Literatura

Gabriela Mistral y Laura Rodig: poesía y (des)amor en Punta Arenas

La estancia de Gabriela Mistral en Punta Arenas (breve, pero relevante: vivió allí entre 1918 y 1920) tuvo diferentes aristas. Además de escribir allí «Desolación» (publicada en 1922, es una de sus obras más importantes), la poeta desplegó un fuerte compromiso social, involucrándose de manera directa en un proceso académico tan complejo como el que suponía la chilenización educacional del territorio. Pero aún hay más: Mistral viajó a la Patagonia chilena con la pintora y escultura Laura Rodig, quien ejercía desde 1917 como su secretaria (allí, no obstante, Gabriela invitó a Laura trabajar como profesora de Artes en el Liceo de Niñas, en donde la poeta había sido designada como directora). Se sabe que Gabriela y Laura fueron pareja, pero no exactamente desde qué fecha. De lo que sí que hay constancia, en cambio, es de su vida en común en Punta Arenas: en las siguientes líneas, tres extractos de la biografía «Mistral, una vida» (Lumen, 2023), Elizabeth Horan, reconocida especialista mundial en la obra de la Premio Nobel de Literatura de 1945, revisa la relación profesional y sentimental (un camino repleto de altos y bajos) entre la escultora y una de las poetas esenciales de la lengua castellana.

