Literatura

Gabriela Wiener por Dolores Reyes: en el nombre del padre

En los países andinos, a los saqueadores de yacimientos arqueológicos que buscan bienes culturales para vender los llaman huaqueros. Convertir estos fragmentos de historia en propiedad privada es una forma de violencia, por eso, los museos se parecen tanto a los cementerios, dice la escritora peruana Gabriela Wiener, que lleva en su apellido el peso de uno de los grandes huaqueros de su país. Su tatarabuelo, Charles Wiener, fue uno de los exploradores europeos más celebrados del siglo XIX, un prestigio forjado con decenas de expediciones en las que logró hacerse de cuatro mil piezas precolombinas para exhibir en la Exposición Universal de 1878, en París, donde todavía permanecen. Los fantasmas de esa herencia familiar y colectiva son el material de «Huaco retrato» (Literatura Random House), el libro que Wiener escribió a partir de la muerte de su padre y que la escritora argentina Dolores Reyes ilumina en este texto.

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Convertir estos fragmentos de historia en propiedad privada es una forma de violencia, por eso, los museos se parecen tanto a los cementerios, dice la escritora peruana Gabriela Wiener, que\u00a0lleva\u00a0en su apellido el peso de uno de los grandes huaqueros de su pa\u00eds. Su tatarabuelo, Charles Wiener, fue uno de los exploradores europeos m\u00e1s celebrados del siglo XIX, un prestigio forjado con decenas de expediciones en las que logr\u00f3 hacerse de cuatro mil piezas precolombinas para exhibir en la Exposici\u00f3n Universal de 1878, en Par\u00eds, donde todav\u00eda permanecen. Los fantasmas de esa herencia familiar y colectiva son el material de \u00abHuaco retrato\u00bb (Literatura Random House), el libro\u00a0que\u00a0Wiener escribi\u00f3 a partir de la muerte de su padre y que la escritora argentina Dolores Reyes ilumina en este 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celosas y posesivas, excesivas, pegajosas,<\/strong><\/p><p><strong> despreciadas, chamuscadas, victimistas.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Delirando entre la telenovela y el bolero\u00bb.<br \/><br \/><\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/258289-ebook-huaco-retrato\\\">Huaco retrato<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0es una pesquisa que se abre con un duelo \u2014la muerte de un padre\u2014 y que implica el regreso de Gabriela Wiener al Per\u00fa y la indagaci\u00f3n en los correos, mensajes, tel\u00e9fonos de ese hombre que acaba de irse hacia esa experiencia que no podemos conocer m\u00e1s que por conjeturas: la muerte. Esa ausencia final posibilita una pesquisa multidireccional, porque tambi\u00e9n atr\u00e1s de \u00e9l hubo otros padres, como el ancestro huaquero del que se conserva el apellido, centro de un gran relato m\u00edtico familiar, donde se conjuga ese peque\u00f1o universo de la familia con uno mucho m\u00e1s grande que es la colonia.\u00a0<\/p><p>Una familia tambi\u00e9n implica un centro y muchas periferias, luces y sombras, recuerdo, relato, mito o desprecio y olvido.\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4902-gabriela-wiener\\\">Gabriela Wiener<\/a><\/span>\u00a0atraviesa el duelo desde unas formas del amor tan resistentes que son capaces de atravesar tel\u00e9fonos, correos, chats, mensajes, para embeberse por \u00faltima vez de lo m\u00e1s profundo de la vida \u00edntima de ese padre. 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y develar la parte que \u00e9l eligi\u00f3 dejar en sombras ser\u00e1 su forma de seguir amorosa y desesperadamente unida a su existencia. Y en esa pesquisa, va abriendo un camino que implica decisiones y consecuencias, pero a diferencia del padre como art\u00edfice eficaz de un juego de aceptaci\u00f3n y negaciones, en los que coloca una casa aqu\u00ed y la otra all\u00e1, una hija aqu\u00ed y la otra a medio esconder, hay aqu\u00ed una hija que no se oculta ni busca zafarse ante las consecuencias de cada una de sus elecciones. Gabriela Wiener cada tanto baja su velocidad y contempla detenidamente el tendal de relaciones averiadas, heridas y transformadas que va dejando en la medida que avanza. No solo tiene una velocidad que es un v\u00e9rtigo, sino tambi\u00e9n una honestidad brutal al exhibirse ante tanto ocultamiento.