Literatura

Chuck Palahniuk: un par de estrategias infalibles para vender libros a los americanos

¿Por qué funciona (y de qué manera) el desenlace de «Carrie»? ¿Qué tienen «Las uvas de la ira» o «La semilla del diablo» para seguir llamando la atención después de tantos años? ¿De dónde surge el extraño magnetismo del personaje de Tyler Durden? En este texto, 2.000 palabras extraídas de «Plantéate esto» (Random House, 2022), un manual de escritura creativa tan ácido y divertido como práctico, el autor de «El club de la lucha» («El club de la pelea» en Latinoamérica) reflexiona sobre los dos modelos narrativos que permitirán a cualquier aspirante a novelista encandilar al público yanqui. El primero es el empleo de tres personajes arquetípicos: el tímido, el rebelde y el reflexivo; el segundo, glups, no tener reparos en mostrar las miserias y el sufrimiento ajeno.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1034-chuck-palahniuk\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Chuck Palahniuk<\/a><\/span>, en Roma, en octubre de 2017. 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fueras alumno m\u00edo, sabr\u00eda lo que quieres: una f\u00f3rmula garantizada para tener \u00e9xito. Y me encantar\u00eda d\u00e1rtela, pero entonces la usar\u00eda todo el mundo, y\u2026 La <em>chick lit<\/em> fue una espectacular puerta al \u00e9xito. Desde\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/literatura-contemporanea\/158451-libro-sexo-en-nueva-york-9789875664005\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sexo en Nueva York<\/a><\/span> <\/em>hasta<em> <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/282530-ebook-bridget-jones-loca-por-el-9780804169516\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El diario de Bridget Jones<\/a><\/em><\/span>, las ventas fueron tan s\u00f3lidas que el mundo editorial lleg\u00f3 a cambiar su terminolog\u00eda. Hist\u00f3ricamente, en ingl\u00e9s las siglas <em>S.F. siempre hab\u00edan significado \u00abscience fiction\u00bb (ciencia ficci\u00f3n), pero despu\u00e9s del \u00e9xito de libros como\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9927-sophie-kinsella\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Loca por las compras<\/a><\/em> y <em>El diablo viste de Prada<\/em> pasaron a ser las siglas de \u00abshopping & fucking\u00bb, ir de compras y follar. Toda autora y editora con ambiciones se lanz\u00f3 al mercado con alg\u00fan proyecto con cubiertas de color rosa, algunos no tan buenos como los cl\u00e1sicos pioneros, y otros directamente terribles pero deseosos de aprovechar el momento, hasta que el mercado inundado de c<em>hick lit<\/em> se ahog\u00f3 y muri\u00f3. 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as\u00ed, te hablar\u00e9 (entre nosotros) de un par de estrategias comprobadas que parece que a los lectores americanos siempre les encantan. Llam\u00e9moslos \u00abPlanes para Ga\u00f1anes\u00bb, \u00bfde acuerdo? El primero es que el cl\u00e1sico superventas americano suele tener tres personajes principales. Uno de los personajes sigue las normas, es t\u00edmido, agradable y un buenazo en l\u00edneas generales. El segundo personaje viene a ser lo contrario: un rebelde que intimida a los dem\u00e1s, rompe las normas y siempre est\u00e1 acaparando la atenci\u00f3n. Y el tercero es callado y reflexivo y hace de narrador que cuenta la historia a los lectores.<\/p><p>El personaje pasivo se suicida de alguna manera. El rebelde es ejecutado de alguna manera. Y el testigo reflexivo abandona las circunstancias del relato, m\u00e1s sabio despu\u00e9s de haber visto el destino de los otros dos personajes y preparado para comunicarle al mundo su historia con moraleja.\u00a0<\/p><p>No te r\u00edas. Se puede decir que los libros americanos que m\u00e1s vendieron en el siglo xx siguieron esta f\u00f3rmula. 