Literatura

Las vidas paralelas de Irène Némirovsky y Anton Chéjov

Irène Némirovsky nació un año antes de que Anton Chéjov pronunciase sus últimas (y célebres) palabras mientras liquidaba una copa de champán: «Ich sterbe», me muero. Con él pasó sus últimos años de vida: después de escribir la monumental «Suite francesa» —una «Guerra y paz» de su tiempo que no llegó a ver publicada—, Némirovsky completó la biografía íntima y precisa del escritor ruso que tanto admiraba en septiembre de 1940, poco antes de ser deportada a Auschwitz. «La vida de Chéjov» (Salamandra) se publicó recién en 1946, una vez terminada la Segunda Guerra Mundial y cuatro años después de su muerte en el campo de exterminio. Publicamos aquí el prólogo a la nueva edición, donde la ensayista Mercedes Monmany evoca las extraordinarias coincidencias entre ambas vidas y recorre todas las caras de Rusia que habitaron en ellas.

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Cr\u00e9dito:\u00a0Getty 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el certificado del campo de exterminio de Auschwitz, por donde pasar\u00edan grandes nombres de la literatura universal como Primo Levi o el Premio Nobel de Literatura Imre Kert\u00e9sz, que lograr\u00edan no acabar convertidos en cenizas como sucedi\u00f3 con tantos miles de jud\u00edos y resistentes al nazismo all\u00ed masacrados, el 19 de agosto de 1942, a las 15 horas y 20 minutos, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky, una de las m\u00e1s impresionantes y singulares escritoras del siglo xx, sucumbir\u00eda a \u00abuna gripe\u00bb. \u00c9se era el c\u00ednico lenguaje empleado de forma cotidiana por aquellos criminales. Con toda probabilidad ser\u00eda a causa de una epidemia de tifus desatada en el campo. Como dir\u00edan lac\u00f3nicamente sus bi\u00f3grafos Olivier Philipponnat y Patrick Lienhardt en <em>La vie d\u2019Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky<\/em>, \u00abno habr\u00eda ning\u00fan Ch\u00e9jov para testimoniar \u2014como as\u00ed hab\u00eda hecho este autor con el sombr\u00edo infierno siberiano de la isla de Sajal\u00edn\u2014 aquel universo de locura, crueldad, odio y muerte\u00bb.<\/p><p>Nacida en Kiev el 11 de febrero de 1903, Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky, que tras la huida en 1918 con su familia de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica hab\u00eda comenzado a escribir, poco despu\u00e9s de su llegada a Francia, en su nueva lengua de adopci\u00f3n, el franc\u00e9s, la mejor literatura de su tiempo, no dej\u00f3 de completar diversas obras antes de ser detenida y enviada a Auschwitz. En su refugio obligado de Issy-l\u2019\u00c9v\u00eaque, en la Borgo\u00f1a, lejos de las comodidades a las que estaba acostumbrada en Par\u00eds, relee a sus autores preferidos: a Tolst\u00f3i \u2014su intenci\u00f3n es hacer un <em>Guerra y paz<\/em> de su tiempo, lo que m\u00e1s tarde ser\u00e1, de forma inacabada, su magn\u00edfica <em>Suite francesa<\/em>, recuperada sesenta a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su fallecimiento\u2014, a Pushkin y a Byron. Acabar\u00e1 de redactar su novela <em>Los bienes de este mundo<\/em> (que aparecer\u00e1 p\u00f3stuma en 1947), tambi\u00e9n una biograf\u00eda muy querida por ella dedicada a su admirado Ch\u00e9jov (<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/285425-libro-la-vida-de-chejov-9788418681189\\\">La vida de Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span>), que dejar\u00e1 in\u00e9dita, y comienza su gran proyecto o saga novelesca, analizando la <em>d\u00e9bacle<\/em> de 1940, el pavoroso \u00e9xodo y los comienzos de la 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conservar\u00eda, al menos en su coraz\u00f3n y en sus recuerdos enternecidos, una doble nacionalidad: la rusa y la francesa. O lo que es lo mismo, dominar\u00eda a la perfecci\u00f3n, hasta sus m\u00e1s m\u00ednimos secretos y escondrijos muchas veces vedados a la mayor\u00eda, lo que hab\u00edan sido las mejores y m\u00e1s universales literaturas durante el siglo XIX. Es decir, la rusa y la francesa. Flaubert, Balzac y