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De lo que s\u00ed que hay constancia, en cambio, es de su vida en com\u00fan en Punta Arenas: en las siguientes l\u00edneas, tres extractos de \u00abMistral, una vida\u00bb, Elizabeth Horan revisa esta relaci\u00f3n.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, libros de Gabriela Mistral, poes\u00eda de Gabriela Mistral, Premio Nobel de Literatura","short_content":"<p>La estancia de Gabriela Mistral en Punta Arenas (breve, pero relevante: vivi\u00f3 all\u00ed entre 1918 y 1920) tuvo diferentes aristas. Adem\u00e1s de escribir all\u00ed \u00abDesolaci\u00f3n\u00bb (publicada en 1922, es una de sus obras m\u00e1s importantes), la poeta despleg\u00f3 un fuerte compromiso social, involucr\u00e1ndose de manera directa en un proceso acad\u00e9mico tan complejo como el que supon\u00eda la chilenizaci\u00f3n educacional del territorio. Pero a\u00fan hay m\u00e1s: Mistral viaj\u00f3 a la Patagonia chilena con la pintora y escultura Laura Rodig, quien ejerc\u00eda desde 1917 como su secretaria (all\u00ed, no obstante, Gabriela invit\u00f3 a Laura trabajar como profesora de Artes en el Liceo de Ni\u00f1as, en donde la poeta hab\u00eda sido designada como directora). Se sabe que Gabriela y Laura fueron pareja, pero no exactamente desde qu\u00e9 fecha. De lo que s\u00ed que hay constancia, en cambio, es de su vida en com\u00fan en Punta Arenas: en las siguientes l\u00edneas, tres extractos de la biograf\u00eda \u00abMistral, una vida\u00bb (Lumen, 2023), Elizabeth Horan, reconocida especialista mundial en la obra de la Premio Nobel de Literatura de 1945, revisa la relaci\u00f3n profesional y sentimental (un camino repleto de altos y bajos) entre la escultora y una de las poetas esenciales de la lengua castellana.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"xd04ipb\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Cr\u00e9dito: Museo Hist\u00f3rico Gabriel Gonz\u00e1lez Videla.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vjq3799\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Gabriela Mistral por Laura Rodig. 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fueron amantes?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Al trasladarse a Punta Arenas, Laura Rodig y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5016-gabriela-mistral\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Gabriela Mistral<\/a><\/span> vivieron en mayor intimidad que en cualquier otro momento de su vida juntas. Abandonaron todo. Dejaron la vigilancia de la cordillera y el sol tibio del mediod\u00eda. En cambio, las recibieron un cielo gris uniforme y un viento sin misericordia. Con \u00f1eque, tal vez con hero\u00edsmo, aceptaron vivir \u2014esto es, comer, lavarse, dormir y so\u00f1ar\u2014 bajo el mismo techo desmoronado donde ellas y las otras profesoras ense\u00f1aban a una muchedumbre de estudiantes cuyo n\u00famero \u2014siempre en aumento\u2014 Mistral reportaba en su correspondencia con las autoridades en Santiago, proponi\u00e9ndoles soluciones.\u00a0<\/p><p>La \u00fanica excepci\u00f3n a la casi total falta de privacidad que caracteriz\u00f3 la vida \u00edntima de las dos en Punta Arenas se habr\u00eda producido en febrero de 1919. A principios del breve y tumultuoso verano subpolar, las dos viajaron juntas por la pampa. Siguieron una ruta sin senderos a la vista hasta que llegaron \u2014\u00a1por fin!\u2014 a la Posada Tres Pasos, propiedad de Rogelio Figueroa. Laura pintaba mientras Gabriela escrib\u00eda, planeando su estrategia para el futuro. Las contribuciones de la artista visual eran centrales para tales planes, como se percibe, por ejemplo, en la elaboraci\u00f3n de la revista literaria <em>Mireya,<\/em> \u00abmensuario de actualidades, sociolog\u00eda y arte\u00bb que ellas desarrollaron a poco de volver a la ciudad, con seis n\u00fameros publicados entre mayo y noviembre de 1919. En un fino an\u00e1lisis de la estad\u00eda de Mistral en Punta Arenas, [el escritor chileno] <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/%C3%93scar_Barrientos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00d3scar Barrientos<\/a><\/span> comenta que <em>Mireya<\/em> representa \u00abun preciado documento tanto de los vaivenes del convulso Chile de los albores del siglo xx como del esp\u00edritu desarrollista de Gabriela Mistral...\u00bb; \u00e9l lo compara a \u00abesa c\u00e1scara de nuez del poema de Federico Mistral donde estaba contenido el pensamiento transformador de una \u00e9poca\u00bb. Barrientos presenta la revista, las cartas y el trabajo colectivo como ejemplos de su labor \u00ababiertamente descentralizadora\u00bb en Punta Arenas, un reflejo de su agudeza pol\u00edtica al reconocer la potencia de la regi\u00f3n y del regionalismo mismo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Al aceptar el puesto en Punta Arenas, Gabriela Mistral se convirti\u00f3 en una figura p\u00fablica. Visibiliz\u00f3 su exitosa reorganizaci\u00f3n del liceo en sus cartas y con la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>Mireya.<\/em> Su correspondencia aument\u00f3. As\u00ed y todo, Gabriela iba cultivando ofertas de trabajo desde Argentina, adonde amenazaba con trasladarse si Santiago no le daba un puesto de igual salario, pero en mejor clima. Pero \u00bfqu\u00e9 har\u00eda por o con Laura Rodig, que tan lealmente la hab\u00eda acompa\u00f1ado?