<\/p><p><\/p><p>Y ese movimiento descolonizador de mirarse y reconocerse saqueada y expuesta, de una estirpe ileg\u00edtima pese a ser la hija de la esposa, nos va a hablar tambi\u00e9n de la propia radicalidad: pasar de ser la estirpe saqueada (el tatarabuelo Charles Wiener se llev\u00f3 de Am\u00e9rica unas 4.000 piezas) y expuesta en esos zool\u00f3gicos racistas del horror a la que va detr\u00e1s de los pasos del saqueador para exponerlo a \u00e9l, no sin un suave velo de entendimiento.<\/p><p>Pero esta es solo una dimensi\u00f3n de la b\u00fasqueda en este hermoso artefacto-pesquisa que es <em>Huaco retrato<\/em>. En nuestra Am\u00e9rica, el cuerpo abstracto del deseo y de la enunciaci\u00f3n no incluye ni muestra el cuerpo de una chola ni el rostro de un huaco. Para escribir este texto ser\u00e1 necesario no solo encontrar las piezas en sombra de un linaje \u2014De Mar\u00eda Rodr\u00edguez no queda ni si quiera un dibujo, un retrato...nada. 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ADN.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4347xci\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hay 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y\u00e9ndose.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cqcv7ej\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Oculta y manifiesta, expuestas a la luz o en las profundidades de la oscuridad y de la sombra, en<em> Huaco retrato<\/em> est\u00e1n transitadas descarnadamente las formas nodales de la existencia: nacer, coger y morirse.<\/p><p>Como la propia Gabriela, su relato se transporta una y otra vez de Am\u00e9rica a Europa, y viceversa. El primer salto a Europa lo da en 1878. El abuelo huaquero internacional, jud\u00edo-austr\u00edaco que quiere ser franc\u00e9s luego de expoliar estas tierras, se prepara para ser adoptado por la comunidad acad\u00e9mica en la Exposici\u00f3n Universal de Par\u00eds. Una gran feria del \u00abprogreso\u00bb que entre sus atracciones tiene un zoo humano, con su \u00abpueblo negro\u00bb, una enorme y abyecta f\u00e1brica de racismo.<\/p><p>Esa civilizaci\u00f3n que, como parte de su dominaci\u00f3n, necesita exhibir a la otra con todas las delicias de su inferioridad que justifiquen una suerte de protectorado sobre ellas. Colonialidad y patriarcado van necesariamente de la mano en esto de que cu\u00e1nto m\u00e1s maravillosa haya sido la civilizaci\u00f3n dominada y vencida, m\u00e1s gloriosa y enorme la propia.<\/p><p>Y all\u00ed aparece el museo como instituci\u00f3n, y sus proveedores como lacayos serviles.<\/p><p>\u00abUn museo no es un cementerio aunque se parezca mucho\u00bb, escribe Gabriela en un momento particularmente fuerte del libro y uno siente la necesidad, aunque el texto lo explique en m\u00e1s de una oportunidad, de buscar por uno mismo. \u00bfQu\u00e9 es un huaco? Y lo que se encuentra repite una y otra vez esto del retrato fiel, hecho de las tierras de aqu\u00ed antes de ser nombradas Am\u00e9rica, tan \u00fanico como una huella digital. Muchas veces se se\u00f1ala la creencia de que el huaco capturaba el alma de la persona. Con el libro pasa un poco lo mismo, captura el alma del que lee y una siente que lo atraviesa como lectora y a la vez, se siente atravesada por un texto del que va a salir distinta. Esto tiene un epicentro, un momento en el que esa experiencia tiene una hondura mayor: el rastreo del ni\u00f1o ind\u00edgena comprado por Charles Weiner a su propia madre.\u00a0<\/p><p>La materia es la expresi\u00f3n m\u00e1s concreta de las relaciones de poder.<\/p><p>Puede el Dios Dinero, blanco y europeo, comprar y venderlo todo, hasta la vida de un ni\u00f1o.