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Philip Roth por Blake Bailey: el libertino versus el buen judío

La escritura de su biografía fue un tema central para Philip Roth desde que en 1969 escandalizó a la comunidad judía con «El lamento de Portnoy» y hasta su muerte en mayo de 2018. Era una forma de diseñar su monumental legado literario y, no menos relevante, de ajustar cuentas con algunas personas de su vida, entre ellas, su segunda esposa, la actriz Claire Boom, a la que acusó de «trato cruel e inhumano» cuando se divorciaron a cielo abierto en 1994 después de trece años de relación y cuatro de matrimonio. Roth ya era considerado entonces el escritor norteamericano por excelencia de fines del siglo xx tanto como era cuestionado, en público y en privado, por su misoginia. Blake Bailey había escrito las biografías de John Cheever y Richard Yates cuando fue contratado por el propio Roth para trabajar con él: el resultado de esos seis años de colaboración es «Philip Roth» (Debate), en la que Bailey se adentra en el lado oscuro del novelista —sus miedos, su obsesión por el ego masculino y el sexo, su turbulenta relación con las mujeres de su vida y sus ficciones— al punto que el diario británico «The Times» aseguró: «Roth hace que John Updike y Saul Bellow parezcan recatados». A continuación, Bailey responde para LENGUA las cinco preguntas de su editor en español, Miguel Aguilar, para conocer en qué medida la literatura de Roth es la vida de Roth.