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Se lo mantiene con vida, lejos de la pantalla, en coma y pr\u00e1cticamente olvidado, y solo recobra la conciencia un momento para transmitir una informaci\u00f3n crucial antes de morir. Su informaci\u00f3n pone en marcha el proceso de descubrimiento en el tercer acto. Un recurso un poco torpe, s\u00ed, pero funciona.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">En todos los casos, el suicidio del personaje pasivo desencadena la ejecuci\u00f3n del rebelde. Que a veces no es una ejecuci\u00f3n literal. Sobre todo en el caso de los personajes femeninos. Scarlett O'Hara termina desterrada, v\u00edctima del desprecio de su marido, su familia y su comunidad. Su hija muere y a ella la exilian en pleno momento de desesperaci\u00f3n. Asimismo, Neely O'Hara, personaje de ficci\u00f3n que ha adoptado el apellido de su personaje de ficci\u00f3n favorito (muy meta, se\u00f1ora J. Susann) tambi\u00e9n es condenada al ostracismo. No solo la han rechazado todos sus maridos, sino tambi\u00e9n Hollywood y Broadway. Es una vieja gloria adicta al alcohol y las drogas que luch\u00f3 para ganarse el amor del mundo entero pero que termina despreciada por todos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nwm54hm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Puede parecer que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/chuck-palahniuk-club-de-la-lucha-fight-club\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El club de la lucha<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0solo tiene dos personajes principales, Tyler y el narrador. 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Y ambos elementos se integran para crear un tercero, el testigo sabio que queda con vida para contarnos lo sucedido.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t2xj39g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Piensa tambi\u00e9n en <em>El club de los poetas muertos<\/em>, donde el obediente hijo del m\u00e9dico se pega un tiro. El profesor poco ortodoxo es exiliado, y el estudiante callado y observador queda como testigo de ambas lecciones. En <em>Alguien vol\u00f3 sobre el nido del cuco<\/em>, el narrador es mudo durante gran parte del libro y se limita a observar, antes de escaparse del manicomio para contar la historia. Rhett Butler deja atr\u00e1s las ca\u00f3ticas vidas del clan O'Hara y regresa a Charleston. La testigo Anne Welles de <em>El valle de las mu\u00f1ecas,<\/em> tan pl\u00e1cida y ansiosa por aprender, abandona Nueva York para regresar a la Nueva Inglaterra que tanto hab\u00eda luchado por dejar atr\u00e1s. Por lo menos en la pel\u00edcula. Y Nick Carraway deja las tierras de Long Island para regresar al Medio Oeste de su infancia. Y no te imagines que yo dejar\u00eda pasar una estructura que gusta tanto al p\u00fablico. Puede parecer que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/235753-ebook-el-club-de-la-lucha-3-9788417910532\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>El club de la lucha<\/em><\/a><\/span> solo tiene dos personajes principales, Tyler y el narrador. Pero aun as\u00ed el buenazo del narrador se suicida. Y el malote rebelde tambi\u00e9n es ejecutado. Y ambos elementos se integran para crear un tercero, el testigo sabio que queda con vida para contarnos lo sucedido.<\/p><p>\u00bfLa lecci\u00f3n? No seas demasiado pasivo. Pero tampoco seas avasallador. Mira y aprende de los extremos ajenos. Ese es nuestro serm\u00f3n americano favorito. \u00a1Y anda que no vende 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Carrie (encarnada por Sissy Spacek) no se andaba con tonter\u00edas. En la imagen, la versi\u00f3n turca del p\u00f3ster de la pel\u00edcula de Brian de Palma, de 1976, la cual adaptaba <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/34532-libro-carrie-9788466352086\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la novela hom\u00f3nima de Stephen King<\/a><\/span>, de 1974. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Presentar la segunda f\u00f3rmula infalible resulta un poco m\u00e1s\u2026 delicado. Los americanos somos voyeurs por encima de todo. Somos una naci\u00f3n de mirones a quienes nos encanta por encima de todo ser testigos de la miseria ajena. Sobre todo si ese acto de mirar nos hace pensar que estamos haciendo una buena obra. Y necesitamos creer que ese conocimiento que obtenemos mirando no consiste solo en convertir la miseria humana en entretenimiento, sino tambi\u00e9n en mejorar el destino de la humanidad.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Hace a\u00f1os, mi editor me puso en contacto con una editora de la revista <em>Harper's.<\/em> Es lo que hace un buen editor: intentar ponerte en contacto con gente como Bill Buford y Alice Turner, que te pueden encargar art\u00edculos o comprarte relatos, aumentando de esa forma tu visibilidad y haciendo crecer tu n\u00famero de lectores. As\u00ed pues, mi editor me present\u00f3 a Charis Conn, que llevaba la secci\u00f3n \u00abSojourns\u00bb de <em>Harper's.<\/em> Como miembro fiel de la Cacophony Society, yo siempre estaba haciendo espeleolog\u00eda urbana y Masacres de Santa Claus, y cualquiera de esas aventuras tarambanas parec\u00eda buen material para aquella secci\u00f3n. En una de nuestras primeras reuniones para presentarle mis ideas, Conn me avis\u00f3: \u00abNada de redenciones\u00bb. En tono muy severo, me explic\u00f3 que hab\u00eda entrado un nuevo redactor jefe y que hab\u00eda emitido el edicto de que ning\u00fan relato de la revista pod\u00eda terminar con una redenci\u00f3n. Di por sentado que aquel redactor jefe deb\u00eda de ser un c\u00ednico cascarrabias. Ahora sospecho que simplemente era un juez experimentado de lo que quiere leer la mayor\u00eda de los americanos.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Mira, por ejemplo, <em>Las uvas de la ira.<\/em> La familia Joad pierde su granja. Emigra penosamente al Oeste. La generaci\u00f3n mayor muere durante el trayecto y es enterrada de forma ignominiosa. Los dem\u00e1s pasan hambre y son maltratados por abogados e intermediarios que estafan a los trabajadores. La familia se deshace y la generaci\u00f3n siguiente muere y es tirada al r\u00edo; ni siquiera enterrada, sino arrojada a la corriente para verg\u00fcenza del mundo. Es lo que explica Horace McCoy en <em>Danzad, danzad, malditos.<\/em> A la gente le reconforta la miseria ajena. Y a finales de la d\u00e9cada de 1960 y en la de 1970, con la guerra de Vietnam y el Watergate y la estanflaci\u00f3n y el embargo de petr\u00f3leo, los americanos se decantaron por las historias de misiones que terminaban en fracaso. He o\u00eddo que lo llaman \u00abfatalismo rom\u00e1ntico\u00bb. En pel\u00edculas como <em>Rocky, Fiebre del s\u00e1bado noche, Cowboy de medianoche<\/em> y <em>Los picarones,<\/em> vemos gente que parte con optimismo hacia una meta. Trabajan duro y hacen todo lo que pueden. Y, aun as\u00ed, pierden. A la gente le encanta ver sufrir y fracasar a los dem\u00e1s. Quiz\u00e1s esta atracci\u00f3n por el fracaso explique por qu\u00e9 el g\u00e9nero de terror estuvo tan en boga en aquella misma \u00e9poca.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"79irljq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Para vender cien mil libros m\u00e1s, has de mostrar a una persona blanca que ense\u00f1a a leer a una persona negra. La gente blanca a quien le encanta leer cree que a todo el mundo le tiene que encantar leer. Adem\u00e1s, mostrar a un personaje analfabeto alimenta el ego de los lectores.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3cwleuq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Desde <em>La semilla del diablo<\/em> hasta <em>La profec\u00eda<\/em>, pasando por <em>La centinela, Pesadilla diab\u00f3lica<\/em> y <em>Las pose\u00eddas de Stepford<\/em>, vemos a gente inocente maltratada y destruida por fuerzas siniestras que escapan a su comprensi\u00f3n. La f\u00f3rmula se somete a peque\u00f1as variaciones, pero sigue siendo pornograf\u00eda del sufrimiento ajeno. Compara la pel\u00edcula de 1976\u00a0<em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/306988-libro-carrie-9788497595698\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Carrie<\/a><\/em> con la de 2009 <em>Precious.