\u00a0<\/p><p>Clave para entender la relaci\u00f3n de las dos mujeres son dos cuestiones:\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfC\u00f3mo interpret\u00f3 Mistral su responsabilidad hacia Rodig?\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfHasta qu\u00e9 punto importaba Laura Rodig en los planes de Gabriela 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y Mistral: influencias mutuas<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p>Como Mistral, y a diferencia de todas las otras secretarias de la poeta, Laura Rodig nunca se estableci\u00f3 en un lugar definitivo. Incluso menos que Gabriela, quien escribi\u00f3 una vez \u00ablas casas no me amarran\u00bb, Laura no era hogare\u00f1a. Ambas tuvieron la vocaci\u00f3n de escapistas a lo Houdini. El haber vivido en el entonces territorio de Magallanes, juntas, marc\u00f3 a cada una de por vida, infiltrando y transformando sus sensibilidades pol\u00edticas, est\u00e9ticas y ecol\u00f3gicas. Rodig volvi\u00f3 a vivir ah\u00ed, sola, en 1948 (o antes) y hasta 1951. Y Mistral, por su parte, en los a\u00f1os venideros, reconoci\u00f3 la gran inspiraci\u00f3n literaria y pol\u00edtica que le regal\u00f3 esa tierra y ese mar con su \u00ablaberinto de fiordos, canales, pen\u00ednsulas, cabos e islas, archipi\u00e9lagos...\u00bb. De all\u00ed en adelante, Mistral se dedicar\u00eda a la musa de los viajes, persigui\u00e9ndola a trav\u00e9s de los oc\u00e9anos. Y Rodig descubrir\u00eda su propia vocaci\u00f3n de activista. Ambas emergieron del colonialismo dominante en Punta Arenas y Temuco con una nueva conciencia de \u00abla cuesti\u00f3n social\u00bb, que Mistral expresaba en sus visitas a los encarcelados, en su solidaridad con los jud\u00edos perseguidos, en su acogida a los emigrantes y en su condena de la violencia sufrida por las madres solteras y los miembros de los pueblos originarios. Se percibe la influencia de Rodig en Mistral en todo esto, que comienza a cambiar la sensibilidad est\u00e9tica de la poeta, el modo como percib\u00eda el mundo material y las formas humanas. En una especie de di\u00e1logo con Rodig, Mistral empieza a escribir textos de poes\u00eda y est\u00e9tica cuyas met\u00e1foras centrales brotan de las artes que Laura practicaba, como la escultura, en \u00abEl Pensador\u00bb y los \u00abMotivos de barro\u00bb, y la danza, como veremos en \u00abCanci\u00f3n de Solveig\u00bb.<\/p><p>Entre ellas hab\u00eda una diferencia que produjo en 1924 su separaci\u00f3n, que llegar\u00eda a ser definitiva en 1925. Ra\u00edz de la ruptura fue el deseo de Laura de seguir desarroll\u00e1ndose como artista y escultora. Gabriela, por su parte, quer\u00eda que Laura siguiera atendi\u00e9ndola. La relaci\u00f3n no les permiti\u00f3 la autosuficiencia a ambas: cada una reconoc\u00eda su arte como punto primordial en la vida.\u00a0<\/p><p>A trav\u00e9s de los a\u00f1os, Laura tratar\u00eda de restablecer la cercan\u00eda tanto con Mistral como sus otras amigas \u00edntimas distanciadas, como Consuelo Lemetayer y Blanca Luz Brum. Mistral evidencia m\u00e1s cautela que cari\u00f1o al contestar las cartas de Rodig. Lo cierto es que Rodig y Mistral no se reunieron en persona entre 1925 y 1954. Y que el intercambio epistolar volvi\u00f3 a ser explosivo. Con la noticia del Premio Nobel de 1945, Mistral se embarc\u00f3 a Suecia para participar en las ceremonias relacionadas. Por su parte, Rodig se fue a La Serena, donde hizo entrevistas e investigaciones con la finalidad, seg\u00fan parece, de biografiar a Mistral. Rodig estableci\u00f3 confidencias con varios amigos de la familia de Mistral. Habl\u00f3 con muchos elquinos cuyo orgullo y esperanzas les hicieron muy susceptibles a la sencillez y pericia de Laura, quien se gan\u00f3 el afecto de todos, incluso de los oficiales del municipio de Vicu\u00f1a, quienes votaron a favor de comisionarla para hacer un monumento de Mistral.\u00a0<\/p><p>La poeta se enfureci\u00f3 al enterarse de la noticia de la obra comisionada. La prohibi\u00f3. Sus cartas dieron varias razones, desde el desagrado personal que le provocar\u00eda tener un monumento hasta el alto costo de una estatua en un pa\u00eds donde hab\u00eda tantos ni\u00f1os viviendo en la pobreza. Ya que Mistral se manten\u00eda firme en esa postura, sus representantes oficiales \u2014su abogado de entonces, Eduardo Frei, m\u00e1s la secretaria, pareja y albacea literaria de la poeta, Doris Dana\u2014 trabajaron para defender la voluntad de la poeta.\u00a0<\/p><p>Al fracasar su intento, Laura Rodig volvi\u00f3 a vivir en Punta Arenas, donde se qued\u00f3 unos cuatro a\u00f1os, hasta fines de 1951. En este segundo exilio Laura sent\u00eda (como dice en sus cartas a Gabriela) que el episodio ocurrido en Vicu\u00f1a la \u00abdesprestigiaba en forma ya indefensible\u00bb y que ella, Laura, estaba \u00aben cierto modo al margen del mundo\u00bb. Durante esta segunda estancia en Punta Arenas, Laura sigui\u00f3 trabajando por su propia cuenta en la escultura de la poeta, seg\u00fan lo refiere ella misma, que manten\u00eda la obra tan oculta como pod\u00eda.