Literatura

Borges y Bioy Casares: la bestia equilátera

Durante cincuenta años de amistad, Jorge Luis Borges y Adolfo Bioy Casares se vieron casi a diario, conversaron de libros y escritores, armaron algunas de las antologías más gravitantes del siglo XX, dirigieron colecciones iniciáticas, y hasta escribieron a cuatro manos todo tipo de textos, de publicidades de yogurt a relatos policiales de originalidad y densidad extraordinarios. «Alias» (Sudamericana, 2022) reúne esa obra completa en colaboración que publicaron con sus nombres y bajo los alias H. Bustos Domecq y B. Suárez Lynch. En el prólogo a esta edición histórica, cuyo comienzo LENGUA publica a continuación, Alan Pauls disecciona a esa bestia literaria con vida propia que a la vez hacía de Borges y Bioy —según ellos mismos confesaban— mejores escritores.

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se sabe, Borges y Bioy Casares compartieron cincuenta a\u00f1os de amistad literaria, buena parte de los cuales los pasaron encerrados, escribiendo juntos. La din\u00e1mica de esos c\u00f3nclaves era m\u00e1s bien misteriosa. Se sab\u00eda que Borges, quince a\u00f1os mayor, sol\u00eda engolosinarse: se cebaba f\u00e1cil, perd\u00eda el hilo y se iba por las ramas. Bioy, secuaz fiel, compart\u00eda esos entusiasmos y los acompa\u00f1aba, hasta que ve\u00eda lo lejos que hab\u00edan quedado de la costa y proced\u00eda a frenarlo. Borges era pura inspiraci\u00f3n y brillantez verbal; Bioy defend\u00eda cierta sensatez narrativa, la eficacia de un contar natural, seco, cuanto m\u00e1s invisible mejor. A fines de los a\u00f1os 60, mientras trabajan en el gui\u00f3n de <em>Los otros<\/em>, Hugo Santiago, el director, les pide que escriban como si el film fuera mudo, sin mucha conversaci\u00f3n. Bioy observa que no es la instrucci\u00f3n que Borges quer\u00eda o\u00edr. \u00abVe la proposici\u00f3n del dire como si lo condenara a renunciar al teatro para pasar al mimo. Su pasi\u00f3n por la palabra lo pierde. Para cualquier situaci\u00f3n, en el acto suministra comentarios inteligentes; le proponemos que los reprima, que se los trague. Ahora comprendo por qu\u00e9 nadie se anim\u00f3 a representar <em>El para\u00edso de los creyentes<\/em> ni <em>Los orilleros<\/em>\u00bb. El diferendo no es nuevo. Bioy ya lo hab\u00eda notado antes, cuando redactaban los primeros cuentos de Isidro Parodi y ve\u00eda c\u00f3mo le gustaba a Borges amontonar bromas: \u00abYo sab\u00eda que arruinaba el texto\u00bb, escribe Bioy, \u00abpero el agrado de las bromas, el gusto de re\u00edr, allanaba el camino\u00bb. Es en todo caso la risa, m\u00e1s que las desinteligencias, lo que mejor ha sobrevivido de esas sesiones de trabajo a puertas cerradas. Seg\u00fan una escena ya m\u00edtica, la escritora Silvina Ocampo, mujer de Bioy, pegaba la oreja contra la puerta del cuarto donde escrib\u00edan y o\u00eda sus carcajadas con envidiosa incredulidad: \u00ab\u00bfDe qu\u00e9 se reir\u00e1n \u00e9stos?\u00bb.<\/p><p>La pregunta era ret\u00f3rica, pero se contesta f\u00e1cil: de todo. De Shakespeare a Manucho Mujica Lainez, de Sabato a Goethe, de James Joyce a la se\u00f1ora Bibiloni de Bullrich, Borges y Bioy se re\u00edan absolutamente de todo y de todos, como dos cuadros de honor que, hartos de hacer buena letra, ceden a la impunidad que les promete alguna autoridad suprema, se arrancan las m\u00e1scaras y prenden el ventilador. Durante las miles de noches en que Bioy invita a comer a Borges a su casa \u2014un ritual que los rige como una superstici\u00f3n o un vicio\u2014, los dos t\u00f3tems de la respetabilidad literaria argentina se transforman en verdaderos artistas de la irrisi\u00f3n, y la conversaci\u00f3n que mantienen no tarda en derivar en g\u00e9neros menores como el chisme o la lista negra. Portento de inteligencia y malicia, la de Borges y Bioy es una amistad literaria particularmente sarc\u00e1stica, cuyos perdigonazos contradicen el manual de discreci\u00f3n y buenos modales que ambos escritores acataban en la escena p\u00fablica. Pero es tambi\u00e9n un laboratorio, un espacio de producci\u00f3n y puesta a prueba de ideas, razones, hip\u00f3tesis, <em>modus operandi<\/em> art\u00edsticos. De ese <em>darkroom<\/em> cotidiano, festivo y sin freno, nacer\u00e1 una obra a cuatro manos polimorfa, bastante infatigable, que no dejar\u00e1 