<\/em> En las dos, una chica con sobrepeso (en el libro Carrie es gorda) que va al instituto convive con una madre maltratadora. Las dos chicas son atormentadas por sus compa\u00f1eras de clase. A ambas las han abandonado sus padres. A las dos las fuerzan a comer: la madre de Carrie White le dice que coma y que los granos que le provoca el pastel son la forma que tiene Dios de castigarla; la madre de Precious le manda que coma y punto. La principal diferencia entre las dos historias es que Carrie White pone en juego un poder especial que le permite matar a sus maltratadores, incluyendo a su madre. Y el estr\u00e9s que eso le provoca hace que le falle el coraz\u00f3n. En cuanto a Precious\u2026 se queda embarazada dos veces de su padre, da a luz a una hija con s\u00edndrome de Down, su madre le pega y la insulta, se contagia de sida, es humillada y vomita pollo frito en un cubo de basura. Pero su poder especial es\u2026 que aprende a leer.<\/p><p>Nota importante: para vender cien mil libros m\u00e1s, has de mostrar a una persona blanca que ense\u00f1a a leer a una persona negra. La gente blanca a quien le encanta leer cree que a todo el mundo le tiene que encantar leer. Adem\u00e1s, mostrar a un personaje analfabeto alimenta el ego de los lectores. Es la forma id\u00f3nea de hacer que tu lector se sienta superior y por tanto le tome simpat\u00eda al personaje. Tanto en la pel\u00edcula <em>Fama<\/em> como en <em>Paseando a Miss Daisy<\/em> o <em>El color p\u00farpura,<\/em> ense\u00f1ar a leer a una persona negra es un truco argumental que nunca, nunca pasa de moda.<\/p><p>As\u00ed pues, si fueras alumno m\u00edo te dir\u00eda que hagas sufrir a un personaje que despierta simpat\u00eda, y que luego lo hagas sufrir m\u00e1s y sufrir cosas peores, que evites que el lector se sienta c\u00f3mplice con los maltratadores y luego\u2026 fin. Nada de redenci\u00f3n. A la gente le encantan esos libros. Luego te dir\u00eda lo contrario. No perpet\u00faes el estado de las cosas. Haz que Nick Carraway les grite a Tom y a Daisy: \u00ab\u00a1Sois escoria humana\u00bb y \u00ab\u00a1A Myrtle la mat\u00f3 Daisy!\u00bb. Haz que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/24716-ebook-el-gran-gatsby-9788466329712\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jay Gatsby<\/a><\/span> salga de un salto de su piscina y empu\u00f1e su pistola. \u00bfQu\u00e9 es esa obsesi\u00f3n que tenemos con la derrota? \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 las narraciones de la alta literatura terminan siempre mal? \u00bfSer\u00e1n la destrucci\u00f3n de la comedia griega y la obsesi\u00f3n de la Iglesia cristiana por la tragedia? Si hubiera m\u00e1s escritores que apostaran por las resoluciones que rompen los paradigmas, \u00bfacaso habr\u00eda menos suicidios y adicciones entre los escritores?<\/p><p>\u00bfY entre los lectores? Por encima de todo, te dir\u00eda que no uses la muerte para resolver tu historia. Tu lector tiene que levantarse de la cama al d\u00eda siguiente e ir a trabajar. Matar a tu protagonista \u2013y no estamos hablando de un sacrificio en el segundo acto\u2013 es la forma m\u00e1s barata de resoluci\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1bt93rn\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/chuck-palahniuk-club-de-la-lucha-fight-club\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Chuck Palahniuk: \u00abLas pesadillas son una buena se\u00f1al\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/la-novela-de-tarantino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La novela de Tarantino: literatura bastarda con gloria<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 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10 minutos