<\/p><p>Hay una \u00faltima pesquisa, la que va detr\u00e1s del placer y las relaciones sexoafectivas. El encuentro, los pactos, los celos y el placer entre los cuerpos vienen a hacer soportable esta existencia, la nuestra, construida sobre territorios que siguen acumulando, hasta el d\u00eda de hoy, sangre y cad\u00e1veres an\u00f3nimos. Gabriela ahonda en la complejidad del poliamor y de la libertad y la sinceridad del placer desnud\u00e1ndose con una valent\u00eda visceral pocas veces vista en un libro, como si fuese necesario aportar esa pieza m\u00e1s en su construcci\u00f3n profunda de sentidos.<\/p><p>La pesquisa del deseo marr\u00f3n es guiada tambi\u00e9n por el deseo: \u00abLa teor\u00eda me la s\u00e9, c\u00f3mo me la meto en el cuerpo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las protagonistas se r\u00eden entre ellas, como si esa labor central de descolonizar la mirada, los sentidos y el sexo no tuviera por qu\u00e9 estar exenta de sonrisas, humor y belleza: \u00abSus ojos son esas heridas alegres y tristes que las marrones llevamos en la cara hace siglos. Peque\u00f1os lagos casi orientales en los que tiembla la luz. Me mira intensamente, una especie de ardilla concentrada en su labor de roer el sistema que me posee. Se r\u00ede todo el rato como de algo secreto. Le hago gracia. Me gu\u00eda sobre su cuerpo y sobre el m\u00edo. Estamos creando otros marcos conceptuales. El dildo cristalino entre nosotras es hoy para acariciar\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"sp71w5s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Colonialidad y patriarcado van necesariamente de la mano en esto de que cu\u00e1nto m\u00e1s maravillosa haya sido la civilizaci\u00f3n dominada y vencida, m\u00e1s gloriosa y enorme la propia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9mx1px4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Una luz marr\u00f3n al final del camino<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p>Se transitan los mecanismos que componen este artefacto de escritura porque se requiere romper con toda mirada \u00fanica para contar y enunciarse, porque toda pretensi\u00f3n de una voz neutral que nos subsuma implica que esa voz ser\u00e1 pensada como blanca, masculina y hegem\u00f3nica. Para generar nuevas perspectivas existe la necesidad imperiosa de posicionarse.<\/p><p>Ya no es ese Dios \u00fanico blanco, hombre, macho y familiar. Ahora se logra empezar a componer este otro relato del lodo del horror civilizatorio en el que todas chapaleamos la vida, que llega a alcanzar su cima en los museos de la ciencia racista y en esa figura del ni\u00f1o comprado y sustra\u00eddo de Am\u00e9rica, tan faltante como la peque\u00f1a momia ausente en el inicio de la historia.\u00a0<\/p><p>El dolor del saqueo y el costo humano tienen una suerte de met\u00e1fora perfecta en ese ni\u00f1o y en el af\u00e1n de rastrearlo. Un intento de resoluci\u00f3n que termina siendo una definici\u00f3n por la Literatura. En un texto tensionado por los g\u00e9neros y los registros, hay una falta tan lacerante que queda tatuada en la experiencia como una herida de arma blanca, imposible de generar tejido que la sane, y de alguna hermosa y po\u00e9tica manera, Gabriela lo resuelve hacia la literatura, porque la literatura es la herramienta que puede caminar sobre el tiempo, la compra a esa madre degradada por la colonia, una mujer ancestra huaqueada como tantas otras, el rapto de su ni\u00f1o, el barco que se lo llev\u00f3 hacia un continente desconocido, y llegar hasta \u00e9l, hasta Juan, para darle un nombre, una pertenencia, una peque\u00f1a estela en el mundo. Denunciar su robo y otorgarle un final.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0mf1omx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><em><br \/><br \/><\/em><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2021\/selva-almada-no-es-un-rio\\\">Selva Almada: No es un r\u00edo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/cristian-alarcon-el-tercer-paraiso-premio-alfaguara\\\">As\u00ed comienza \u00abEl tercer para\u00edso\u00bb, novela de Cristian Alarc\u00f3n ganadora del XXV Premio Alfaguara<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2021\/fernanda-trias-mugre-rosa-mapa-de-las-lenguas\\\">Fernanda Tr\u00edas: \u00abMugre rosa\u00bb o c\u00f3mo recorrer la 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10 minutos