<\/p><p>Las cartas que Laura Rodig escribi\u00f3 a Mistral son de doble filo. Por un lado, despu\u00e9s de la ruptura de la pareja, la joven iba estableciendo su propia voz y experiencia, algo que no pudo hacer nunca cuando vivi\u00f3 con la poeta. Pero por otro lado, la figura de Mistral repercuti\u00f3 a lo largo de toda la vida y carrera de Rodig. Ella pag\u00f3 un alto precio por comprometerse con su arte. Se liber\u00f3 a cambio del alto costo personal que significaba volver a vivir y continuar su trabajo. Como ella misma explic\u00f3 a Mistral: \u00abEn todas partes he pasado con su recuerdo, como un anatema [...] obsesionada con mi trabajo lo recomenc\u00e9 de nuevo, termin\u00e1ndolo y haci\u00e9ndole un vaciado en el cuarzo... es as\u00ed que, la estatua anda conmigo y yo vivo a su sombra\u00bb.<\/p><p>De todos modos, Laura se resisti\u00f3, como se muestra sutilmente en sus cartas y en el trabajo que realiz\u00f3 sin el benepl\u00e1cito de la poeta, al perseverar en la estatua y al resguardar manuscritos suyos que de otro modo seguramente se habr\u00edan perdido.\u00a0<\/p><p>Despu\u00e9s de la muerte de la poeta, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cartas-gabriela-mistral-doris-dan-maria-moreno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Doris Dana<\/a><\/span> se perturb\u00f3 al enterarse por informantes de que Laura pose\u00eda una cantidad considerable de manuscritos de Mistral. Dana reclam\u00f3 derechos de propiedad sobre estos. El que resolvi\u00f3 la disputa fue Eduardo Barrios, quien organiz\u00f3 una peque\u00f1a ceremonia en la Biblioteca Nacional muy poco despu\u00e9s del entierro de la poeta en 1960. A Rodig se le permiti\u00f3 dar un breve discurso cuando los entreg\u00f3. En \u00e9l, Rodig honraba la larga amistad entre Mistral y Barrios. Al entrar a la Biblioteca Nacional, los materiales coleccionados y resguardados por Rodig resultan medulares para formar la colecci\u00f3n catalogada como \u00abdonaci\u00f3n de Laura Rodig y Doris Dana\u00bb, que representa de forma directa e indirecta la cercana amistad, trabajo y vida compartida entre Rodig y Mistral durante los a\u00f1os 1918-1922, cuando salieron juntas de Chile. P\u00e1ginas imprescindibles para apreciar las transformaciones en la est\u00e9tica y en la poes\u00eda queer de Mistral y los intentos monumentalizadores de Rodig a la hora del anuncio del Nobel.\u00a0<\/p><p>De nuevo citamos a Paul B. Preciado, quien arguye que en la estatua, en el espacio p\u00fablico, \u00ablos cuerpos migrantes, racializados, femeninos o afeminados, no heterosexuales, no binarios, trans, los cuerpos con diversidad funcional, los \\\"cuerpos abyectos\\\"... se ven constantemente sometidos a diversas formas de restricci\u00f3n, violencia, exclusi\u00f3n, vigilancia, guetizaci\u00f3n y muerte\u00bb. La figura monumentalizada de Mistral representa esta violencia restrictiva, porque las estatuas no son din\u00e1micas: son tumbas. Pero esta visi\u00f3n fue derrumbada por el estallido social de 2019, cuando la estatua militar en la plaza Baquedano fue reemplazada no con otra estatua, sino con una serie de instalaciones temporales, entre ellas la representaci\u00f3n gr\u00e1fica de Gabriela Mistral rodeada por otros artistas <em>queer<\/em> como Pedro Lemebel y <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/las-inseparables-simone-de-beauvoir\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Simone de Beauvoir<\/span>.<\/a> Esta forma de ataque a las estatuas tipifica una nueva y muy interesante modalidad que Preciado describe as\u00ed:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"a1o49b0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los actuales ataques a las estatuas, que vienen a sumarse a los miles de grafitis y tags feministas, <em>queer,<\/em> trans y antirracistas que han cubierto poco a poco las ciudades... est\u00e1n poniendo en cuesti\u00f3n los discursos dominantes acerca de los privilegios raciales, sexuales y de g\u00e9nero por medios que no son \u00fanicamente la argumentaci\u00f3n o la agitaci\u00f3n. Lo que es atacado ahora son los signos materiales de la gram\u00e1tica cultural y su inscripci\u00f3n en el espacio de la ciudad. Se trata de romper la falsa coherencia del entramado semi\u00f3tico de la raz\u00f3n petrosexorracial para abrir los discursos cerrados... y devolver los significados que hab\u00edan quedado reificados, literalmente \u00abpetrificados\u00bb, a la plaza p\u00fablica, ponerlos de nuevo en circulaci\u00f3n, extraerlos de la sacralizaci\u00f3n del poder, para que puedan ser repensados colectivamente. Cuando cae una estatua se abre un espacio posible de resignificaci\u00f3n en el denso y saturado paisaje de signos del poder. 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"v3voavf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>\u00abEste amor\u00bb\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Rodig y Mistral pasaron el mes de abril de 1918 alist\u00e1ndose para el largo viaje al sur. En esta temporada de espera y de viva anticipaci\u00f3n, Mistral escribi\u00f3 el poema \u00abEste amor\u00bb. Un manuscrito in\u00e9dito, ni publicado ni transcrito hasta ahora. De su pu\u00f1o y letra, la poeta puso la fecha: \u00ab18 de abril 1918\u00bb. Hay cinco p\u00e1ginas con m\u00e1s de la mitad de las palabras rayadas, intercaladas y borradas al punto de ser poco legibles. Abundan los sentimientos ardientes en vocablos como \u00abp\u00farpuras\u00bb, coherentes con la poes\u00eda de <em>Desolaci\u00f3n.