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Roth ya era considerado entonces el escritor norteamericano por excelencia de fines del siglo xx tanto como era cuestionado, en p\u00fablico y en privado, por su misoginia. Blake Bailey hab\u00eda escrito las biograf\u00edas de John Cheever y Richard Yates cuando fue contratado por el propio Roth para trabajar con \u00e9l: el resultado de esos seis a\u00f1os de colaboraci\u00f3n es \u00abPhilip Roth\u00bb (Debate), en la que Bailey se adentra en el lado oscuro del novelista \u2014sus miedos, su obsesi\u00f3n por el ego masculino y el sexo, su turbulenta relaci\u00f3n con las mujeres de su vida y sus ficciones\u2014 al punto que el diario brit\u00e1nico \u00abThe Times\u00bb asegur\u00f3: \u00abRoth hace que John Updike y Saul Bellow parezcan recatados\u00bb. A continuaci\u00f3n, Bailey responde para LENGUA las cinco preguntas de su editor en espa\u00f1ol, Miguel Aguilar, para conocer en qu\u00e9 medida la literatura de Roth es la vida de Roth.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"njqy1zo\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0Philip Roth. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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Aguilar:\u00a0<\/strong><b>Despu\u00e9s de Yates y Cheever, \u00bfqu\u00e9 te llev\u00f3 a Philip Roth? \u00bfHay alguna relaci\u00f3n, o fue simple casualidad?<\/b><\/p><p><b>Blake Bailey:<\/b> Envidio a los escritores capaces de pensar en su siguiente libro mientras trabajan en el que tengan entre manos en ese momento, pero nunca ha sido mi caso. Me obsesiono por completo con mi tema, y, cuando acabo ese libro, no tengo la menor idea de qu\u00e9 hacer a continuaci\u00f3n. Cuando termin\u00e9 mi tercera biograf\u00eda \u2014sobre Charles Jackson, el autor de <em>D\u00edas sin huella<\/em>\u2014, estaba buscando tema para otro proyecto y organic\u00e9 una cita con James Atlas, que hab\u00eda escrito unas buenas biograf\u00edas de Saul Bellow y Delmore Schwartz. As\u00ed que Jim y yo est\u00e1bamos hablando de cosas de trabajo en el restaurante Sarabeth\u2019s, en el Upper West Side de Manhattan, y me coment\u00f3 que Philip Roth y el que fue durante mucho tiempo su bi\u00f3grafo, Ross Miller, ya no se dirig\u00edan la palabra. Cuando le pregunt\u00e9 a Jim si estaba interesado en ser \u00e9l el bi\u00f3grafo de Roth, me asegur\u00f3 que no, as\u00ed que decid\u00ed escribirle una nota a Roth y ofrecerme para ese trabajo. Me encantaba su obra, al fin y al cabo, y me intrigaba la posibilidad de penetrar en su famosa intimidad. Ya hab\u00edamos tenido alg\u00fan contacto antes, por mi biograf\u00eda de Cheever: Roth y Cheever hab\u00edan sido amigos, y result\u00f3 que Roth hab\u00eda le\u00eddo mi libro y le gustaba mucho. Por resumir una larga historia: escrib\u00ed a Philip, nos reunimos y charlamos, y acab\u00f3 contrat\u00e1ndome para que fuese su 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Aguilar:\u00a0<\/strong><b>Roth es considerado el escritor estadounidense por excelencia de finales del siglo XX. \u00bfFue eso muy intimidante a la hora de afrontar la biograf\u00eda?<\/b><\/p><p><b>Blake Bailey: <\/b>Fue intimidante en un sentido abstracto: como es natural, yo quer\u00eda escribir una biograf\u00eda que le hiciera justicia a la inmensa importancia cultural de Roth. Dicho esto, \u00e9l, como hombre, nunca me intimid\u00f3: tuvimos nuestros conflictos durante los seis a\u00f1os que trabajamos juntos (muri\u00f3 en 2018), pero su cooperaci\u00f3n profesional fue siempre absoluta y encomiable, y en lo personal nos llev\u00e1bamos bien.<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: Se puede ver a muchos de los protagonistas de sus libros como proyecciones del mismo Roth. \u00bfCu\u00e1l crees que se le parece m\u00e1s?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Blake Bailey:<\/strong> El propio Roth dijo que el desvergonzado y libidinoso Mickey Sabbath era su h\u00e9roe m\u00e1s autobiogr\u00e1fico; de ah\u00ed la necesidad de Sabbath de \u00abagraviar, agraviar y agraviar hasta que no quedase una sola persona en la tierra no agraviada\u00bb, y de ah\u00ed, tambi\u00e9n, la err\u00e1tica conducta sexual de Sabbath. Por si sirve de algo, dir\u00e9 que no estoy de acuerdo con Roth en este aspecto. Sabbath era lo que Roth, a veces, deseaba ser en un plano ideal: es decir, un libertino plenamente c\u00f3modo con su manera de comportarse, sin ese sentimiento de culpa del \u00abbuen chico jud\u00edo\u00bb que invad\u00eda a Portnoy, por ejemplo. Pero una parte de Philip \u2014la dominante, podr\u00eda decirse\u2014 sigui\u00f3 siendo la del buen jud\u00edo responsable y trabajador hasta el final; en ese sentido, era muy diferente de Sabbath, y muy parecido a Portnoy.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: Tanto su modo de ser jud\u00edo como sus relaciones con las mujeres han sido objeto de controversias. \u00bfC\u00f3mo las afrontaste?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Blake Bailey:<\/strong> Con toda la franqueza posible, bas\u00e1ndome en las pruebas. El retrato que hace Roth en su obra del car\u00e1cter jud\u00edo va en la l\u00ednea de Mark Twain, que dec\u00eda que \u00ablos jud\u00edos son miembros de la raza humana; no puedo decir de ellos nada peor\u00bb. Cuando Roth public\u00f3 su primer libro, <em>Goodbye, Columbus<\/em> \u2014que entre sus personajes cuenta con Brenda Patimkim, una jud\u00eda estadounidense de clase media-alta que utiliza un diafragma con su novio, y el soldado Grossbart, que aduce su condici\u00f3n de jud\u00edo para librarse de las tareas m\u00e1s ingratas del ej\u00e9rcito\u2014, era 1959, y los jud\u00edos estadounidenses empezaban a ser m\u00e1s conscientes de los horrores del Holocausto. <em>\u00c9xodo<\/em> hab\u00eda sido el libro m\u00e1s vendido en 1958; el <em>Diario de Anna Frank<\/em> acababa de adaptarse al cine y, en 1960, aparecer\u00eda la edici\u00f3n inglesa de <em>La noche<\/em>, la novela de Elie Wiesel. De modo que eran comprensiblemente sensibles a lo que consideraron entonces una forma de antisemitismo en las obras de ficci\u00f3n de Roth. La pol\u00e9mica fue a\u00fan m\u00e1s encendida con la publicaci\u00f3n, en 1969, de El lamento de Portnoy. Sin embargo, el propio Roth despreciaba el antisemitismo, y acab\u00f3 recibiendo (en 2014) un t\u00edtulo honor\u00edfico del Seminario Teol\u00f3gico Jud\u00edo de Nueva York, lo que fue una suerte de rama de olivo por parte del establishment cultural jud\u00edo de Estados Unidos.\u00a0<\/p><p>En cuanto a su relaci\u00f3n con las mujeres: he entrevistado a casi todas sus parejas femeninas a lo largo de los a\u00f1os, y era como si seis hombres ciegos describieran a un elefante: una describ\u00eda la trompa; otra, las patas, y as\u00ed sucesivamente. Roth mantuvo unas largas y felices relaciones con Barbara Sproul y Ann Mudge, por ejemplo, pero nunca quiso casarse con nadie, y sin duda se cas\u00f3 presionado con las dos esposas que tuvo, Maggie Martinson y la actriz Claire Bloom. De modo que sus matrimonios no fueron bien, por decirlo suavemente, en parte porque Philip no ten\u00eda un solo pelo de mon\u00f3gamo. Adem\u00e1s, era bastante capaz de cosificar sexualmente a las mujeres y de hacer chistes de mal gusto sobre ellas \u2014muchos de los cuales incluy\u00f3 en sus libros, sobre todo en El lamento de Portnoy y El teatro de Sabbath\u2014. As\u00ed que es un asunto muy complicado, y yo lo presento como tal.<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: \u00bfQu\u00e9 tres libros recomendar\u00edas como buena iniciaci\u00f3n en su obra?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Blake Bailey:<\/strong> Public\u00f3 treinta y un libros en vida, y algunos de ellos est\u00e1n entre las mejores novelas de los siglos XX y XXI, por lo que es dif\u00edcil reducirlos a tres.\u00a0Pero aqu\u00ed va: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35487-libro-goodbye-columbus-9788483464854\\\">Goodbye, Columbus<\/a><\/em>; <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35537-libro-el-mal-de-portnoy-9788483466308\\\">El lamento de Portnoy<\/a><\/span>\u00a0y <em>La visita al maestro<\/em>. El primero incluye la famosa novela que da t\u00edtulo al libro y sus primeros relatos, y convirti\u00f3 a Roth en el ganador m\u00e1s joven (ten\u00eda veintis\u00e9is a\u00f1os) del National Book Award de Estados Unidos. Roth acab\u00f3 despreciando sus primeros libros \u2014los consideraba meras obras de juventud\u2014, pero los relatos de <em>Goodbye, Columbus<\/em> son encantadores, divertidos y refrescantes. <em>El lamento de Portnoy<\/em> es soez e hilarante, y permite conocer al Roth m\u00e1s c\u00f3mico y disparatado.<em> La visita al maestro<\/em> es el primer libro de la serie sobre Zuckerman y, en mi opini\u00f3n, quiz\u00e1 la obra m\u00e1s perfecta de Roth desde el punto de vista de la artesan\u00eda: est\u00e1 escrito con mucha concisi\u00f3n y belleza. Si te gusta alguno de estos libros, o los tres, entonces puedes afrontar la<em> Trilog\u00eda americana, m\u00e1s extensa y compleja: las grandes novelas posteriores como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/34506-libro-pastoral-americana-9788466350983\\\">Pastoral americana<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0y<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35504-libro-la-mancha-humana-9788483465301\\\"><em>La mancha humana<\/em><\/a><\/span>.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"w7ml9o2\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\">Todo est\u00e1 guardado en la memoria de Edna O'Brien<\/a>, por Philip Roth<\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/james-ellroy-por-rodrigo-fresan-cuidado-con-el-perro\\\">James Ellroy por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: cuidado con el perro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/donald-ray-pollock-guillermo-saccomanno\\\">Donald Ray Pollock por Guillermo Saccomanno: un predicador en la noche 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10 minutos

