La invasión rusa

Ucrania, Putin y los limones de Stalin

La obsesión de Stalin por los limones frescos, el siniestro ascenso de Trofim Lysenko, el trágico destino de Nikolái Vavílov, un siniestro entramado de mentiras que fueron reemplazando a la verdad… En su original libro «Las rosas de Orwell» (Lumen), Rebecca Solnit no sólo aborda vida y obra del autor de «1984» desde su poco conocida devoción por las rosas, sino que despliega un universo de conexiones insospechadas entre la historia contemporánea y el cultivo –de los primeros movimientos feministas a la Guerra Civil Española, pasando por el colonialismo y la escala industrial de hoy en día. En este fragmento que LENGUA reproduce a continuación, la escritora norteamericana ilumina la Rusia de Putin a partir de una increíble historia sobre los limoneros de Stalin.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">6 de marzo de 2020. El presidente ruso Vladimir Putin y el gobernador del oblast de Ivanovo Stanislav Voskresensky miran la bandera con retratos de los l\u00edderes sovi\u00e9ticos Vladimir Lenin y Joseph Stalin mientras visitan la f\u00e1brica de paraca\u00eddas en Ivanovo, ciudad a 230 kil\u00f3metros al este de Mosc\u00fa. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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1945, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">en Ucrania<\/a><\/span>, en la Conferencia de Yalta, donde Stalin, Churchill y Roosevelt negociaron el nuevo orden tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el primer ministro brita\u0301nico o su hija comento\u0301 que queri\u0301a limones \u2014para las bebidas segu\u0301n una versio\u0301n, y para el caviar segu\u0301n otra\u2014, y al despertar descubrio\u0301 que durante la larga noche de febrero habi\u0301a aparecido por arte de magia un limonero cargado de frutos en el palacio donde se alojaban. Tras la contienda,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a Stalin le obsesiono\u0301<\/a><\/span> durante an\u0303os la idea de forzar los li\u0301mites naturales de los limoneros. Al parecer estaba convencido de que era posible modificar por la fuerza la naturaleza fundamental de esos a\u0301rboles, igual que la de las personas, igual que la del trigo, y quiso cultivarlos en su dacha de la peni\u0301nsula ucraniana de Crimea y en la que teni\u0301a en Kuntsevo, en las afueras de Moscu\u0301. Viacheslav Mo\u0301lotov, un poderoso funcionario del re\u0301gimen y uno de los pocos bolcheviques que sobrevivieron a las purgas, recordaba mucho despue\u0301s de la muerte de Stalin: \u00abEn su dacha se construyo\u0301 un invernadero especial para los limoneros. Uno grande... Y co\u0301mo vagaba por ahi\u0301... Aunque yo no lo vi. Y todo el mundo: \u00a1oh!, \u00a1ah! Y puedo decir con toda sinceridad que de mi\u0301 proveni\u0301an menos \\\"ohs\\\" y \\\"ahs\\\" que del resto y lo que yo realmente pensaba era: \u00a1Que le den morcilla! \u00a1Un limonero en Moscu\u0301!\u00bb. Otro funcionario de alto nivel conto\u0301 que Stalin lo habi\u0301a llevado a pasear por ese jardi\u0301n y le habi\u0301a dado una rodaja de limo\u0301n tras otra para que se las comiera, con lo que lo obligaba a pronunciar elogios todo el 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teni\u0301a enormes jardines en sus diversas dachas y e\u0301l mismo daba o\u0301rdenes a los jardineros que los cuidaban. Proporcionaban comida en abundancia al dictador y su familia. Su hija, Svetlana, recordaba: \u00abMi padre no podi\u0301a limitarse simplemente a contemplar la naturaleza. Necesitaba hacerla producir, transformar constantemente alguna cosa\u00bb. Stalin teni\u0301a en Moscu\u0301 invernaderos donde los limoneros pasaban los inviernos, pero dijo a sus jardineros: \u00abQue se acostumbren al fri\u0301o\u00bb. Cabe imaginar que la seleccio\u0301n artificial durante generaciones habri\u0301a dado como resultado limoneros ma\u0301s resistentes, pero pareci\u0301a que e\u0301l intentaba curtir a cada uno de los ejemplares como si fuera un sargento de instruccio\u0301n con sus reclutas. Su enorme limonar de Crimea se helo\u0301. A los limoneros de su nativa Georgia, con un clima templado, les fue mejor. Planto\u0301 algunos \u2014o, mejor dicho, decreto\u0301 que se plantaran; emiti\u0301a a diario o\u0301rdenes dirigidas a sus jardineros\u2014 en su dacha abjasia, donde solo sobrevivio\u0301 uno al glacial invierno de 1947\/1948. Quiza\u0301 Stalin u otra persona mandara replantarlos, pues un arti\u0301culo de viajes informa de que en la actualidad la dacha esta\u0301 rodeada de limoneros.