Maupassant, Tolst\u00f3i, Dostoievski, Turgu\u00e9nev y sobre todo su querid\u00edsimo\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4383-anton-chejov\\\">Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span>\u00a0ser\u00edan ya para siempre parientes presentes, o bien ausentes, pero permanentemente cercanos y familiares, junto a otros muchos, que transportar\u00eda sin cesar con ella: en Kiev y luego San Petersburgo, donde creci\u00f3 hasta su huida debido a la revoluci\u00f3n hacia Finlandia, y por fin en Par\u00eds, donde se instalar\u00eda con su adinerada familia. Esa capital que, como dec\u00eda Ch\u00e9jov, convert\u00eda \u00aben una aburrida provincia al resto de Europa\u00bb.<\/p><p>En mayo de 1940, poco antes del inicio de la ofensiva y la llegada de las tropas alemanas, aparecer\u00e1 un largo fragmento de <em>La vida de Ch\u00e9jov<\/em> \u2014de la que ya hab\u00eda redactado dos tercios\u2014 en la revista <em>Les Oeuvres Libres<\/em>. Ir\u00e8ne compara al europeo de 1940 con la etapa de Alejandro III, amenazados bien por la cruz gamada o por la hoz y el martillo que no tardar\u00edan en venir: \u00abEl mal reinaba entonces, al igual que ahora. No hab\u00eda adoptado formas apocal\u00edpticas como hoy, pero la violencia, la cobard\u00eda y la corrupci\u00f3n estaban a la orden del d\u00eda. Como en el momento actual, el mundo se divid\u00eda en verdugos ciegos y v\u00edctimas resignadas, pero todo era mezquino, estrecho, lleno de mediocridad\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p><p>En septiembre, pues, de ese mismo a\u00f1o, Ir\u00e8ne finaliza la redacci\u00f3n de <em>La vida de Ch\u00e9jov<\/em>. Acaba de establecer un emocionante di\u00e1logo con su idolatrado escritor. En ambos casos, dos barbaries, dos totalitarismos devastadores est\u00e1n a las puertas de lo que hasta entonces se hab\u00eda conocido, con todas sus injusticias y la falta de resoluci\u00f3n de terribles desigualdades e incesantes descontentos sociales, como civilizaci\u00f3n. Por un lado, el totalitarismo en curso nazi, y por otro el despotismo fan\u00e1tico de los s\u00f3viets, apunt\u00e1ndose ya en el firmamento con mil y una se\u00f1ales inquietantes en los tiempos de Ch\u00e9jov. Dos esp\u00edritus libres, misteriosamente cercanos, de fiera rebeld\u00eda ante el sometimiento, de la m\u00e1s irrenunciable independencia tanto a la hora de escribir como a la de tomar partido, se reunir\u00e1n en este libro fascinante y excepcional, que abre a los dos en canal: a la Rusia del exilio y a la Rusia abandonada, pero jam\u00e1s olvidada del interior.<\/p><p>En esta obra concisa y sumamente personal que la novelista franco-rusa decide dedicarle a un gigante indiscutible de la \u00e9poca de oro de la literatura de su patria de origen, que sigue encarnando a\u00fan hoy la m\u00e1xima modernidad y revoluci\u00f3n en el campo de la escritura, en especial de las formas breves, pesar\u00e1, al mismo nivel, tanto su admiraci\u00f3n por sus aportaciones art\u00edsticas como el deslumbramiento por su persona y su vida. Esa tremenda exigencia interior, como una y otra vez nos recuerda Ir\u00e8ne, ese deseo profundo de \u00abuna vida moral m\u00e1s alta\u00bb a la que Ch\u00e9jov nunca renunciar\u00eda, alej\u00e1ndose sin cesar del letargo conformista, del individualismo narcisista, de la indiferencia desalmada y, en general, de la mediocridad ambiental. N\u00e9mirovsky no dejar\u00e1 de se\u00f1alar c\u00f3mo en cada una de las etapas de la existencia de aquel joven provinciano de Taganrog, en el mar de Azov, que hab\u00eda llevado una vida miserable, castigada desde muy pronto por la tuberculosis, hab\u00eda primado siempre el compromiso con los que sufr\u00edan, el entendimiento profundo con todo tipo de razas y religiones, su solidaridad con los desheredados de la tierra, ya fueran enfermos sin recursos a los que atend\u00eda como m\u00e9dico de forma desinteresada o aquellos presos que viv\u00edan y mor\u00edan olvidados por todos en atroces penales rodeados de la eterna nieve siberiana.