si ya lo conociera todo. No me interesa la idea de la inmediatez, sino la idea de la mediación. La inmediatez que rechaza la mediación es parte del ciclo del capital contemporáneo. Aquel a quien sólo le interesa su historia personal porque cree que es lo único que le pertenece. Para traer a Liliana de vuelta necesitaba de múltiples mediaciones. Estoy en contra del término memoir, porque es muy acotado, no parte de la experiencia personal sino de un montón de investigación, cosas que no sabía, el ir sabiendo también forma parte de la experiencia del libro, y de la escritura.


No, pese a que invoca a menudo manuscritamente a otros, Cristina Rivera Garza no escribe a mano. «No lo hago desde hace mucho. Ni siquiera mis dedicatorias son comprensibles ya. Tuve un problema de síndrome carpiano, y me resulta doloroso», dice. También dice que, si puede elegir, escribe siempre por la mañana. Justo cuando se despierta. «Es el mejor momento, entre la vigilia y el sueño», asegura. Cosa complicada para alguien que siempre ha tenido un trabajo de jornada completa como profesora universitaria. Lleva un tiempo, tal vez demasiado, dice, peleándose con una novela «que ofrece resistencia». Pero sabe que es cuestión de tiempo que la termine. ¿Y qué me dices del Pulitzer? «Que no me lo creí. Estaba en una reunión de Zoom cuando me llegó un mensaje de una amiga diciéndome que me había ganado el Pulitzer. No la creí. Ella dijo que había ido a la web oficial y que de verdad era cierto. Seguí sin creérmela, terminé la reunión, y cuando vi que me había llamado mi agente norteamericano y mi editor inglés, me dije que a lo mejor sí, y sí», responde, feliz, tranquila, la sensación de que el trabajo está hecho, de que Liliana ha llegado lejos, went to see places, y de paso, abrió una puerta enorme al español haciéndolo, porque «es cierto que eso es importante, porque la experiencia del español insiste en ser borrada en Estados Unidos, pero mi compromiso es vivir en español como escritora en Estados Unidos», dice. Y sí, así será, pero lo que importa, lo que para siempre importará, es que Liliana está viajando, finalmente, a esos sitios a los que planeó viajar, y que una parte de ella vivirá para siempre encerrada en un libro escrito para que su luz nunca se apague.