esfera de la industria literaria y cultural sin tocar. La complicidad entre Borges y Bioy Casares engendr\u00f3 libros de relatos, argumentos y guiones de cine (<em>Los orilleros<\/em>, <em>El para\u00edso de los creyentes<\/em>, <em>Invasi\u00f3n<\/em>, <em>Los otros<\/em>), art\u00edculos period\u00edsticos, ediciones anotadas, traducciones, algunas de las antolog\u00edas m\u00e1s influyentes del siglo XX (<em>Antolog\u00eda de la literatura fant\u00e1stica<\/em>, <em>Los mejores cuentos policiales<\/em>, <em>Cuentos breves y extraordinarios<\/em>, <em>El libro del cielo y del infierno<\/em>, <em>Poes\u00eda gauchesca<\/em>), colecciones editoriales (El S\u00e9ptimo C\u00edrculo, La puerta de marfil), juradur\u00edas literarias. Y hasta un libro \u00e0 deux a la manera de Boswell y Samuel Johnson, el <em>Borges<\/em> de Bioy \u2014diario de 1100 p\u00e1ginas donde \u00e9ste consigna medio siglo de conversaciones con Borges\u2014, cierre monumental de un ciclo iniciado en 1935, cuando, amigos incipientes, escriben juntos el folleto comercial \u00abLeche cuajada\u00bb para La Martona, la empresa l\u00e1ctea\u00a0 de la familia de Bioy.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dbprmys\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Borges y Bioy se re\u00edan absolutamente de todo y de todos, como dos cuadros de honor que, hartos de hacer buena letra, ceden a la impunidad que les promete alguna autoridad suprema, se arrancan las m\u00e1scaras y prenden el ventilador.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1bl1aqf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pocas piezas publicitarias tan desatinadas y f\u00e9rtiles. Ni Borges ni Bioy necesitan ceder su fuerza de trabajo por dinero; saben poco y nada del producto que deben vender (\u00abun alimento m\u00e1s o menos b\u00falgaro\u00bb, seg\u00fan palabras de Bioy) y decididamente nada sobre el arte de venderlo (\u00abun folleto comercial, aparentemente cient\u00edfico...\u00bb). Apuntalada por la adversidad del <em>setting<\/em> \u2014estancia en ruinas, el fr\u00edo del campo, dieta de cocoa, una chimenea \u00e1vida de quebrachos\u2014, la experiencia quedar\u00e1 como un hito del diletantismo criollo. Aunque (o porque) saquea la divulgaci\u00f3n cient\u00edfica de la \u00e9poca, inventa longevas dinast\u00edas balc\u00e1nicas y cita a Bernard Shaw, el folleto es un resonante fracaso. \u00abNadie nos crey\u00f3 una sola l\u00ednea\u00bb, recordaba Bioy. Camino al desastre, sin embargo, el d\u00fao encuentra lo que no sab\u00eda que buscaba: una manera compartida de delirar. De la leche cuajada saltan, ateridos, a \u00abun soneto enumerativo, en cuyos tercetos no recuerdo c\u00f3mo justificamos el verso <em>los molinos<\/em>, <em>los \u00e1ngeles<\/em>, <em>las eles<\/em>\u00bb, y de ah\u00ed \u2014m\u00e1s cocoa, otro le\u00f1o al fuego\u2014 a \u00abun cuento policial \u2014las ideas eran de Borges\u2014 que trataba de un doctor Preetorius, un alem\u00e1n vasto y suave, director de un colegio, donde por medios hed\u00f3nicos (juegos obligatorios, m\u00fasica a toda hora) torturaba y mataba a ni\u00f1os\u00bb.<\/p><p>Se podr\u00eda decir que ah\u00ed est\u00e1 todo. Los escritores a solas, lejos del mundo; el desaf\u00edo filisteo que no quieren ni consiguen llevar a cabo y del que no tardan en desviarse, llamados por una fruici\u00f3n traviesa, hostil a toda obligaci\u00f3n; el devenir narrativo (un \u00abargumento\u00bb) de esa fruici\u00f3n, primer avatar de un imaginario extremo, te\u00f1ido de euforia y violencia, que nada en sus obras individuales hac\u00eda prever. Algo ha comenzado para ambos, y es algo nuevo. Borges y Bioy siempre ponderaron el valor pedag\u00f3gico de esa semana en Pardo. Para Bioy, aquel folleto signific\u00f3 \u00abun valioso aprendizaje: despu\u00e9s de su redacci\u00f3n yo era otro escritor\u00bb. Borges descubri\u00f3 lo que ganaba su virtuosismo si lo somet\u00eda al principio de naturalidad de Bioy. S\u00f3lo que el valor pedag\u00f3gico presupone otro, la complementariedad: cada uno le daba al otro lo que el otro no ten\u00eda. Por id\u00edlica que suene, esa f\u00f3rmula de compensaci\u00f3n rec\u00edproca y equilibrio no es exactamente la que despunta triunfal tras el exigente <em>s\u00e9jour<\/em> en la estancia de los Casares. Bioy era otro escritor, en