<\/p><p>Poco a poco, se podr\u00eda decir que calladamente, asistimos a la lenta y melanc\u00f3lica enumeraci\u00f3n de un buen n\u00famero de constantes que se repiten en las vidas paralelas de dos personas que no llegaron a conocerse: una hab\u00eda nacido un a\u00f1o antes tan s\u00f3lo de la desaparici\u00f3n de la otra. Ser\u00eda en 1904, en el balneario de Badenweiler, en la Selva Negra alemana, adonde hab\u00eda ido junto a su mujer, la actriz Olga Knipper, con el objeto de encontrar algo de reposo para sus extenuados pulmones y su cansado coraz\u00f3n, donde Ch\u00e9jov pronunciar\u00eda sus dos \u00faltimas y c\u00e9lebres palabras, <em>Ich sterbe<\/em>, \u00abme muero\u00bb, al tiempo que se beb\u00eda, hasta la \u00faltima gota, una copa de champ\u00e1n. Ten\u00eda tan s\u00f3lo cuarenta y cuatro a\u00f1os y ya era el famoso e indiscutido autor de centenares de cuentos, grabados con pasi\u00f3n en la mente de todos los rusos de su tiempo, as\u00ed como el autor de obras maravillosas que revolucionar\u00edan la escena de aquellos d\u00edas, representadas en un sinf\u00edn de teatros nacionales, como era el caso de <em>La gaviota<\/em>, <em>T\u00edo Vania<\/em>, <em>Las tres hermanas<\/em> o <em>El jard\u00edn de los cerezos<\/em>.<\/p><p>Una de las cuestiones principales, que ata\u00f1\u00eda directamente a su biograf\u00eda, por la que estos dos grandes escritores de distintas \u00e9pocas estar\u00edan unidos, ser\u00eda la infancia. Infancias desgraciadas, \u00abinfancias robadas\u00bb \u2014como dir\u00eda Ir\u00e8ne\u2014 de ni\u00f1os no queridos. Como ella misma escribir\u00eda en <em>El vino de la soledad<\/em>, una de sus obras m\u00e1s desgarradoras y autobiogr\u00e1ficas, la infancia, ese periodo del que el ser humano nunca se llega a \u00abcurar\u00bb, m\u00e1s que una etapa de formaci\u00f3n puede ser perfectamente un momento de \u00abdesviaci\u00f3n del alma\u00bb. Unos a\u00f1os de gran dureza que hermanar\u00e1n a Ch\u00e9jov y N\u00e9mirovsky, aport\u00e1ndoles en la edad adulta una resistencia y fortaleza inusitadas. Toda violencia \u2014recordar\u00e1 Ir\u00e8ne en su libro, en ese continuo di\u00e1logo que establece con su admirado maestro m\u00e1s de medio siglo despu\u00e9s\u2014 le resultaba repugnante: \u00abDesde la infancia, hab\u00eda querido salvaguardar su libertad interior, su dignidad, y lo hab\u00eda conseguido pese a los golpes, la pobreza y el trabajo embrutecedor\u00bb.<\/p><p>Programada para 1942, cuya edici\u00f3n se pensaba acompa\u00f1ar de numerosos y poco conocidos documentos, <em>La vida de Ch\u00e9jov<\/em> aparecer\u00eda finalmente en 1946, una vez acabada la guerra, con un pr\u00f3logo del escritor franc\u00e9s Jean-Jacques Bernard. Dramaturgo y novelista, jefe de filas de la llamada \u00abescuela del silencio\u00bb, Bernard hab\u00eda sido capturado en la redada del 12 de diciembre de 1941 contra 743 \u00abpersonajes notables jud\u00edos\u00bb, casi todos con nacionalidad francesa. Logr\u00f3 ser puesto en libertad tres meses despu\u00e9s, en raz\u00f3n de su estado de salud, dejando escrito lo siguiente en aquel pr\u00f3logo consagrado a un bello libro dolorosamente p\u00f3stumo: \u00abNacida en el Este, Ir\u00e8ne ir\u00eda a morir al Este. Arrancada para vivir de su tierra natal, ser\u00eda arrancada para morir de su tierra de elecci\u00f3n. Entre estas dos p\u00e1ginas queda inscrita una existencia demasiado corta, aunque brillante: una joven rusa que lleg\u00f3 para dejar escritas sobre el libro de oro de nuestra lengua p\u00e1ginas que lo enriquecer\u00edan. En memoria de los veinte a\u00f1os que pas\u00f3 entre nosotros, lloramos ahora al escritor franc\u00e9s\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h4oydqr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><em><br \/><\/em><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n imperturbable<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/un-inedito-de-proust\\\">\u00bfUn in\u00e9dito de Proust?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\">\u00abLos documentos de Aspern\u00bb: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la cancelaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n0cvjqx\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

