La invasión rusa

La invasión a Ucrania por Andréi Kurkov: «La guerra nos ha radicalizado a todos»

Andréi Kurkov es el escritor más conocido de Ucrania. Su novela «Muerte con pingüino» lo dio a conocer al mundo y lo convirtió en «best seller» a comienzos de la década del 2000; con «El jardinero de Ochákov» y, luego, con «Abejas grises» (Alfaguara) terminó de consagrarse al tiempo que se volvía una figura cada vez más incómoda para la Rusia de Vladimir Putin. Acaba de publicar su nueva novela, «Samsón y Nadiezhda», después de una pausa no deseada: en 2022, su voz literaria quedó relegada por otra voz más urgente cuando el 24 de febrero Rusia invadió Ucrania y su vida, como la de tantos millones de ucranianos, cambió para siempre. Kurkov se dedicó entonces a registrar cómo la guerra arrasaba con todas las expresiones de normalidad en su país: de esa pluma aguzada por el conflicto salió «Diario de una invasión» (Debate) del que habla desde Kiev en esta entrevista con LENGUA a un año del comienzo del conflicto.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/199716-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Andr\u00e9i Kurkov<\/a><\/span>\u00a0es ucraniano, pero escribe en ruso desde siempre: cuando naci\u00f3 en abril de 1961, Ucrania acumulaba cuarenta a\u00f1os como una de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">l<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">as rep\u00fablicas socialistas de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span> y habr\u00eda de esperar otros treinta para recuperar su independencia formal. D\u00edas antes de que la madre de Kurkov diese a luz en Leningrado, el cosmonauta sovi\u00e9tico Yuri Gagarin se convirti\u00f3 en el primer ser humano en ser enviado al espacio y en completar una \u00f3rbita a la Tierra. Casi en paralelo, al otro lado del oc\u00e9ano, la CIA lanzaba la invasi\u00f3n de Bah\u00eda de Cochinos en Cuba, un fracaso sonoro de John Fitzgerald Kennedy que terminar\u00eda de alinear al gobierno de Fidel Castro con el de Nikita Khrushchev.<\/p><p>Desde entonces, y hasta ahora, la vida de Kurkov ser\u00eda atravesada por la tumultuosa historia del Kremlin. Cuando ten\u00eda siete a\u00f1os, los Kurkov se mudaron a Kiev, capital de aquella Ucrania socialista donde la educaci\u00f3n de Andrey sigui\u00f3 siendo inalteradamente sovi\u00e9tica. Public\u00f3 su primera novela a comienzos de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-ucrania-entre-este-y-oeste\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los a\u00f1os noventa, mientras la URSS se derrumbaba<\/a><\/span>. Se convirti\u00f3 en el escritor m\u00e1s famoso de su pa\u00eds en los a\u00f1os postsovi\u00e9ticos con la novela <em>Muerte con ping\u00fcino,<\/em> que escribi\u00f3 en ruso en 1996 y lo hizo conocido en todo el mundo cuando fue traducida al ingl\u00e9s cinco a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s; se consagr\u00f3 con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/303760-libro-abejas-grises-9788420463629\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Abejas grises<\/em><\/a><\/span> \u2013la historia del inspector de seguridad convertido en apicultor Sergu\u00e9i Sergueich en medio de la guerra entre fuerzas ucranianas y separatistas prorrusos\u2013 al tiempo que se hac\u00eda enemigo declarado del presidente ruso Vladimir Putin.<\/p><p>La noche del 23 de febrero de 2022, Kurkov preparaba en su apartamento de Kiev una sopa de remolacha para un grupo de periodistas extranjeros. Sus invitados nunca llegaron a probarla: esa madrugada, los misiles rusos golpearon Ucrania. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La guerra hab\u00eda comenzado<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bx3x7ja\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Grieco: \u00bfC\u00f3mo es la vida en Kiev a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un a\u00f1o de la invasi\u00f3n rusa<\/a><\/span>?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong> Afortunadamente, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rusia no consigui\u00f3 invadir Kiev<\/a><\/span>. Los habitantes de la ciudad apoyan mucho a sus compatriotas del este del pa\u00eds, en las zonas ocupadas. Siguen de cerca los acontecimientos y sufren emocionalmente, pero tambi\u00e9n apoyan al ej\u00e9rcito, y muchas empresas de Kiev, tanto grandes como peque\u00f1as, recaudan dinero para comprar material militar y ayuda humanitaria. Kiev sufre ataques regulares con misiles y drones y, como consecuencia de la destrucci\u00f3n de las centrales el\u00e9ctricas, casi todos los habitantes de la ciudad sufrimos cortes de electricidad a diario. Sin embargo, el sentimiento general entre los residentes es: \u00abLa vida debe continuar. No nos deben impedir hacer lo que nos gusta\u00bb. As\u00ed que los restaurantes, bares y teatros siguen abiertos. La gente sigue paseando por los parques y visitando los museos.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/2425-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Florencia Grieco<\/a><\/span>: \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 no abandonaste el pa\u00eds cuando empez\u00f3 la agresi\u00f3n?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong>\u00a0La respuesta corta es que no quer\u00eda, y, aunque lo hubiese querido, \u00a1era demasiado joven! Debido a las leyes de tiempos de guerra, los hombres de entre 18 y 60 a\u00f1os no pod\u00edan abandonar el pa\u00eds. Yo no quer\u00eda irme y mi familia tampoco. De hecho, obtuve permisos para salir del pa\u00eds y asistir a conferencias y actos relacionados con Ucrania en Europa y Am\u00e9rica.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bgh0w0f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abUcrania tiene una tradici\u00f3n de pensamiento independiente, casi hasta el punto de la anarqu\u00eda: cada uno hace lo propio y piensa que lo que hace es lo 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Grieco: \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 decidiste escribir <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/311199-libro-diario-de-una-invasion-9788419399526\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Diario de una invasi\u00f3n<\/a>?