efecto; Borges tambi\u00e9n. Pero \u00abotro\u00bb en sentido literal: no \u00abmejores\u00bb sino alienados. Borges y Bioy eran <em>el mismo otro<\/em>: un tercer escritor, inasimilable a uno tanto como al otro, profundamente exc\u00e9ntrico. Borges: \u00abEmpezamos a escribir de un modo que no se parec\u00eda ni a Bioy ni a Borges. Creamos de alg\u00fan modo entre los dos un tercer personaje [...] Ese personaje existe, de alg\u00fan modo. Pero s\u00f3lo existe cuando estamos 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Creamos de alg\u00fan modo entre los dos un tercer personaje [...] Ese personaje existe, de alg\u00fan modo. Pero s\u00f3lo existe cuando estamos conversando\u00bb.<\/p><p><br \/>Jorge Luis Borges<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"v6nzhth\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>De ah\u00ed que Bustos Domecq y Su\u00e1rez Lynch \u2014los alias con que Borges y Bioy formalizan la existencia del Tercer Escritor\u2014 sean algo m\u00e1s que seud\u00f3nimos. Son escritores de derecho, tan autores como los autores que los inventaron. Bustos Domecq, famoso por firmar en 1942 el debut oficial de esta otra obra completa de Borges y Bioy, los <em>Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi<\/em>, tiene la densidad propia de los heter\u00f3nimos de Pessoa. Tiene hasta biograf\u00eda propia, cuya redacci\u00f3n \u2014otra delegaci\u00f3n de un t\u00e1ndem al que siempre le gust\u00f3 tercerizar\u2014 corre por cuenta de una cierta \u00abeducadora Adelma Badoglio\u00bb: nacido en Pujato (provincia de Santa Fe) en 1893, crecido en Rosario, poeta precoz, autor (entre otros t\u00edtulos) de una <em>Oda a la \u00abEleg\u00eda a la muerte de su padre\u00bb\u00a0de Jorge Manrique<\/em> (1915), <em>Fata Morgana<\/em> (1919), <em>El aporte santafecino a los ej\u00e9rcitos de independencia<\/em> y los cuentos policiales de don Isidro Parodi, con los que quer\u00eda, sigue Badoglio, \u00abcombatir el fr\u00edo intelectualismo en que han sumido este g\u00e9nero Sir Conan Doyle, Ottolenghi, etc.\u00bb.<\/p><p>\u00bfFirmar con el propio nombre? \u00bfFirmar con seud\u00f3nimo? Nace Bustos Domecq y la disyuntiva dividir\u00e1 la obra de manera tajante a cuatro manos. Por un lado est\u00e1n \u2014<em>grosso modo<\/em>\u2014 los \u00abencargos\u00bb del mundo literario, editorial, cultural, cinematogr\u00e1fico, que el d\u00fao empieza a recibir cada vez m\u00e1s a menudo y que acepta y firma \u00abBorges y Bioy Casares\u00bb. Son, digamos, intervenciones \u00abserias\u00bb en el campo de la cultura. Nunca son inocuas, todas lucen una marca inconfundible y muchas \u2014las antolog\u00edas, la colecci\u00f3n El S\u00e9ptimo C\u00edrculo\u2014 llegan a tener un valor verdaderamente inaugural: reivindican y fundan tradiciones, usos, maneras de leer; reordenan el paisaje literario; cuestionan jerarqu\u00edas establecidas y promueven nuevas. Pero responden a demandas externas, y ni Borges ni Bioy est\u00e1n demasiado entrenados para la negociaci\u00f3n con el mundo (instituciones, mercado, dinero, etc.) que implican. Quiz\u00e1 trabajar a cuatro manos hiciera menos evidente esa insolvencia. Los guiones de cine (<em>Los orilleros<\/em>, <em>El para\u00edso de los creyentes<\/em>) integran esta categor\u00eda. Son ante todo ejercicios de una cinefilia compartida, cuyas devociones pueden variar (los gustos de Bioy eran m\u00e1s modernos, pero tambi\u00e9n m\u00e1s ecl\u00e9cticos, que los de Borges) pero que profesa una fe ciega, casi idol\u00e1trica, en esa impasible m\u00e1quina narrativa que es el cine. Pero son tambi\u00e9n experimentos con las convenciones y los g\u00e9neros \u2014experimentos parad\u00f3jicos, porque lo que ambos buscan es el placer de ejecutarlas al pie de la letra, borrarse de alg\u00fan modo como autores ante ellas, mucho m\u00e1s que el de renovarlas o 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CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\">\u00abUlises\u00bb en su laberinto castellano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\">Ricardo Piglia y Hemingway: el \u00faltimo (re)lector<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/laura-ramos-las-senoritas-alan-pauls\\\">Laura Ramos y las maestras de Sarmiento: el factor 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10 minutos