<\/em> La proveniencia importa: es de los 2.313 manuscritos que Laura Rodig resguardaba y entreg\u00f3 a la Biblioteca Nacional en 1960, donde qued\u00f3 mal microfilmado, ni catalogado ni accesible a los investigadores durante m\u00e1s de cincuenta a\u00f1os, o sea, hasta despu\u00e9s de la muerte de Doris Dana. Para las condiciones que lo pusieron a disposici\u00f3n, agradecemos el trabajo generoso de Doris Atkinson, la sobrina y albacea de Doris Dana, m\u00e1s la tenacidad de la documentalista Mar\u00eda Elena Wood y de la periodista Elisa Montesinos, y su quehacer operando sutilmente tras bambalinas a Mariano Fern\u00e1ndez, el entonces embajador de Chile en Estados Unidos. Los astros se alinearon.\u00a0<\/p><p>Esta es la pen\u00faltima de las nueve estrofas del poema, incluidos los versos rayados por la escritora, haciendo visible la censura que se autoimpon\u00eda:\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xui4mi6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aunque has llevado cien p\u00farpuras\u00a0<br \/>de este amor humano\u00a0<br \/>no has sido m\u00e1s que un mendigo\u00a0<br \/>de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: line-through;\\\">chico<\/span> vino negro embriagado\u00a0<br \/>y tengo el orgullo humilde\u00a0<br \/>de tener entre mis manos\u00a0<br \/>la perla de un terrible \u00e9xtasis\u00a0<br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: line-through;\\\">que te en vano fuiste buscando\u00a0<\/span><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: line-through;\\\">que en sue\u00f1o solo has acariciado\u00a0<\/span><br \/>que recoger\u00e1s temblando...<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"50\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7h5n94h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Entre los vocablos que recuerdan <em>Desolaci\u00f3n,<\/em> cuyas p\u00e1ginas Mistral iba a revisar en Punta Arenas, la palabra \u00ab\u00e9xtasis\u00bb es central. Aparece diecis\u00e9is veces en aquel poemario, desde los breves \u00abmomentos de \u00e9xtasis\u00bb (\u00abEl Ensue\u00f1o\u00bb) hasta los largos \u00abd\u00edas de \u00e9xtasis ardiente\u00bb (\u00abPoema del Hijo\u00bb), o en la elipsis dentro de la prosa po\u00e9tica \u00abLa charca\u00bb, que nos refiere a \u00abun placer mir\u00e1ndose transfigurada; ... despu\u00e9s, el \u00e9xtasis\u00bb. Consistente con el modernismo po\u00e9tico, las p\u00e1ginas de <em>Desolaci\u00f3n<\/em> prefieren usar el s\u00edmbolo y ubicar la emoci\u00f3n en el mundo exterior.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abEste amor\u00bb es \u00abhumano\u00bb, a diferencia del \u00ab\u00e9xtasis\u00bb atribuido en <em>Desolaci\u00f3n<\/em> a los pinos negros, al segador, al llano patag\u00f3nico. \u00abEste amor\u00bb no nos habla desde los \u00e1rboles o el barro ni est\u00e1 desplazado a un hijo imaginado. El verso \u00abNo has sido m\u00e1s que un mendigo de vino negro embriagado\u00bb recuerda la correspondencia con Manuel Magallanes Moure. Y bien antes de eso, la voz que habla del \u00aborgullo humilde\u00bb recuerda el \u00aborgullo hasta la altivez, modesta hasta la humildad\u00bb de Lucila Godoy en su \u00e9poca coquimbana.\u00a0<\/p><p>Este amor, este orgullo humilde, es una m\u00e1quina de paradojas. Cobra fuerza al declarar el tesoro que ostenta \u00abentre mis manos\u00bb, es \u00abla perla de un terrible \u00e9xtasis\u00bb, oculta, secreta, en un juego de toma y daca. De mostrar y retirar. De aludir sin nombrar, consistente con la disidencia sexual que arde a lo largo de <em>Desolaci\u00f3n.<\/em> Entre las paradojas que gobiernan \u00abAmo Amor\u00bb. En las calurosas prohibiciones de \u00abCeras eternas\u00bb. Desde el deseo atribuido a los \u00e1rboles en los \u00abMotivos de la Pasi\u00f3n\u00bb hasta el barro que pide ser recogido y amasado en los \u00abMotivos del barro\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Este amor, este arc\u00e1ngel aprender\u00e1 c\u00f3mo andar por el mundo sin ser corrompido por este:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vfj9f0t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Este amor va como un arc\u00e1ngel<br \/>Perdido entre los humanos\u00a0<br \/>Y mira seres y las casas\u00a0<br \/>Con un asombro de extra\u00f1ado.\u00a0<br \/>Tiene que ir como los otros\u00a0<br \/>Recibiendo, sobre el rostro\u00a0<br \/>El acre olor de las ferias\u00a0<br \/>Y tocando el ensangrentado\u00a0<br \/>Camino en que van los hombres\u00a0<br \/>Sus lascivias extravagantes.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"50\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ibw72gh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cartas-gabriela-mistral-doris-dan-maria-moreno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Las cartas de Gabriela Mistral: un cl\u00f3set de cristal<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/anne-sexton-poesia-poemas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEs un coraz\u00f3n muerto. Est\u00e1 dentro de m\u00ed. Es un extra\u00f1o\u00bb: Anne Sexton frente al abismo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-mariana-enriquez-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sylvia Plath por Mariana Enr\u00edquez: la mujer que lo ha sido todo para todos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/la-muerte-de-pizarnik\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La muerte de Pizarnik por la propia Pizarnik: \u00abEscribir es darle sentido al 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10 minutos
Gabriela Mistral por Laura Rodig. Crédito: Museo Histórico Gabriel González Videla.