<\/em><\/span> \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 un escritor conocido querr\u00eda ser el portavoz de Ucrania en el mundo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/199716-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Andr\u00e9i Kurkov<\/a><\/span>:<\/strong>\u00a0Siempre he escrito un diario, pero nunca lo hab\u00eda publicado. A medida que aumentaba la tensi\u00f3n en Kiev, a finales de 2021, varias publicaciones me pidieron que escribiera un diario y les enviara extractos. De hecho, una vez que comenz\u00f3 la agresi\u00f3n en febrero de 2022, ya no pude escribir sobre nada m\u00e1s. S\u00f3lo pod\u00eda enfocarme en lo que le ocurr\u00eda a mi pa\u00eds y, por supuesto, ten\u00eda que escribir sobre ello.<\/p><p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfLa invasi\u00f3n te sorprendi\u00f3 o, de alg\u00fan modo, la esperabas?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong> Esperaba que no ocurriera, pero cuando sucedi\u00f3, entend\u00ed que era inevitable. 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Grieco: Naciste cerca de Leningrado, el ruso es tu lengua materna y viajaste por toda la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica. Incluso antes de los <em>Diarios, en\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/303760-libro-abejas-grises-9788420463629\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Abejas grises<\/a><\/span><\/em> ya hay un relato de la lucha por la identidad dentro de Ucrania y un recordatorio de las tensiones con Rusia. \u00bfEn qu\u00e9 se diferencia la mentalidad ucraniana de la rusa?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong>\u00a0La cuesti\u00f3n de la diferencia entre la mentalidad ucraniana y la rusa es complicada, pero para simplificar, los rusos siempre han convivido con la autocracia en esa \u00abcamisa de fuerza\u00bb que es la jerarqu\u00eda vertical. A nadie se le permit\u00eda ni se le permite \u00abhacer su vida\u00bb. 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Grieco: S\u00e9 que te preocupa especialmente la forma en que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/gabriel-garcia-marquez-nobel-literatura-america-latina\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span> ve el conflicto debido a la propaganda anti-ucraniana procedente de Rusia. \u00bfC\u00f3mo le explicar\u00edas a un latinoamericano la figura y las ideas de Putin?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong>\u00a0En Am\u00e9rica Latina, Putin est\u00e1 jugando con sentimientos antiamericanos muy arraigados. Intenta hacer aparecer que Estados Unidos est\u00e1 agrediendo a Rusia y utilizando a Ucrania como <em>proxy.<\/em> La tradici\u00f3n pol\u00edtica de izquierdas en Am\u00e9rica Latina quiz\u00e1s haya cegado a los pa\u00edses de la regi\u00f3n ante el hecho de que la Rusia de Putin no tiene nada en com\u00fan con el pensamiento pol\u00edtico de izquierdas. Es un Estado autoritario en el que la clase trabajadora no tiene derechos ni privilegios: b\u00e1sicamente, como todo el mundo, excepto la \u00e9lite elegida por el Kremlin.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mwh3h5d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMuchos de mis amigos, conocidos y personas a las que respetaba se han ido de esta vida para siempre, asesinados por los agresores rusos. Incluso cuando la guerra acabe, no creo que en Ucrania vuelva a haber estabilidad mientras yo est\u00e9 vivo\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h4ydpjh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfQu\u00e9 es lo que m\u00e1s echas de menos de tu vida antes del conflicto? \u00bfHay algo de esa vida que temes haber perdido para siempre?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong>\u00a0Echo de menos trabajar en mi jard\u00edn a las afueras de Kiev. Echo de menos las reuniones peri\u00f3dicas con mis amigos, que ahora est\u00e1n dispersos por todo el mundo. Echo de menos la apacible vida literaria con sus eventos festivos y constantes: las ferias del libro, los festivales literarios. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Echo de menos viajar por Ucrania<\/a><\/span>, pero desde hace ya ocho a\u00f1os que no he podido hacer mis visitas anuales a Crimea con la familia. Muchos de mis amigos, conocidos y personas a las que respetaba se han ido de esta vida para siempre, asesinados por los agresores rusos. Incluso cuando la guerra acabe, no creo que en Ucrania vuelva a haber estabilidad mientras yo est\u00e9 vivo. No volver\u00e1 a haber esa sensaci\u00f3n de seguridad y tranquilidad durante muchos a\u00f1os, solo espero que no sea as\u00ed para siempre.<\/p><p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfEres optimista sobre el futuro de tu pa\u00eds?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9i Kurkov:<\/strong>\u00a0Soy optimista sobre el futuro m\u00e1s lejano, pero pienso en todos los problemas tan complejos que aparecer\u00e1n en de la sociedad ucraniana una vez que acabe la guerra. La guerra nos ha radicalizado a todos. Nos ha hecho menos tolerantes los unos con los otros. La tolerancia ideol\u00f3gica, inter\u00e9tnica y religiosa era una marca del pa\u00eds antes de la guerra. Espero que alguna vez este esp\u00edritu pueda restablecerse y fortalecerse.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3hyxhjn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La invasi\u00f3n rusa: Entrevistas, perfiles y art\u00edculos para entender la guerra en Ucrania<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anne Applebaum en la Ucrania de los 90: extra\u00f1os en su propio pa\u00eds<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De la URSS al Euromaid\u00e1n: Ucrania en el abismo generacional<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ucrania, Putin y los limones de 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10 minutos
Andréi Kurkov en París en 2018. Crédito: Getty Images.