\u00a0<\/p><p>En una escena de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36613-libro-alicia-en-el-pais-de-las-maravillas-edicion-conmemorativa-9788491050742\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Alicia en el pai\u0301s de las maravillas<\/span>,<\/em><\/a> unos sirvientes aterrorizados pintan de rojo unas rosas blancas porque se habi\u0301a ordenado que en el jardi\u0301n hubiera rosas rojas y, si la reina descubri\u0301a el error, \u00abnos mandari\u0301a cortar a todos la cabeza\u00bb. \u00bfCo\u0301mo percibio\u0301 Stalin el hecho de que los limoneros no se adaptaran al fri\u0301o? \u00bfNego\u0301 lo ocurrido y, como en el caso de los funcionarios del censo, busco\u0301 a alguien a quien castigar? \u00bfCrearon los jardineros el espejismo del e\u0301xito plantando nuevos limoneros y fingiendo que eran los de antes? En esta historia subyace la pregunta de cua\u0301nto se mintio\u0301 Stalin a si\u0301 mismo mientras obligaba a los de su entorno a mentir acerca de todo. \u00bfPerdio\u0301 de vista la falsedad mientras comandaba la nacio\u0301n para que obedeciera sus o\u0301rdenes? \u00bfQue\u0301 significo\u0301 ser el que imponi\u0301a las mentiras, sustentar espejismos, esconder realidades brutales y exigir el sometimiento a una versio\u0301n de la realidad que era el resultado de sus mandatos y ocultaciones ma\u0301s que de la informacio\u0301n?\u00a0<\/p><p>Sin embargo, ese poder no logro\u0301 que el trigo obedeciera a una seudociencia ni que los limoneros sobrevivieran a inviernos rigurosos. El lamarckismo fue un error en su tiempo; en la e\u0301poca sovie\u0301tica fue una mentira. Las promesas del protegido Trofim Lysenko sobre que \u00abel trigo de invierno puede convertirse en centeno\u00bb eran mentiras. La negacio\u0301n de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la gran hambruna que produjo millones de muertes<\/a><\/span> al principio de los an\u0303os treinta del pasado siglo fue una mentira. Los delitos confesados mediante tortura en los simulacros de juicio fueron en su mayori\u0301a mentiras. La gente mintio\u0301 para conservar la vida, murio\u0301 por contar la verdad o mintio\u0301 y aun asi\u0301 murio\u0301. Otros perdieron la nocio\u0301n de lo que era verdad. La historia se reescribio\u0301 a menudo conforme los instigadores de la Revolucio\u0301n rusa eran ejecutados por sus camaradas revolucionarios. Se ejecuto\u0301 a verdugos; a algunos interrogadores se los envio\u0301 a gulags, donde coincidieron con aquellos a quienes habi\u0301an interrogado.<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Se prohibieron los libros<\/a><\/span>, se desautorizaron los hechos, se proscribio\u0301 a los poetas, se proscribieron las ideas. Era el imperio de las mentiras. Las mentiras \u2014el ataque al lenguaje\u2014 eran los cimientos necesarios para todos los dema\u0301s ataques.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"x3u3iy0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El actual dirigente autoritario de Rusia, Vladi\u0301mir Putin, se ha dedicado a rehabilitar la reputacio\u0301n de Stalin. Lysenko parece beneficiarse de ese revisionismo y de algunas tergiversaciones del significado de la epigene\u0301tica. Con todo, es la obra del perseguido, encarcelado, torturado y asesinado agr\u00f3nomo Nikol\u00e1i Vavi\u0301lov la que ha perdurado a trave\u0301s de las semillas, las que encontro\u0301, reunio\u0301 y cultivo\u0301.