Borges y Bioy Casares. Crédito: Getty Images.

Como se sabe, Borges y Bioy Casares compartieron cincuenta años de amistad literaria, buena parte de los cuales los pasaron encerrados, escribiendo juntos. La dinámica de esos cónclaves era más bien misteriosa. Se sabía que Borges, quince años mayor, solía engolosinarse: se cebaba fácil, perdía el hilo y se iba por las ramas. Bioy, secuaz fiel, compartía esos entusiasmos y los acompañaba, hasta que veía lo lejos que habían quedado de la costa y procedía a frenarlo. Borges era pura inspiración y brillantez verbal; Bioy defendía cierta sensatez narrativa, la eficacia de un contar natural, seco, cuanto más invisible mejor. A fines de los años 60, mientras trabajan en el guión de Los otros, Hugo Santiago, el director, les pide que escriban como si el film fuera mudo, sin mucha conversación. Bioy observa que no es la instrucción que Borges quería oír. «Ve la proposición del dire como si lo condenara a renunciar al teatro para pasar al mimo. Su pasión por la palabra lo pierde. Para cualquier situación, en el acto suministra comentarios inteligentes; le proponemos que los reprima, que se los trague. Ahora comprendo por qué nadie se animó a representar El paraíso de los creyentes ni Los orilleros». El diferendo no es nuevo. Bioy ya lo había notado antes, cuando redactaban los primeros cuentos de Isidro Parodi y veía cómo le gustaba a Borges amontonar bromas: «Yo sabía que arruinaba el texto», escribe Bioy, «pero el agrado de las bromas, el gusto de reír, allanaba el camino». Es en todo caso la risa, más que las desinteligencias, lo que mejor ha sobrevivido de esas sesiones de trabajo a puertas cerradas. Según una escena ya mítica, la escritora Silvina Ocampo, mujer de Bioy, pegaba la oreja contra la puerta del cuarto donde escribían y oía sus carcajadas con envidiosa incredulidad: «¿De qué se reirán éstos?».