Andréi Kurkov en París en 2018. Crédito: Getty Images.

Andréi Kurkov es ucraniano, pero escribe en ruso desde siempre: cuando nació en abril de 1961, Ucrania acumulaba cuarenta años como una de las repúblicas socialistas de la Unión Soviética y habría de esperar otros treinta para recuperar su independencia formal. Días antes de que la madre de Kurkov diese a luz en Leningrado, el cosmonauta soviético Yuri Gagarin se convirtió en el primer ser humano en ser enviado al espacio y en completar una órbita a la Tierra. Casi en paralelo, al otro lado del océano, la CIA lanzaba la invasión de Bahía de Cochinos en Cuba, un fracaso sonoro de John Fitzgerald Kennedy que terminaría de alinear al gobierno de Fidel Castro con el de Nikita Khrushchev.

Desde entonces, y hasta ahora, la vida de Kurkov sería atravesada por la tumultuosa historia del Kremlin. Cuando tenía siete años, los Kurkov se mudaron a Kiev, capital de aquella Ucrania socialista donde la educación de Andrey siguió siendo inalteradamente soviética. Publicó su primera novela a comienzos de los años noventa, mientras la URSS se derrumbaba. Se convirtió en el escritor más famoso de su país en los años postsoviéticos con la novela Muerte con pingüino, que escribió en ruso en 1996 y lo hizo conocido en todo el mundo cuando fue traducida al inglés cinco años después; se consagró con Abejas grises –la historia del inspector de seguridad convertido en apicultor Serguéi Sergueich en medio de la guerra entre fuerzas ucranianas y separatistas prorrusos– al tiempo que se hacía enemigo declarado del presidente ruso Vladimir Putin.