 Philip Roth. Crédito: Getty Images.

Miguel Aguilar: Después de Yates y Cheever, ¿qué te llevó a Philip Roth? ¿Hay alguna relación, o fue simple casualidad?

Blake Bailey: Envidio a los escritores capaces de pensar en su siguiente libro mientras trabajan en el que tengan entre manos en ese momento, pero nunca ha sido mi caso. Me obsesiono por completo con mi tema, y, cuando acabo ese libro, no tengo la menor idea de qué hacer a continuación. Cuando terminé mi tercera biografía —sobre Charles Jackson, el autor de Días sin huella—, estaba buscando tema para otro proyecto y organicé una cita con James Atlas, que había escrito unas buenas biografías de Saul Bellow y Delmore Schwartz. Así que Jim y yo estábamos hablando de cosas de trabajo en el restaurante Sarabeth’s, en el Upper West Side de Manhattan, y me comentó que Philip Roth y el que fue durante mucho tiempo su biógrafo, Ross Miller, ya no se dirigían la palabra. Cuando le pregunté a Jim si estaba interesado en ser él el biógrafo de Roth, me aseguró que no, así que decidí escribirle una nota a Roth y ofrecerme para ese trabajo. Me encantaba su obra, al fin y al cabo, y me intrigaba la posibilidad de penetrar en su famosa intimidad. Ya habíamos tenido algún contacto antes, por mi biografía de Cheever: Roth y Cheever habían sido amigos, y resultó que Roth había leído mi libro y le gustaba mucho. Por resumir una larga historia: escribí a Philip, nos reunimos y charlamos, y acabó contratándome para que fuese su biógrafo.

Miguel Aguilar: Roth es considerado el escritor estadounidense por excelencia de finales del siglo XX. ¿Fue eso muy intimidante a la hora de afrontar la biografía?

Blake Bailey: Fue intimidante en un sentido abstracto: como es natural, yo quería escribir una biografía que le hiciera justicia a la inmensa importancia cultural de Roth. Dicho esto, él, como hombre, nunca me intimidó: tuvimos nuestros conflictos durante los seis años que trabajamos juntos (murió en 2018), pero su cooperación profesional fue siempre absoluta y encomiable, y en lo personal nos llevábamos bien.