La pregunta era retórica, pero se contesta fácil: de todo. De Shakespeare a Manucho Mujica Lainez, de Sabato a Goethe, de James Joyce a la señora Bibiloni de Bullrich, Borges y Bioy se reían absolutamente de todo y de todos, como dos cuadros de honor que, hartos de hacer buena letra, ceden a la impunidad que les promete alguna autoridad suprema, se arrancan las máscaras y prenden el ventilador. Durante las miles de noches en que Bioy invita a comer a Borges a su casa —un ritual que los rige como una superstición o un vicio—, los dos tótems de la respetabilidad literaria argentina se transforman en verdaderos artistas de la irrisión, y la conversación que mantienen no tarda en derivar en géneros menores como el chisme o la lista negra. Portento de inteligencia y malicia, la de Borges y Bioy es una amistad literaria particularmente sarcástica, cuyos perdigonazos contradicen el manual de discreción y buenos modales que ambos escritores acataban en la escena pública. Pero es también un laboratorio, un espacio de producción y puesta a prueba de ideas, razones, hipótesis, modus operandi artísticos. De ese darkroom cotidiano, festivo y sin freno, nacerá una obra a cuatro manos polimorfa, bastante infatigable, que no dejará esfera de la industria literaria y cultural sin tocar. La complicidad entre Borges y Bioy Casares engendró libros de relatos, argumentos y guiones de cine (Los orilleros, El paraíso de los creyentes, Invasión, Los otros), artículos periodísticos, ediciones anotadas, traducciones, algunas de las antologías más influyentes del siglo XX (Antología de la literatura fantástica, Los mejores cuentos policiales, Cuentos breves y extraordinarios, El libro del cielo y del infierno, Poesía gauchesca), colecciones editoriales (El Séptimo Círculo, La puerta de marfil), juradurías literarias. Y hasta un libro à deux a la manera de Boswell y Samuel Johnson, el Borges de Bioy —diario de 1100 páginas donde éste consigna medio siglo de conversaciones con Borges—, cierre monumental de un ciclo iniciado en 1935, cuando, amigos incipientes, escriben juntos el folleto comercial «Leche cuajada» para La Martona, la empresa láctea  de la familia de Bioy.

Borges y Bioy se reían absolutamente de todo y de todos, como dos cuadros de honor que, hartos de hacer buena letra, ceden a la impunidad que les promete alguna autoridad suprema, se arrancan las máscaras y prenden el ventilador.

Pocas piezas publicitarias tan desatinadas y fértiles. Ni Borges ni Bioy necesitan ceder su fuerza de trabajo por dinero; saben poco y nada del producto que deben vender («un alimento más o menos búlgaro», según palabras de Bioy) y decididamente nada sobre el arte de venderlo («un folleto comercial, aparentemente científico...»). Apuntalada por la adversidad del setting —estancia en ruinas, el frío del campo, dieta de cocoa, una chimenea ávida de quebrachos—, la experiencia quedará como un hito del diletantismo criollo. Aunque (o porque) saquea la divulgación científica de la época, inventa longevas dinastías balcánicas y cita a Bernard Shaw, el folleto es un resonante fracaso. «Nadie nos creyó una sola línea», recordaba Bioy. Camino al desastre, sin embargo, el dúo encuentra lo que no sabía que buscaba: una manera compartida de delirar. De la leche cuajada saltan, ateridos, a «un soneto enumerativo, en cuyos tercetos no recuerdo cómo justificamos el verso los molinos, los ángeles, las eles», y de ahí —más cocoa, otro leño al fuego— a «un cuento policial —las ideas eran de Borges— que trataba de un doctor Preetorius, un alemán vasto y suave, director de un colegio, donde por medios hedónicos (juegos obligatorios, música a toda hora) torturaba y mataba a niños».