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k8vhwm8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En 1944, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Orwell escribio\u0301<\/a><\/span>: \u00abLo que de verdad aterra del totalitarismo no es que cometa \\\"atrocidades\\\", sino que ataque el concepto de verdad objetiva; exige controlar el pasado y el futuro\u00bb, un marco de referencia que se transformari\u0301a en el \u00abQuien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Quien controla el presente controla el pasado\u00bb, del Hermano Mayor. El ataque a la verdad y al lenguaje posibilita las atrocidades. Si alguien borra lo que ha ocurrido, silencia a los testigos, convence a las dema\u0301s personas de las ventajas de apoyar una mentira; si mediante el terror impone el silencio, la obediencia y los embustes; si consigue que determinar lo que es verdad resulte tan imposible o peligroso que los dema\u0301s desistan de intentarlo, ese alguien puede perpetuar sus cri\u0301menes. Suele decirse que la primera vi\u0301ctima de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/George-Orwell-Homenaje-a-Cataluna\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la guerra es la verdad<\/a><\/span>, y una guerra perpetua contra la verdad afianza todos los autoritarismos, desde los nacionales hasta los mundiales. A fin de cuentas, el autoritarismo, al igual que la eugenesia, es en si\u0301 una clase de elitismo basado en la idea de que el poder debe distribuirse de manera desigual.\u00a0<\/p><p>El actual dirigente autoritario de Rusia, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Vladi\u0301mir Putin<\/a><\/span>, se ha dedicado a rehabilitar la reputacio\u0301n de Stalin. Lysenko parece beneficiarse de ese revisionismo y de algunas tergiversaciones del significado de la epigene\u0301tica. Con todo, es la obra del perseguido, encarcelado, torturado y asesinado agr\u00f3nomo Nikol\u00e1i Vavi\u0301lov la que ha perdurado a trave\u0301s de las semillas, las que encontro\u0301, reunio\u0301 y cultivo\u0301. En palabras de Gary Paul Nabhan, etnobot\u00e1nico contempor\u00e1neo suyo, Vav\u00edlov era \u00abel \u00fanico hombre sobre la tierra que hab\u00eda recogido semillas de plantas comestibles de los cinco continentes, el explorador que hab\u00eda organizado ciento quince expediciones en unos sesenta y cuatro pa\u00edses para encontrar formas nuevas de que la humanidad se alimentara\u00bb y un cient\u00edfico que hab\u00eda publicado m\u00e1s de cien trabajos de investigaci\u00f3n. Fueron esas semillas las que sus partidarios protegieron en el banco de semillas durante <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/276339-libro-leningrado-9788418619373\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el sitio de Leningrado<\/a><\/span>. \u00abAproximadamente un cuarto de siglo despue\u0301s de su muerte en 1943 \u2014escribe Nabhan\u2014, cuatrocientas variedades nuevas seleccionadas de las semillas que e\u0301l recogio\u0301 alimentaban a un porcentaje tan grande de ciudadanos sovie\u0301ticos que la frecuencia de las hambrunas cayo\u0301 en picado\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los limoneros de Stalin se malograron, y aunque un a\u0301rbol individual \u2014un olivo, un tejo, una velintonia, una higuera sagrada\u2014 sea capaz de vivir mil an\u0303os o ma\u0301s, las semillas de las plantas anuales o ciertas pra\u0301cticas como la agricultura pueden sobrevivir a un re\u0301gimen poli\u0301tico, un dictador, una sarta de mentiras y una guerra contra la ciencia. Las mentiras mutan ma\u0301s libremente que las semillas y ahora existen nuevos cultivos de ellas.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Putin por Obama: \u00abEs como un jefe de distrito, solo que con misiles nucleares y un veto en el Consejo de Seguridad de Naciones Unidas\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anne Applebaum: la crisis ucraniana en cinco preguntas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6geoz3m\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