Chuck Palahniuk, en Roma, en octubre de 2017. Crédito: Getty Images.

Si fueras alumno mío, sabría lo que quieres: una fórmula garantizada para tener éxito. Y me encantaría dártela, pero entonces la usaría todo el mundo, y… La chick lit fue una espectacular puerta al éxito. Desde Sexo en Nueva York hasta El diario de Bridget Jones, las ventas fueron tan sólidas que el mundo editorial llegó a cambiar su terminología. Históricamente, en inglés las siglas S.F. siempre habían significado «science fiction» (ciencia ficción), pero después del éxito de libros como Loca por las compras y El diablo viste de Prada pasaron a ser las siglas de «shopping & fucking», ir de compras y follar. Toda autora y editora con ambiciones se lanzó al mercado con algún proyecto con cubiertas de color rosa, algunos no tan buenos como los clásicos pioneros, y otros directamente terribles pero deseosos de aprovechar el momento, hasta que el mercado inundado de chick lit se ahogó y murió. En resumen, si te cuento alguna fórmula infalible, terminará yéndose a pique por exceso de uso.

Aun así, te hablaré (entre nosotros) de un par de estrategias comprobadas que parece que a los lectores americanos siempre les encantan. Llamémoslos «Planes para Gañanes», ¿de acuerdo? El primero es que el clásico superventas americano suele tener tres personajes principales. Uno de los personajes sigue las normas, es tímido, agradable y un buenazo en líneas generales. El segundo personaje viene a ser lo contrario: un rebelde que intimida a los demás, rompe las normas y siempre está acaparando la atención. Y el tercero es callado y reflexivo y hace de narrador que cuenta la historia a los lectores.

El personaje pasivo se suicida de alguna manera. El rebelde es ejecutado de alguna manera. Y el testigo reflexivo abandona las circunstancias del relato, más sabio después de haber visto el destino de los otros dos personajes y preparado para comunicarle al mundo su historia con moraleja. 

No te rías. Se puede decir que los libros americanos que más vendieron en el siglo xx siguieron esta fórmula. En Lo que el viento se llevó, la modesta Melanie Wilkes sabe que es probable que muera si trata de tener una segunda criatura. Sin embargo, tal como dice en tono extasiado: «Pero Ashley siempre ha querido una familia grande…». Así pues, adivina quién muere en el parto. En El valle de las muñecas, la hermosa y obediente Jennifer North es una corista, poco más que una percha despampanante que manda el dinero que gana a su dominante madre. Cuando el cáncer de mama amenaza con cambiarle el físico, ingiere una sobredosis de barbitúricos. En La semilla del diablo, Terry Gionoffrio se tira por una ventana, mientras que Edward Hutchins, el personaje que dice la verdad, es asesinado por el aquelarre de brujos.

Nota: Edward «Hutch» Hutchins también es la «pistola» de la novela. Se lo mantiene con vida, lejos de la pantalla, en coma y prácticamente olvidado, y solo recobra la conciencia un momento para transmitir una información crucial antes de morir. Su información pone en marcha el proceso de descubrimiento en el tercer acto. Un recurso un poco torpe, sí, pero funciona.

En todos los casos, el suicidio del personaje pasivo desencadena la ejecución del rebelde. Que a veces no es una ejecución literal. Sobre todo en el caso de los personajes femeninos. Scarlett O'Hara termina desterrada, víctima del desprecio de su marido, su familia y su comunidad. Su hija muere y a ella la exilian en pleno momento de desesperación. Asimismo, Neely O'Hara, personaje de ficción que ha adoptado el apellido de su personaje de ficción favorito (muy meta, señora J. Susann) también es condenada al ostracismo. No solo la han rechazado todos sus maridos, sino también Hollywood y Broadway. Es una vieja gloria adicta al alcohol y las drogas que luchó para ganarse el amor del mundo entero pero que termina despreciada por todos.