Crédito: Daniel Mordzinski.

«Sudacas celosas y posesivas, excesivas, pegajosas,

despreciadas, chamuscadas, victimistas. 

Delirando entre la telenovela y el bolero».

Huaco retrato es una pesquisa que se abre con un duelo —la muerte de un padre— y que implica el regreso de Gabriela Wiener al Perú y la indagación en los correos, mensajes, teléfonos de ese hombre que acaba de irse hacia esa experiencia que no podemos conocer más que por conjeturas: la muerte. Esa ausencia final posibilita una pesquisa multidireccional, porque también atrás de él hubo otros padres, como el ancestro huaquero del que se conserva el apellido, centro de un gran relato mítico familiar, donde se conjuga ese pequeño universo de la familia con uno mucho más grande que es la colonia. 

Una familia también implica un centro y muchas periferias, luces y sombras, recuerdo, relato, mito o desprecio y olvido. 

Gabriela Wiener atraviesa el duelo desde unas formas del amor tan resistentes que son capaces de atravesar teléfonos, correos, chats, mensajes, para embeberse por última vez de lo más profundo de la vida íntima de ese padre. Hay una mirada absolutamente libre, que no por eso está exenta de dolor, de una hija que no juzga, sino que ama de una forma tan particular que necesita un conocimiento profundo de las vidas de ese padre que está yéndose. 

Leer y develar la parte que él eligió dejar en sombras será su forma de seguir amorosa y desesperadamente unida a su existencia. Y en esa pesquisa, va abriendo un camino que implica decisiones y consecuencias, pero a diferencia del padre como artífice eficaz de un juego de aceptación y negaciones, en los que coloca una casa aquí y la otra allá, una hija aquí y la otra a medio esconder, hay aquí una hija que no se oculta ni busca zafarse ante las consecuencias de cada una de sus elecciones. Gabriela Wiener cada tanto baja su velocidad y contempla detenidamente el tendal de relaciones averiadas, heridas y transformadas que va dejando en la medida que avanza. No solo tiene una velocidad que es un vértigo, sino también una honestidad brutal al exhibirse ante tanto ocultamiento.

Y ese movimiento descolonizador de mirarse y reconocerse saqueada y expuesta, de una estirpe ilegítima pese a ser la hija de la esposa, nos va a hablar también de la propia radicalidad: pasar de ser la estirpe saqueada (el tatarabuelo Charles Wiener se llevó de América unas 4.000 piezas) y expuesta en esos zoológicos racistas del horror a la que va detrás de los pasos del saqueador para exponerlo a él, no sin un suave velo de entendimiento.

Pero esta es solo una dimensión de la búsqueda en este hermoso artefacto-pesquisa que es Huaco retrato. En nuestra América, el cuerpo abstracto del deseo y de la enunciación no incluye ni muestra el cuerpo de una chola ni el rostro de un huaco. Para escribir este texto será necesario no solo encontrar las piezas en sombra de un linaje —De María Rodríguez no queda ni si quiera un dibujo, un retrato...nada. Ella parió y crió el comienzo de la estirpe Wiener en América Latina y, sin embargo, el futuro es un lugar donde está tachado su nombre y su rostro—, sino la propia voz y el propio cuerpo de la que busca también a las antepasadas que no dejaron apellidos ni retratos enmarcados en la pared del orgullo familiar, pero que heredaron con la fuerza de un tatuaje el rostro de chola en la descendencia a la que aportaron las reliquias de su ADN.

Hay una mirada absolutamente libre, que no por eso está exenta de dolor, de una hija que no juzga, sino que ama de una forma tan particular que necesita un conocimiento profundo de las vidas de ese padre que está yéndose. 

Oculta y manifiesta, expuestas a la luz o en las profundidades de la oscuridad y de la sombra, en Huaco retrato están transitadas descarnadamente las formas nodales de la existencia: nacer, coger y morirse.

Como la propia Gabriela, su relato se transporta una y otra vez de América a Europa, y viceversa. El primer salto a Europa lo da en 1878. El abuelo huaquero internacional, judío-austríaco que quiere ser francés luego de expoliar estas tierras, se prepara para ser adoptado por la comunidad académica en la Exposición Universal de París. Una gran feria del «progreso» que entre sus atracciones tiene un zoo humano, con su «pueblo negro», una enorme y abyecta fábrica de racismo.