Miguel Aguilar: Se puede ver a muchos de los protagonistas de sus libros como proyecciones del mismo Roth. ¿Cuál crees que se le parece más?

Blake Bailey: El propio Roth dijo que el desvergonzado y libidinoso Mickey Sabbath era su héroe más autobiográfico; de ahí la necesidad de Sabbath de «agraviar, agraviar y agraviar hasta que no quedase una sola persona en la tierra no agraviada», y de ahí, también, la errática conducta sexual de Sabbath. Por si sirve de algo, diré que no estoy de acuerdo con Roth en este aspecto. Sabbath era lo que Roth, a veces, deseaba ser en un plano ideal: es decir, un libertino plenamente cómodo con su manera de comportarse, sin ese sentimiento de culpa del «buen chico judío» que invadía a Portnoy, por ejemplo. Pero una parte de Philip —la dominante, podría decirse— siguió siendo la del buen judío responsable y trabajador hasta el final; en ese sentido, era muy diferente de Sabbath, y muy parecido a Portnoy. 

Miguel Aguilar: Tanto su modo de ser judío como sus relaciones con las mujeres han sido objeto de controversias. ¿Cómo las afrontaste?

Blake Bailey: Con toda la franqueza posible, basándome en las pruebas. El retrato que hace Roth en su obra del carácter judío va en la línea de Mark Twain, que decía que «los judíos son miembros de la raza humana; no puedo decir de ellos nada peor». Cuando Roth publicó su primer libro, Goodbye, Columbus —que entre sus personajes cuenta con Brenda Patimkim, una judía estadounidense de clase media-alta que utiliza un diafragma con su novio, y el soldado Grossbart, que aduce su condición de judío para librarse de las tareas más ingratas del ejército—, era 1959, y los judíos estadounidenses empezaban a ser más conscientes de los horrores del Holocausto. Éxodo había sido el libro más vendido en 1958; el Diario de Anna Frank acababa de adaptarse al cine y, en 1960, aparecería la edición inglesa de La noche, la novela de Elie Wiesel. De modo que eran comprensiblemente sensibles a lo que consideraron entonces una forma de antisemitismo en las obras de ficción de Roth. La polémica fue aún más encendida con la publicación, en 1969, de El lamento de Portnoy. Sin embargo, el propio Roth despreciaba el antisemitismo, y acabó recibiendo (en 2014) un título honorífico del Seminario Teológico Judío de Nueva York, lo que fue una suerte de rama de olivo por parte del establishment cultural judío de Estados Unidos. 

En cuanto a su relación con las mujeres: he entrevistado a casi todas sus parejas femeninas a lo largo de los años, y era como si seis hombres ciegos describieran a un elefante: una describía la trompa; otra, las patas, y así sucesivamente. Roth mantuvo unas largas y felices relaciones con Barbara Sproul y Ann Mudge, por ejemplo, pero nunca quiso casarse con nadie, y sin duda se casó presionado con las dos esposas que tuvo, Maggie Martinson y la actriz Claire Bloom. De modo que sus matrimonios no fueron bien, por decirlo suavemente, en parte porque Philip no tenía un solo pelo de monógamo. Además, era bastante capaz de cosificar sexualmente a las mujeres y de hacer chistes de mal gusto sobre ellas —muchos de los cuales incluyó en sus libros, sobre todo en El lamento de Portnoy y El teatro de Sabbath—. Así que es un asunto muy complicado, y yo lo presento como tal.

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Qué tres libros recomendarías como buena iniciación en su obra?

Blake Bailey: Publicó treinta y un libros en vida, y algunos de ellos están entre las mejores novelas de los siglos XX y XXI, por lo que es difícil reducirlos a tres. Pero aquí va: Goodbye, Columbus; El lamento de Portnoy y La visita al maestro. El primero incluye la famosa novela que da título al libro y sus primeros relatos, y convirtió a Roth en el ganador más joven (tenía veintiséis años) del National Book Award de Estados Unidos. Roth acabó despreciando sus primeros libros —los consideraba meras obras de juventud—, pero los relatos de Goodbye, Columbus son encantadores, divertidos y refrescantes. El lamento de Portnoy es soez e hilarante, y permite conocer al Roth más cómico y disparatado. La visita al maestro es el primer libro de la serie sobre Zuckerman y, en mi opinión, quizá la obra más perfecta de Roth desde el punto de vista de la artesanía: está escrito con mucha concisión y belleza. Si te gusta alguno de estos libros, o los tres, entonces puedes afrontar la Trilogía americana, más extensa y compleja: las grandes novelas posteriores como Pastoral americana y La mancha humana.  

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