Anton Chéjov en su estudio en Yalta (1895-1900). Crédito: Getty Images.

Según el certificado del campo de exterminio de Auschwitz, por donde pasarían grandes nombres de la literatura universal como Primo Levi o el Premio Nobel de Literatura Imre Kertész, que lograrían no acabar convertidos en cenizas como sucedió con tantos miles de judíos y resistentes al nazismo allí masacrados, el 19 de agosto de 1942, a las 15 horas y 20 minutos, Irène Némirovsky, una de las más impresionantes y singulares escritoras del siglo xx, sucumbiría a «una gripe». Ése era el cínico lenguaje empleado de forma cotidiana por aquellos criminales. Con toda probabilidad sería a causa de una epidemia de tifus desatada en el campo. Como dirían lacónicamente sus biógrafos Olivier Philipponnat y Patrick Lienhardt en La vie d’Irène Némirovsky, «no habría ningún Chéjov para testimoniar —como así había hecho este autor con el sombrío infierno siberiano de la isla de Sajalín— aquel universo de locura, crueldad, odio y muerte».

Nacida en Kiev el 11 de febrero de 1903, Irène Némirovsky, que tras la huida en 1918 con su familia de la Unión Soviética había comenzado a escribir, poco después de su llegada a Francia, en su nueva lengua de adopción, el francés, la mejor literatura de su tiempo, no dejó de completar diversas obras antes de ser detenida y enviada a Auschwitz. En su refugio obligado de Issy-l’Évêque, en la Borgoña, lejos de las comodidades a las que estaba acostumbrada en París, relee a sus autores preferidos: a Tolstói —su intención es hacer un Guerra y paz de su tiempo, lo que más tarde será, de forma inacabada, su magnífica Suite francesa, recuperada sesenta años después de su fallecimiento—, a Pushkin y a Byron. Acabará de redactar su novela Los bienes de este mundo (que aparecerá póstuma en 1947), también una biografía muy querida por ella dedicada a su admirado Chéjov (La vida de Chéjov), que dejará inédita, y comienza su gran proyecto o saga novelesca, analizando la débacle de 1940, el pavoroso éxodo y los comienzos de la Ocupación.

Siempre conservaría, al menos en su corazón y en sus recuerdos enternecidos, una doble nacionalidad: la rusa y la francesa. O lo que es lo mismo, dominaría a la perfección, hasta sus más mínimos secretos y escondrijos muchas veces vedados a la mayoría, lo que habían sido las mejores y más universales literaturas durante el siglo XIX. Es decir, la rusa y la francesa. Flaubert, Balzac y Maupassant, Tolstói, Dostoievski, Turguénev y sobre todo su queridísimo Chéjov serían ya para siempre parientes presentes, o bien ausentes, pero permanentemente cercanos y familiares, junto a otros muchos, que transportaría sin cesar con ella: en Kiev y luego San Petersburgo, donde creció hasta su huida debido a la revolución hacia Finlandia, y por fin en París, donde se instalaría con su adinerada familia. Esa capital que, como decía Chéjov, convertía «en una aburrida provincia al resto de Europa».