Se podría decir que ahí está todo. Los escritores a solas, lejos del mundo; el desafío filisteo que no quieren ni consiguen llevar a cabo y del que no tardan en desviarse, llamados por una fruición traviesa, hostil a toda obligación; el devenir narrativo (un «argumento») de esa fruición, primer avatar de un imaginario extremo, teñido de euforia y violencia, que nada en sus obras individuales hacía prever. Algo ha comenzado para ambos, y es algo nuevo. Borges y Bioy siempre ponderaron el valor pedagógico de esa semana en Pardo. Para Bioy, aquel folleto significó «un valioso aprendizaje: después de su redacción yo era otro escritor». Borges descubrió lo que ganaba su virtuosismo si lo sometía al principio de naturalidad de Bioy. Sólo que el valor pedagógico presupone otro, la complementariedad: cada uno le daba al otro lo que el otro no tenía. Por idílica que suene, esa fórmula de compensación recíproca y equilibrio no es exactamente la que despunta triunfal tras el exigente séjour en la estancia de los Casares. Bioy era otro escritor, en efecto; Borges también. Pero «otro» en sentido literal: no «mejores» sino alienados. Borges y Bioy eran el mismo otro: un tercer escritor, inasimilable a uno tanto como al otro, profundamente excéntrico. Borges: «Empezamos a escribir de un modo que no se parecía ni a Bioy ni a Borges. Creamos de algún modo entre los dos un tercer personaje [...] Ese personaje existe, de algún modo. Pero sólo existe cuando estamos conversando».

«Empezamos a escribir de un modo que no se parecía ni a Bioy ni a Borges. Creamos de algún modo entre los dos un tercer personaje [...] Ese personaje existe, de algún modo. Pero sólo existe cuando estamos conversando».


Jorge Luis Borges

De ahí que Bustos Domecq y Suárez Lynch —los alias con que Borges y Bioy formalizan la existencia del Tercer Escritor— sean algo más que seudónimos. Son escritores de derecho, tan autores como los autores que los inventaron. Bustos Domecq, famoso por firmar en 1942 el debut oficial de esta otra obra completa de Borges y Bioy, los Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi, tiene la densidad propia de los heterónimos de Pessoa. Tiene hasta biografía propia, cuya redacción —otra delegación de un tándem al que siempre le gustó tercerizar— corre por cuenta de una cierta «educadora Adelma Badoglio»: nacido en Pujato (provincia de Santa Fe) en 1893, crecido en Rosario, poeta precoz, autor (entre otros títulos) de una Oda a la «Elegía a la muerte de su padre» de Jorge Manrique (1915), Fata Morgana (1919), El aporte santafecino a los ejércitos de independencia y los cuentos policiales de don Isidro Parodi, con los que quería, sigue Badoglio, «combatir el frío intelectualismo en que han sumido este género Sir Conan Doyle, Ottolenghi, etc.».

¿Firmar con el propio nombre? ¿Firmar con seudónimo? Nace Bustos Domecq y la disyuntiva dividirá la obra de manera tajante a cuatro manos. Por un lado están —grosso modo— los «encargos» del mundo literario, editorial, cultural, cinematográfico, que el dúo empieza a recibir cada vez más a menudo y que acepta y firma «Borges y Bioy Casares». Son, digamos, intervenciones «serias» en el campo de la cultura. Nunca son inocuas, todas lucen una marca inconfundible y muchas —las antologías, la colección El Séptimo Círculo— llegan a tener un valor verdaderamente inaugural: reivindican y fundan tradiciones, usos, maneras de leer; reordenan el paisaje literario; cuestionan jerarquías establecidas y promueven nuevas. Pero responden a demandas externas, y ni Borges ni Bioy están demasiado entrenados para la negociación con el mundo (instituciones, mercado, dinero, etc.) que implican. Quizá trabajar a cuatro manos hiciera menos evidente esa insolvencia. Los guiones de cine (Los orilleros, El paraíso de los creyentes) integran esta categoría. Son ante todo ejercicios de una cinefilia compartida, cuyas devociones pueden variar (los gustos de Bioy eran más modernos, pero también más eclécticos, que los de Borges) pero que profesa una fe ciega, casi idolátrica, en esa impasible máquina narrativa que es el cine. Pero son también experimentos con las convenciones y los géneros —experimentos paradójicos, porque lo que ambos buscan es el placer de ejecutarlas al pie de la letra, borrarse de algún modo como autores ante ellas, mucho más que el de renovarlas o pervertirlas.

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