6 de marzo de 2020. El presidente ruso Vladimir Putin y el gobernador del oblast de Ivanovo Stanislav Voskresensky miran la bandera con retratos de los líderes soviéticos Vladimir Lenin y Joseph Stalin mientras visitan la fábrica de paracaídas en Ivanovo, ciudad a 230 kilómetros al este de Moscú. Crédito: Getty Images.

En 1945, en Ucrania, en la Conferencia de Yalta, donde Stalin, Churchill y Roosevelt negociaron el nuevo orden tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el primer ministro británico o su hija comentó que quería limones —para las bebidas según una versión, y para el caviar según otra—, y al despertar descubrió que durante la larga noche de febrero había aparecido por arte de magia un limonero cargado de frutos en el palacio donde se alojaban. Tras la contienda, a Stalin le obsesionó durante años la idea de forzar los límites naturales de los limoneros. Al parecer estaba convencido de que era posible modificar por la fuerza la naturaleza fundamental de esos árboles, igual que la de las personas, igual que la del trigo, y quiso cultivarlos en su dacha de la península ucraniana de Crimea y en la que tenía en Kuntsevo, en las afueras de Moscú. Viacheslav Mólotov, un poderoso funcionario del régimen y uno de los pocos bolcheviques que sobrevivieron a las purgas, recordaba mucho después de la muerte de Stalin: «En su dacha se construyó un invernadero especial para los limoneros. Uno grande... Y cómo vagaba por ahí... Aunque yo no lo vi. Y todo el mundo: ¡oh!, ¡ah! Y puedo decir con toda sinceridad que de mí provenían menos "ohs" y "ahs" que del resto y lo que yo realmente pensaba era: ¡Que le den morcilla! ¡Un limonero en Moscú!». Otro funcionario de alto nivel contó que Stalin lo había llevado a pasear por ese jardín y le había dado una rodaja de limón tras otra para que se las comiera, con lo que lo obligaba a pronunciar elogios todo el rato.

Stalin tenía enormes jardines en sus diversas dachas y él mismo daba órdenes a los jardineros que los cuidaban. Proporcionaban comida en abundancia al dictador y su familia. Su hija, Svetlana, recordaba: «Mi padre no podía limitarse simplemente a contemplar la naturaleza. Necesitaba hacerla producir, transformar constantemente alguna cosa». Stalin tenía en Moscú invernaderos donde los limoneros pasaban los inviernos, pero dijo a sus jardineros: «Que se acostumbren al frío». Cabe imaginar que la selección artificial durante generaciones habría dado como resultado limoneros más resistentes, pero parecía que él intentaba curtir a cada uno de los ejemplares como si fuera un sargento de instrucción con sus reclutas. Su enorme limonar de Crimea se heló. A los limoneros de su nativa Georgia, con un clima templado, les fue mejor. Plantó algunos —o, mejor dicho, decretó que se plantaran; emitía a diario órdenes dirigidas a sus jardineros— en su dacha abjasia, donde solo sobrevivió uno al glacial invierno de 1947/1948. Quizá Stalin u otra persona mandara replantarlos, pues un artículo de viajes informa de que en la actualidad la dacha está rodeada de limoneros. 

En una escena de Alicia en el país de las maravillas, unos sirvientes aterrorizados pintan de rojo unas rosas blancas porque se había ordenado que en el jardín hubiera rosas rojas y, si la reina descubría el error, «nos mandaría cortar a todos la cabeza». ¿Cómo percibió Stalin el hecho de que los limoneros no se adaptaran al frío? ¿Negó lo ocurrido y, como en el caso de los funcionarios del censo, buscó a alguien a quien castigar? ¿Crearon los jardineros el espejismo del éxito plantando nuevos limoneros y fingiendo que eran los de antes? En esta historia subyace la pregunta de cuánto se mintió Stalin a sí mismo mientras obligaba a los de su entorno a mentir acerca de todo. ¿Perdió de vista la falsedad mientras comandaba la nación para que obedeciera sus órdenes? ¿Qué significó ser el que imponía las mentiras, sustentar espejismos, esconder realidades brutales y exigir el sometimiento a una versión de la realidad que era el resultado de sus mandatos y ocultaciones más que de la información? 