La noche del 23 de febrero de 2022, Kurkov preparaba en su apartamento de Kiev una sopa de remolacha para un grupo de periodistas extranjeros. Sus invitados nunca llegaron a probarla: esa madrugada, los misiles rusos golpearon Ucrania. La guerra había comenzado.

Florencia Grieco: ¿Cómo es la vida en Kiev a un año de la invasión rusa?

Andréi Kurkov: Afortunadamente, Rusia no consiguió invadir Kiev. Los habitantes de la ciudad apoyan mucho a sus compatriotas del este del país, en las zonas ocupadas. Siguen de cerca los acontecimientos y sufren emocionalmente, pero también apoyan al ejército, y muchas empresas de Kiev, tanto grandes como pequeñas, recaudan dinero para comprar material militar y ayuda humanitaria. Kiev sufre ataques regulares con misiles y drones y, como consecuencia de la destrucción de las centrales eléctricas, casi todos los habitantes de la ciudad sufrimos cortes de electricidad a diario. Sin embargo, el sentimiento general entre los residentes es: «La vida debe continuar. No nos deben impedir hacer lo que nos gusta». Así que los restaurantes, bares y teatros siguen abiertos. La gente sigue paseando por los parques y visitando los museos. 

Florencia Grieco: ¿Por qué no abandonaste el país cuando empezó la agresión? 

Andréi Kurkov: La respuesta corta es que no quería, y, aunque lo hubiese querido, ¡era demasiado joven! Debido a las leyes de tiempos de guerra, los hombres de entre 18 y 60 años no podían abandonar el país. Yo no quería irme y mi familia tampoco. De hecho, obtuve permisos para salir del país y asistir a conferencias y actos relacionados con Ucrania en Europa y América.

«Ucrania tiene una tradición de pensamiento independiente, casi hasta el punto de la anarquía: cada uno hace lo propio y piensa que lo que hace es lo mejor».

Florencia Grieco: ¿Por qué decidiste escribir Diario de una invasión? ¿Por qué un escritor conocido querría ser el portavoz de Ucrania en el mundo?

Andréi Kurkov: Siempre he escrito un diario, pero nunca lo había publicado. A medida que aumentaba la tensión en Kiev, a finales de 2021, varias publicaciones me pidieron que escribiera un diario y les enviara extractos. De hecho, una vez que comenzó la agresión en febrero de 2022, ya no pude escribir sobre nada más. Sólo podía enfocarme en lo que le ocurría a mi país y, por supuesto, tenía que escribir sobre ello.

Florencia Grieco: ¿La invasión te sorprendió o, de algún modo, la esperabas?

Andréi Kurkov: Esperaba que no ocurriera, pero cuando sucedió, entendí que era inevitable. Rusia lleva mucho tiempo queriendo controlar Ucrania y después de fracasar en su intento de hacerlo a través de un gobierno títere (¿recuerdas a Yanukovich y el Maidan?), decidió tomar el control mediante la fuerza militar.

Ciudadanos evacuados se refugian debajo de un puente destruido mientras huyen de la ciudad de Irpin, al noroeste de Kiev, el 7 de marzo de 2022. Horas antes, Ucrania rechazó la oferta de Moscú de establecer corredores humanitarios desde varias ciudades bombardeadas después de saber que algunas rutas llevarían a los refugiados a Rusia o Bielorrusia. Crédito: Getty Images.

Ciudadanos evacuados se refugian debajo de un puente destruido mientras huyen de la ciudad de Irpin, al noroeste de Kiev, el 7 de marzo de 2022. Horas antes, Ucrania rechazó la oferta de Moscú de establecer corredores humanitarios desde varias ciudades bombardeadas después de saber que algunas rutas llevarían a los refugiados a Rusia o Bielorrusia. Crédito: Getty Images.

Florencia Grieco: Naciste cerca de Leningrado, el ruso es tu lengua materna y viajaste por toda la Unión Soviética. Incluso antes de los Diarios, en Abejas grises ya hay un relato de la lucha por la identidad dentro de Ucrania y un recordatorio de las tensiones con Rusia. ¿En qué se diferencia la mentalidad ucraniana de la rusa? 

Andréi Kurkov: La cuestión de la diferencia entre la mentalidad ucraniana y la rusa es complicada, pero para simplificar, los rusos siempre han convivido con la autocracia en esa «camisa de fuerza» que es la jerarquía vertical. A nadie se le permitía ni se le permite «hacer su vida». Algunos lo intentaron, pero rara vez lo consiguieron durante mucho tiempo. Ucrania tiene una tradición de pensamiento independiente, casi hasta el punto de la anarquía: cada uno hace lo propio y piensa que lo que hace es lo mejor.