Gabriela Mistral por Laura Rodig. Crédito: Museo Histórico Gabriel González Videla.

¿Y fueron amantes? 

Al trasladarse a Punta Arenas, Laura Rodig y Gabriela Mistral vivieron en mayor intimidad que en cualquier otro momento de su vida juntas. Abandonaron todo. Dejaron la vigilancia de la cordillera y el sol tibio del mediodía. En cambio, las recibieron un cielo gris uniforme y un viento sin misericordia. Con ñeque, tal vez con heroísmo, aceptaron vivir —esto es, comer, lavarse, dormir y soñar— bajo el mismo techo desmoronado donde ellas y las otras profesoras enseñaban a una muchedumbre de estudiantes cuyo número —siempre en aumento— Mistral reportaba en su correspondencia con las autoridades en Santiago, proponiéndoles soluciones. 

La única excepción a la casi total falta de privacidad que caracterizó la vida íntima de las dos en Punta Arenas se habría producido en febrero de 1919. A principios del breve y tumultuoso verano subpolar, las dos viajaron juntas por la pampa. Siguieron una ruta sin senderos a la vista hasta que llegaron —¡por fin!— a la Posada Tres Pasos, propiedad de Rogelio Figueroa. Laura pintaba mientras Gabriela escribía, planeando su estrategia para el futuro. Las contribuciones de la artista visual eran centrales para tales planes, como se percibe, por ejemplo, en la elaboración de la revista literaria Mireya, «mensuario de actualidades, sociología y arte» que ellas desarrollaron a poco de volver a la ciudad, con seis números publicados entre mayo y noviembre de 1919. En un fino análisis de la estadía de Mistral en Punta Arenas, [el escritor chileno] Óscar Barrientos comenta que Mireya representa «un preciado documento tanto de los vaivenes del convulso Chile de los albores del siglo xx como del espíritu desarrollista de Gabriela Mistral...»; él lo compara a «esa cáscara de nuez del poema de Federico Mistral donde estaba contenido el pensamiento transformador de una época». Barrientos presenta la revista, las cartas y el trabajo colectivo como ejemplos de su labor «abiertamente descentralizadora» en Punta Arenas, un reflejo de su agudeza política al reconocer la potencia de la región y del regionalismo mismo. 

Al aceptar el puesto en Punta Arenas, Gabriela Mistral se convirtió en una figura pública. Visibilizó su exitosa reorganización del liceo en sus cartas y con la publicación de Mireya. Su correspondencia aumentó. Así y todo, Gabriela iba cultivando ofertas de trabajo desde Argentina, adonde amenazaba con trasladarse si Santiago no le daba un puesto de igual salario, pero en mejor clima. Pero ¿qué haría por o con Laura Rodig, que tan lealmente la había acompañado? 

Clave para entender la relación de las dos mujeres son dos cuestiones: 

¿Cómo interpretó Mistral su responsabilidad hacia Rodig? 

¿Hasta qué punto importaba Laura Rodig en los planes de Gabriela Mistral?

  • ¡En oferta!

Mistral, una vida

Horan revisa exhaustiva y críticamente los primeros treinta años de vida de una de las poetas esenciales de la lengua castellana.

Rodig y Mistral: influencias mutuas 

Como Mistral, y a diferencia de todas las otras secretarias de la poeta, Laura Rodig nunca se estableció en un lugar definitivo. Incluso menos que Gabriela, quien escribió una vez «las casas no me amarran», Laura no era hogareña. Ambas tuvieron la vocación de escapistas a lo Houdini. El haber vivido en el entonces territorio de Magallanes, juntas, marcó a cada una de por vida, infiltrando y transformando sus sensibilidades políticas, estéticas y ecológicas. Rodig volvió a vivir ahí, sola, en 1948 (o antes) y hasta 1951. Y Mistral, por su parte, en los años venideros, reconoció la gran inspiración literaria y política que le regaló esa tierra y ese mar con su «laberinto de fiordos, canales, penínsulas, cabos e islas, archipiélagos...». De allí en adelante, Mistral se dedicaría a la musa de los viajes, persiguiéndola a través de los océanos. Y Rodig descubriría su propia vocación de activista. Ambas emergieron del colonialismo dominante en Punta Arenas y Temuco con una nueva conciencia de «la cuestión social», que Mistral expresaba en sus visitas a los encarcelados, en su solidaridad con los judíos perseguidos, en su acogida a los emigrantes y en su condena de la violencia sufrida por las madres solteras y los miembros de los pueblos originarios. Se percibe la influencia de Rodig en Mistral en todo esto, que comienza a cambiar la sensibilidad estética de la poeta, el modo como percibía el mundo material y las formas humanas. En una especie de diálogo con Rodig, Mistral empieza a escribir textos de poesía y estética cuyas metáforas centrales brotan de las artes que Laura practicaba, como la escultura, en «El Pensador» y los «Motivos de barro», y la danza, como veremos en «Canción de Solveig».

Entre ellas había una diferencia que produjo en 1924 su separación, que llegaría a ser definitiva en 1925. Raíz de la ruptura fue el deseo de Laura de seguir desarrollándose como artista y escultora. Gabriela, por su parte, quería que Laura siguiera atendiéndola. La relación no les permitió la autosuficiencia a ambas: cada una reconocía su arte como punto primordial en la vida. 