Puede parecer que El club de la lucha solo tiene dos personajes principales, Tyler y el narrador. Pero aun así el buenazo del narrador se suicida. Y el malote rebelde también es ejecutado. Y ambos elementos se integran para crear un tercero, el testigo sabio que queda con vida para contarnos lo sucedido.

Piensa también en El club de los poetas muertos, donde el obediente hijo del médico se pega un tiro. El profesor poco ortodoxo es exiliado, y el estudiante callado y observador queda como testigo de ambas lecciones. En Alguien voló sobre el nido del cuco, el narrador es mudo durante gran parte del libro y se limita a observar, antes de escaparse del manicomio para contar la historia. Rhett Butler deja atrás las caóticas vidas del clan O'Hara y regresa a Charleston. La testigo Anne Welles de El valle de las muñecas, tan plácida y ansiosa por aprender, abandona Nueva York para regresar a la Nueva Inglaterra que tanto había luchado por dejar atrás. Por lo menos en la película. Y Nick Carraway deja las tierras de Long Island para regresar al Medio Oeste de su infancia. Y no te imagines que yo dejaría pasar una estructura que gusta tanto al público. Puede parecer que El club de la lucha solo tiene dos personajes principales, Tyler y el narrador. Pero aun así el buenazo del narrador se suicida. Y el malote rebelde también es ejecutado. Y ambos elementos se integran para crear un tercero, el testigo sabio que queda con vida para contarnos lo sucedido.

¿La lección? No seas demasiado pasivo. Pero tampoco seas avasallador. Mira y aprende de los extremos ajenos. Ese es nuestro sermón americano favorito. ¡Y anda que no vende libros!

Carrie (encarnada por Sissy Spacek) no se andaba con tonterías. En la imagen, la versión turca del póster de la película de Brian de Palma, de 1976, la cual adaptaba la novela homónima de Stephen King, de 1974. Crédito: Getty Images.

Presentar la segunda fórmula infalible resulta un poco más… delicado. Los americanos somos voyeurs por encima de todo. Somos una nación de mirones a quienes nos encanta por encima de todo ser testigos de la miseria ajena. Sobre todo si ese acto de mirar nos hace pensar que estamos haciendo una buena obra. Y necesitamos creer que ese conocimiento que obtenemos mirando no consiste solo en convertir la miseria humana en entretenimiento, sino también en mejorar el destino de la humanidad.

Hace años, mi editor me puso en contacto con una editora de la revista Harper's. Es lo que hace un buen editor: intentar ponerte en contacto con gente como Bill Buford y Alice Turner, que te pueden encargar artículos o comprarte relatos, aumentando de esa forma tu visibilidad y haciendo crecer tu número de lectores. Así pues, mi editor me presentó a Charis Conn, que llevaba la sección «Sojourns» de Harper's. Como miembro fiel de la Cacophony Society, yo siempre estaba haciendo espeleología urbana y Masacres de Santa Claus, y cualquiera de esas aventuras tarambanas parecía buen material para aquella sección. En una de nuestras primeras reuniones para presentarle mis ideas, Conn me avisó: «Nada de redenciones». En tono muy severo, me explicó que había entrado un nuevo redactor jefe y que había emitido el edicto de que ningún relato de la revista podía terminar con una redención. Di por sentado que aquel redactor jefe debía de ser un cínico cascarrabias. Ahora sospecho que simplemente era un juez experimentado de lo que quiere leer la mayoría de los americanos.

Mira, por ejemplo, Las uvas de la ira. La familia Joad pierde su granja. Emigra penosamente al Oeste. La generación mayor muere durante el trayecto y es enterrada de forma ignominiosa. Los demás pasan hambre y son maltratados por abogados e intermediarios que estafan a los trabajadores. La familia se deshace y la generación siguiente muere y es tirada al río; ni siquiera enterrada, sino arrojada a la corriente para vergüenza del mundo. Es lo que explica Horace McCoy en Danzad, danzad, malditos. A la gente le reconforta la miseria ajena. Y a finales de la década de 1960 y en la de 1970, con la guerra de Vietnam y el Watergate y la estanflación y el embargo de petróleo, los americanos se decantaron por las historias de misiones que terminaban en fracaso. He oído que lo llaman «fatalismo romántico». En películas como Rocky, Fiebre del sábado noche, Cowboy de medianoche y Los picarones, vemos gente que parte con optimismo hacia una meta. Trabajan duro y hacen todo lo que pueden. Y, aun así, pierden. A la gente le encanta ver sufrir y fracasar a los demás. Quizás esta atracción por el fracaso explique por qué el género de terror estuvo tan en boga en aquella misma época.