Sin embargo, ese poder no logró que el trigo obedeciera a una seudociencia ni que los limoneros sobrevivieran a inviernos rigurosos. El lamarckismo fue un error en su tiempo; en la época soviética fue una mentira. Las promesas del protegido Trofim Lysenko sobre que «el trigo de invierno puede convertirse en centeno» eran mentiras. La negación de la gran hambruna que produjo millones de muertes al principio de los años treinta del pasado siglo fue una mentira. Los delitos confesados mediante tortura en los simulacros de juicio fueron en su mayoría mentiras. La gente mintió para conservar la vida, murió por contar la verdad o mintió y aun así murió. Otros perdieron la noción de lo que era verdad. La historia se reescribió a menudo conforme los instigadores de la Revolución rusa eran ejecutados por sus camaradas revolucionarios. Se ejecutó a verdugos; a algunos interrogadores se los envió a gulags, donde coincidieron con aquellos a quienes habían interrogado. Se prohibieron los libros, se desautorizaron los hechos, se proscribió a los poetas, se proscribieron las ideas. Era el imperio de las mentiras. Las mentiras —el ataque al lenguaje— eran los cimientos necesarios para todos los demás ataques. 

El actual dirigente autoritario de Rusia, Vladímir Putin, se ha dedicado a rehabilitar la reputación de Stalin. Lysenko parece beneficiarse de ese revisionismo y de algunas tergiversaciones del significado de la epigenética. Con todo, es la obra del perseguido, encarcelado, torturado y asesinado agrónomo Nikolái Vavílov la que ha perdurado a través de las semillas, las que encontró, reunió y cultivó.

En 1944, Orwell escribió: «Lo que de verdad aterra del totalitarismo no es que cometa "atrocidades", sino que ataque el concepto de verdad objetiva; exige controlar el pasado y el futuro», un marco de referencia que se transformaría en el «Quien controla el pasado controla el futuro. Quien controla el presente controla el pasado», del Hermano Mayor. El ataque a la verdad y al lenguaje posibilita las atrocidades. Si alguien borra lo que ha ocurrido, silencia a los testigos, convence a las demás personas de las ventajas de apoyar una mentira; si mediante el terror impone el silencio, la obediencia y los embustes; si consigue que determinar lo que es verdad resulte tan imposible o peligroso que los demás desistan de intentarlo, ese alguien puede perpetuar sus crímenes. Suele decirse que la primera víctima de la guerra es la verdad, y una guerra perpetua contra la verdad afianza todos los autoritarismos, desde los nacionales hasta los mundiales. A fin de cuentas, el autoritarismo, al igual que la eugenesia, es en sí una clase de elitismo basado en la idea de que el poder debe distribuirse de manera desigual. 

El actual dirigente autoritario de Rusia, Vladímir Putin, se ha dedicado a rehabilitar la reputación de Stalin. Lysenko parece beneficiarse de ese revisionismo y de algunas tergiversaciones del significado de la epigenética. Con todo, es la obra del perseguido, encarcelado, torturado y asesinado agrónomo Nikolái Vavílov la que ha perdurado a través de las semillas, las que encontró, reunió y cultivó. En palabras de Gary Paul Nabhan, etnobotánico contemporáneo suyo, Vavílov era «el único hombre sobre la tierra que había recogido semillas de plantas comestibles de los cinco continentes, el explorador que había organizado ciento quince expediciones en unos sesenta y cuatro países para encontrar formas nuevas de que la humanidad se alimentara» y un científico que había publicado más de cien trabajos de investigación. Fueron esas semillas las que sus partidarios protegieron en el banco de semillas durante el sitio de Leningrado. «Aproximadamente un cuarto de siglo después de su muerte en 1943 —escribe Nabhan—, cuatrocientas variedades nuevas seleccionadas de las semillas que él recogió alimentaban a un porcentaje tan grande de ciudadanos soviéticos que la frecuencia de las hambrunas cayó en picado». 

Los limoneros de Stalin se malograron, y aunque un árbol individual —un olivo, un tejo, una velintonia, una higuera sagrada— sea capaz de vivir mil años o más, las semillas de las plantas anuales o ciertas prácticas como la agricultura pueden sobrevivir a un régimen político, un dictador, una sarta de mentiras y una guerra contra la ciencia. Las mentiras mutan más libremente que las semillas y ahora existen nuevos cultivos de ellas.



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