A través de los años, Laura trataría de restablecer la cercanía tanto con Mistral como sus otras amigas íntimas distanciadas, como Consuelo Lemetayer y Blanca Luz Brum. Mistral evidencia más cautela que cariño al contestar las cartas de Rodig. Lo cierto es que Rodig y Mistral no se reunieron en persona entre 1925 y 1954. Y que el intercambio epistolar volvió a ser explosivo. Con la noticia del Premio Nobel de 1945, Mistral se embarcó a Suecia para participar en las ceremonias relacionadas. Por su parte, Rodig se fue a La Serena, donde hizo entrevistas e investigaciones con la finalidad, según parece, de biografiar a Mistral. Rodig estableció confidencias con varios amigos de la familia de Mistral. Habló con muchos elquinos cuyo orgullo y esperanzas les hicieron muy susceptibles a la sencillez y pericia de Laura, quien se ganó el afecto de todos, incluso de los oficiales del municipio de Vicuña, quienes votaron a favor de comisionarla para hacer un monumento de Mistral. 

La poeta se enfureció al enterarse de la noticia de la obra comisionada. La prohibió. Sus cartas dieron varias razones, desde el desagrado personal que le provocaría tener un monumento hasta el alto costo de una estatua en un país donde había tantos niños viviendo en la pobreza. Ya que Mistral se mantenía firme en esa postura, sus representantes oficiales —su abogado de entonces, Eduardo Frei, más la secretaria, pareja y albacea literaria de la poeta, Doris Dana— trabajaron para defender la voluntad de la poeta. 

Al fracasar su intento, Laura Rodig volvió a vivir en Punta Arenas, donde se quedó unos cuatro años, hasta fines de 1951. En este segundo exilio Laura sentía (como dice en sus cartas a Gabriela) que el episodio ocurrido en Vicuña la «desprestigiaba en forma ya indefensible» y que ella, Laura, estaba «en cierto modo al margen del mundo». Durante esta segunda estancia en Punta Arenas, Laura siguió trabajando por su propia cuenta en la escultura de la poeta, según lo refiere ella misma, que mantenía la obra tan oculta como podía.

Las cartas que Laura Rodig escribió a Mistral son de doble filo. Por un lado, después de la ruptura de la pareja, la joven iba estableciendo su propia voz y experiencia, algo que no pudo hacer nunca cuando vivió con la poeta. Pero por otro lado, la figura de Mistral repercutió a lo largo de toda la vida y carrera de Rodig. Ella pagó un alto precio por comprometerse con su arte. Se liberó a cambio del alto costo personal que significaba volver a vivir y continuar su trabajo. Como ella misma explicó a Mistral: «En todas partes he pasado con su recuerdo, como un anatema [...] obsesionada con mi trabajo lo recomencé de nuevo, terminándolo y haciéndole un vaciado en el cuarzo... es así que, la estatua anda conmigo y yo vivo a su sombra».

De todos modos, Laura se resistió, como se muestra sutilmente en sus cartas y en el trabajo que realizó sin el beneplácito de la poeta, al perseverar en la estatua y al resguardar manuscritos suyos que de otro modo seguramente se habrían perdido. 

Después de la muerte de la poeta, Doris Dana se perturbó al enterarse por informantes de que Laura poseía una cantidad considerable de manuscritos de Mistral. Dana reclamó derechos de propiedad sobre estos. El que resolvió la disputa fue Eduardo Barrios, quien organizó una pequeña ceremonia en la Biblioteca Nacional muy poco después del entierro de la poeta en 1960. A Rodig se le permitió dar un breve discurso cuando los entregó. En él, Rodig honraba la larga amistad entre Mistral y Barrios. Al entrar a la Biblioteca Nacional, los materiales coleccionados y resguardados por Rodig resultan medulares para formar la colección catalogada como «donación de Laura Rodig y Doris Dana», que representa de forma directa e indirecta la cercana amistad, trabajo y vida compartida entre Rodig y Mistral durante los años 1918-1922, cuando salieron juntas de Chile. Páginas imprescindibles para apreciar las transformaciones en la estética y en la poesía queer de Mistral y los intentos monumentalizadores de Rodig a la hora del anuncio del Nobel. 

De nuevo citamos a Paul B. Preciado, quien arguye que en la estatua, en el espacio público, «los cuerpos migrantes, racializados, femeninos o afeminados, no heterosexuales, no binarios, trans, los cuerpos con diversidad funcional, los "cuerpos abyectos"... se ven constantemente sometidos a diversas formas de restricción, violencia, exclusión, vigilancia, guetización y muerte». La figura monumentalizada de Mistral representa esta violencia restrictiva, porque las estatuas no son dinámicas: son tumbas. Pero esta visión fue derrumbada por el estallido social de 2019, cuando la estatua militar en la plaza Baquedano fue reemplazada no con otra estatua, sino con una serie de instalaciones temporales, entre ellas la representación gráfica de Gabriela Mistral rodeada por otros artistas queer como Pedro Lemebel y Simone de Beauvoir. Esta forma de ataque a las estatuas tipifica una nueva y muy interesante modalidad que Preciado describe así:

Los actuales ataques a las estatuas, que vienen a sumarse a los miles de grafitis y tags feministas, queer, trans y antirracistas que han cubierto poco a poco las ciudades... están poniendo en cuestión los discursos dominantes acerca de los privilegios raciales, sexuales y de género por medios que no son únicamente la argumentación o la agitación. Lo que es atacado ahora son los signos materiales de la gramática cultural y su inscripción en el espacio de la ciudad. Se trata de romper la falsa coherencia del entramado semiótico de la razón petrosexorracial para abrir los discursos cerrados... y devolver los significados que habían quedado reificados, literalmente «petrificados», a la plaza pública, ponerlos de nuevo en circulación, extraerlos de la sacralización del poder, para que puedan ser repensados colectivamente. Cuando cae una estatua se abre un espacio posible de resignificación en el denso y saturado paisaje de signos del poder. Por eso todas las estatuas tienen que caer.

Gabriela Mistral en una imagen de 1945. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gabriela Mistral en una imagen de 1945. Crédito: Getty Images.

«Este amor» 

Rodig y Mistral pasaron el mes de abril de 1918 alistándose para el largo viaje al sur. En esta temporada de espera y de viva anticipación, Mistral escribió el poema «Este amor». Un manuscrito inédito, ni publicado ni transcrito hasta ahora. De su puño y letra, la poeta puso la fecha: «18 de abril 1918». Hay cinco páginas con más de la mitad de las palabras rayadas, intercaladas y borradas al punto de ser poco legibles. Abundan los sentimientos ardientes en vocablos como «púrpuras», coherentes con la poesía de Desolación. La proveniencia importa: es de los 2.313 manuscritos que Laura Rodig resguardaba y entregó a la Biblioteca Nacional en 1960, donde quedó mal microfilmado, ni catalogado ni accesible a los investigadores durante más de cincuenta años, o sea, hasta después de la muerte de Doris Dana. Para las condiciones que lo pusieron a disposición, agradecemos el trabajo generoso de Doris Atkinson, la sobrina y albacea de Doris Dana, más la tenacidad de la documentalista María Elena Wood y de la periodista Elisa Montesinos, y su quehacer operando sutilmente tras bambalinas a Mariano Fernández, el entonces embajador de Chile en Estados Unidos. Los astros se alinearon. 

Esta es la penúltima de las nueve estrofas del poema, incluidos los versos rayados por la escritora, haciendo visible la censura que se autoimponía: 

Aunque has llevado cien púrpuras 
de este amor humano 
no has sido más que un mendigo 
de chico vino negro embriagado 
y tengo el orgullo humilde 
de tener entre mis manos 
la perla de un terrible éxtasis 
que te en vano fuiste buscando 
que en sueño solo has acariciado 
que recogerás temblando...

Entre los vocablos que recuerdan Desolación, cuyas páginas Mistral iba a revisar en Punta Arenas, la palabra «éxtasis» es central. Aparece dieciséis veces en aquel poemario, desde los breves «momentos de éxtasis» («El Ensueño») hasta los largos «días de éxtasis ardiente» («Poema del Hijo»), o en la elipsis dentro de la prosa poética «La charca», que nos refiere a «un placer mirándose transfigurada; ... después, el éxtasis». Consistente con el modernismo poético, las páginas de Desolación prefieren usar el símbolo y ubicar la emoción en el mundo exterior. 

«Este amor» es «humano», a diferencia del «éxtasis» atribuido en Desolación a los pinos negros, al segador, al llano patagónico. «Este amor» no nos habla desde los árboles o el barro ni está desplazado a un hijo imaginado. El verso «No has sido más que un mendigo de vino negro embriagado» recuerda la correspondencia con Manuel Magallanes Moure. Y bien antes de eso, la voz que habla del «orgullo humilde» recuerda el «orgullo hasta la altivez, modesta hasta la humildad» de Lucila Godoy en su época coquimbana. 

Este amor, este orgullo humilde, es una máquina de paradojas. Cobra fuerza al declarar el tesoro que ostenta «entre mis manos», es «la perla de un terrible éxtasis», oculta, secreta, en un juego de toma y daca. De mostrar y retirar. De aludir sin nombrar, consistente con la disidencia sexual que arde a lo largo de Desolación. Entre las paradojas que gobiernan «Amo Amor». En las calurosas prohibiciones de «Ceras eternas». Desde el deseo atribuido a los árboles en los «Motivos de la Pasión» hasta el barro que pide ser recogido y amasado en los «Motivos del barro». 

Este amor, este arcángel aprenderá cómo andar por el mundo sin ser corrompido por este:

Este amor va como un arcángel
Perdido entre los humanos 
Y mira seres y las casas 
Con un asombro de extrañado. 
Tiene que ir como los otros 
Recibiendo, sobre el rostro 
El acre olor de las ferias 
Y tocando el ensangrentado 
Camino en que van los hombres 
Sus lascivias extravagantes.

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