Para vender cien mil libros más, has de mostrar a una persona blanca que enseña a leer a una persona negra. La gente blanca a quien le encanta leer cree que a todo el mundo le tiene que encantar leer. Además, mostrar a un personaje analfabeto alimenta el ego de los lectores. 

Desde La semilla del diablo hasta La profecía, pasando por La centinela, Pesadilla diabólica y Las poseídas de Stepford, vemos a gente inocente maltratada y destruida por fuerzas siniestras que escapan a su comprensión. La fórmula se somete a pequeñas variaciones, pero sigue siendo pornografía del sufrimiento ajeno. Compara la película de 1976 Carrie con la de 2009 Precious. En las dos, una chica con sobrepeso (en el libro Carrie es gorda) que va al instituto convive con una madre maltratadora. Las dos chicas son atormentadas por sus compañeras de clase. A ambas las han abandonado sus padres. A las dos las fuerzan a comer: la madre de Carrie White le dice que coma y que los granos que le provoca el pastel son la forma que tiene Dios de castigarla; la madre de Precious le manda que coma y punto. La principal diferencia entre las dos historias es que Carrie White pone en juego un poder especial que le permite matar a sus maltratadores, incluyendo a su madre. Y el estrés que eso le provoca hace que le falle el corazón. En cuanto a Precious… se queda embarazada dos veces de su padre, da a luz a una hija con síndrome de Down, su madre le pega y la insulta, se contagia de sida, es humillada y vomita pollo frito en un cubo de basura. Pero su poder especial es… que aprende a leer.

Nota importante: para vender cien mil libros más, has de mostrar a una persona blanca que enseña a leer a una persona negra. La gente blanca a quien le encanta leer cree que a todo el mundo le tiene que encantar leer. Además, mostrar a un personaje analfabeto alimenta el ego de los lectores. Es la forma idónea de hacer que tu lector se sienta superior y por tanto le tome simpatía al personaje. Tanto en la película Fama como en Paseando a Miss Daisy o El color púrpura, enseñar a leer a una persona negra es un truco argumental que nunca, nunca pasa de moda.

Así pues, si fueras alumno mío te diría que hagas sufrir a un personaje que despierta simpatía, y que luego lo hagas sufrir más y sufrir cosas peores, que evites que el lector se sienta cómplice con los maltratadores y luego… fin. Nada de redención. A la gente le encantan esos libros. Luego te diría lo contrario. No perpetúes el estado de las cosas. Haz que Nick Carraway les grite a Tom y a Daisy: «¡Sois escoria humana» y «¡A Myrtle la mató Daisy!». Haz que Jay Gatsby salga de un salto de su piscina y empuñe su pistola. ¿Qué es esa obsesión que tenemos con la derrota? ¿Por qué las narraciones de la alta literatura terminan siempre mal? ¿Serán la destrucción de la comedia griega y la obsesión de la Iglesia cristiana por la tragedia? Si hubiera más escritores que apostaran por las resoluciones que rompen los paradigmas, ¿acaso habría menos suicidios y adicciones entre los escritores?

¿Y entre los lectores? Por encima de todo, te diría que no uses la muerte para resolver tu historia. Tu lector tiene que levantarse de la cama al día siguiente e ir a trabajar. Matar a tu protagonista –y no estamos hablando de un sacrificio en el segundo acto– es la forma más barata de resolución.

Todo Chuck Palahniuk

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