Esa civilización que, como parte de su dominación, necesita exhibir a la otra con todas las delicias de su inferioridad que justifiquen una suerte de protectorado sobre ellas. Colonialidad y patriarcado van necesariamente de la mano en esto de que cuánto más maravillosa haya sido la civilización dominada y vencida, más gloriosa y enorme la propia.

Y allí aparece el museo como institución, y sus proveedores como lacayos serviles.

«Un museo no es un cementerio aunque se parezca mucho», escribe Gabriela en un momento particularmente fuerte del libro y uno siente la necesidad, aunque el texto lo explique en más de una oportunidad, de buscar por uno mismo. ¿Qué es un huaco? Y lo que se encuentra repite una y otra vez esto del retrato fiel, hecho de las tierras de aquí antes de ser nombradas América, tan único como una huella digital. Muchas veces se señala la creencia de que el huaco capturaba el alma de la persona. Con el libro pasa un poco lo mismo, captura el alma del que lee y una siente que lo atraviesa como lectora y a la vez, se siente atravesada por un texto del que va a salir distinta. Esto tiene un epicentro, un momento en el que esa experiencia tiene una hondura mayor: el rastreo del niño indígena comprado por Charles Weiner a su propia madre. 

La materia es la expresión más concreta de las relaciones de poder.

Puede el Dios Dinero, blanco y europeo, comprar y venderlo todo, hasta la vida de un niño.

Hay una última pesquisa, la que va detrás del placer y las relaciones sexoafectivas. El encuentro, los pactos, los celos y el placer entre los cuerpos vienen a hacer soportable esta existencia, la nuestra, construida sobre territorios que siguen acumulando, hasta el día de hoy, sangre y cadáveres anónimos. Gabriela ahonda en la complejidad del poliamor y de la libertad y la sinceridad del placer desnudándose con una valentía visceral pocas veces vista en un libro, como si fuese necesario aportar esa pieza más en su construcción profunda de sentidos.

La pesquisa del deseo marrón es guiada también por el deseo: «La teoría me la sé, cómo me la meto en el cuerpo». 

Las protagonistas se ríen entre ellas, como si esa labor central de descolonizar la mirada, los sentidos y el sexo no tuviera por qué estar exenta de sonrisas, humor y belleza: «Sus ojos son esas heridas alegres y tristes que las marrones llevamos en la cara hace siglos. Pequeños lagos casi orientales en los que tiembla la luz. Me mira intensamente, una especie de ardilla concentrada en su labor de roer el sistema que me posee. Se ríe todo el rato como de algo secreto. Le hago gracia. Me guía sobre su cuerpo y sobre el mío. Estamos creando otros marcos conceptuales. El dildo cristalino entre nosotras es hoy para acariciar».

Colonialidad y patriarcado van necesariamente de la mano en esto de que cuánto más maravillosa haya sido la civilización dominada y vencida, más gloriosa y enorme la propia.

Una luz marrón al final del camino

Se transitan los mecanismos que componen este artefacto de escritura porque se requiere romper con toda mirada única para contar y enunciarse, porque toda pretensión de una voz neutral que nos subsuma implica que esa voz será pensada como blanca, masculina y hegemónica. Para generar nuevas perspectivas existe la necesidad imperiosa de posicionarse.

Ya no es ese Dios único blanco, hombre, macho y familiar. Ahora se logra empezar a componer este otro relato del lodo del horror civilizatorio en el que todas chapaleamos la vida, que llega a alcanzar su cima en los museos de la ciencia racista y en esa figura del niño comprado y sustraído de América, tan faltante como la pequeña momia ausente en el inicio de la historia. 

El dolor del saqueo y el costo humano tienen una suerte de metáfora perfecta en ese niño y en el afán de rastrearlo. Un intento de resolución que termina siendo una definición por la Literatura. En un texto tensionado por los géneros y los registros, hay una falta tan lacerante que queda tatuada en la experiencia como una herida de arma blanca, imposible de generar tejido que la sane, y de alguna hermosa y poética manera, Gabriela lo resuelve hacia la literatura, porque la literatura es la herramienta que puede caminar sobre el tiempo, la compra a esa madre degradada por la colonia, una mujer ancestra huaqueada como tantas otras, el rapto de su niño, el barco que se lo llevó hacia un continente desconocido, y llegar hasta él, hasta Juan, para darle un nombre, una pertenencia, una pequeña estela en el mundo. Denunciar su robo y otorgarle un final.

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