«Ucrania, este "no-país" (en palabras del propio Putin), no se doblegaba ante él ni ante sus ambiciones. Eso hirió su orgullo, y quizá también su bolsillo».

Florencia Grieco: Describes el conflicto como una batalla existencial por Ucrania: los esfuerzos de Putin por borrar la cultura y la historia ucranianas frente a la feroz resistencia de los ucranianos. ¿Cómo explicas el odio de Putin hacia la sociedad ucraniana y por qué creés que es eso, y no las ambiciones imperiales de Rusia, lo que está detrás de la invasión? 

Andréi Kurkov: Putin ha hablado de cómo la desintegración de la URSS fue una tragedia personal para él. Ha pasado treinta años saliéndose con la suya dentro de la Federación Rusa e incluso en otras partes del mundo, mientras que Ucrania, este «no-país» (en palabras del propio Putin), no se doblegaba ante él ni ante sus ambiciones. Eso hirió su orgullo, y quizá también su bolsillo.

4 de marzo de 2022. Dramas anónimos en los trenes de evacuación que salen de la estación central de Kiev. En esa jornada, Ucrania acusó al Kremlin de «terror nuclear» por atacar y tomar la planta de energía atómica más grande de Europa. Crédito: Getty Images.

4 de marzo de 2022. Dramas anónimos en los trenes de evacuación que salen de la estación central de Kiev. En esa jornada, Ucrania acusó al Kremlin de «terror nuclear» por atacar y tomar la planta de energía atómica más grande de Europa. Crédito: Getty Images.

Florencia Grieco: Sé que te preocupa especialmente la forma en que América Latina ve el conflicto debido a la propaganda anti-ucraniana procedente de Rusia. ¿Cómo le explicarías a un latinoamericano la figura y las ideas de Putin?

Andréi Kurkov: En América Latina, Putin está jugando con sentimientos antiamericanos muy arraigados. Intenta hacer aparecer que Estados Unidos está agrediendo a Rusia y utilizando a Ucrania como proxy. La tradición política de izquierdas en América Latina quizás haya cegado a los países de la región ante el hecho de que la Rusia de Putin no tiene nada en común con el pensamiento político de izquierdas. Es un Estado autoritario en el que la clase trabajadora no tiene derechos ni privilegios: básicamente, como todo el mundo, excepto la élite elegida por el Kremlin.

«Muchos de mis amigos, conocidos y personas a las que respetaba se han ido de esta vida para siempre, asesinados por los agresores rusos. Incluso cuando la guerra acabe, no creo que en Ucrania vuelva a haber estabilidad mientras yo esté vivo».

Florencia Grieco: ¿Qué es lo que más echas de menos de tu vida antes del conflicto? ¿Hay algo de esa vida que temes haber perdido para siempre? 

Andréi Kurkov: Echo de menos trabajar en mi jardín a las afueras de Kiev. Echo de menos las reuniones periódicas con mis amigos, que ahora están dispersos por todo el mundo. Echo de menos la apacible vida literaria con sus eventos festivos y constantes: las ferias del libro, los festivales literarios. Echo de menos viajar por Ucrania, pero desde hace ya ocho años que no he podido hacer mis visitas anuales a Crimea con la familia. Muchos de mis amigos, conocidos y personas a las que respetaba se han ido de esta vida para siempre, asesinados por los agresores rusos. Incluso cuando la guerra acabe, no creo que en Ucrania vuelva a haber estabilidad mientras yo esté vivo. No volverá a haber esa sensación de seguridad y tranquilidad durante muchos años, solo espero que no sea así para siempre.

Florencia Grieco: ¿Eres optimista sobre el futuro de tu país?

Andréi Kurkov: Soy optimista sobre el futuro más lejano, pero pienso en todos los problemas tan complejos que aparecerán en de la sociedad ucraniana una vez que acabe la guerra. La guerra nos ha radicalizado a todos. Nos ha hecho menos tolerantes los unos con los otros. La tolerancia ideológica, interétnica y religiosa era una marca del país antes de la guerra. Espero que alguna vez este espíritu pueda restablecerse y fortalecerse.

Libros para entender la guerra en Ucrania

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