En mayo de 1940, poco antes del inicio de la ofensiva y la llegada de las tropas alemanas, aparecerá un largo fragmento de La vida de Chéjov —de la que ya había redactado dos tercios— en la revista Les Oeuvres Libres. Irène compara al europeo de 1940 con la etapa de Alejandro III, amenazados bien por la cruz gamada o por la hoz y el martillo que no tardarían en venir: «El mal reinaba entonces, al igual que ahora. No había adoptado formas apocalípticas como hoy, pero la violencia, la cobardía y la corrupción estaban a la orden del día. Como en el momento actual, el mundo se dividía en verdugos ciegos y víctimas resignadas, pero todo era mezquino, estrecho, lleno de mediocridad».

En septiembre, pues, de ese mismo año, Irène finaliza la redacción de La vida de Chéjov. Acaba de establecer un emocionante diálogo con su idolatrado escritor. En ambos casos, dos barbaries, dos totalitarismos devastadores están a las puertas de lo que hasta entonces se había conocido, con todas sus injusticias y la falta de resolución de terribles desigualdades e incesantes descontentos sociales, como civilización. Por un lado, el totalitarismo en curso nazi, y por otro el despotismo fanático de los sóviets, apuntándose ya en el firmamento con mil y una señales inquietantes en los tiempos de Chéjov. Dos espíritus libres, misteriosamente cercanos, de fiera rebeldía ante el sometimiento, de la más irrenunciable independencia tanto a la hora de escribir como a la de tomar partido, se reunirán en este libro fascinante y excepcional, que abre a los dos en canal: a la Rusia del exilio y a la Rusia abandonada, pero jamás olvidada del interior.

En esta obra concisa y sumamente personal que la novelista franco-rusa decide dedicarle a un gigante indiscutible de la época de oro de la literatura de su patria de origen, que sigue encarnando aún hoy la máxima modernidad y revolución en el campo de la escritura, en especial de las formas breves, pesará, al mismo nivel, tanto su admiración por sus aportaciones artísticas como el deslumbramiento por su persona y su vida. Esa tremenda exigencia interior, como una y otra vez nos recuerda Irène, ese deseo profundo de «una vida moral más alta» a la que Chéjov nunca renunciaría, alejándose sin cesar del letargo conformista, del individualismo narcisista, de la indiferencia desalmada y, en general, de la mediocridad ambiental. Némirovsky no dejará de señalar cómo en cada una de las etapas de la existencia de aquel joven provinciano de Taganrog, en el mar de Azov, que había llevado una vida miserable, castigada desde muy pronto por la tuberculosis, había primado siempre el compromiso con los que sufrían, el entendimiento profundo con todo tipo de razas y religiones, su solidaridad con los desheredados de la tierra, ya fueran enfermos sin recursos a los que atendía como médico de forma desinteresada o aquellos presos que vivían y morían olvidados por todos en atroces penales rodeados de la eterna nieve siberiana.

Poco a poco, se podría decir que calladamente, asistimos a la lenta y melancólica enumeración de un buen número de constantes que se repiten en las vidas paralelas de dos personas que no llegaron a conocerse: una había nacido un año antes tan sólo de la desaparición de la otra. Sería en 1904, en el balneario de Badenweiler, en la Selva Negra alemana, adonde había ido junto a su mujer, la actriz Olga Knipper, con el objeto de encontrar algo de reposo para sus extenuados pulmones y su cansado corazón, donde Chéjov pronunciaría sus dos últimas y célebres palabras, Ich sterbe, «me muero», al tiempo que se bebía, hasta la última gota, una copa de champán. Tenía tan sólo cuarenta y cuatro años y ya era el famoso e indiscutido autor de centenares de cuentos, grabados con pasión en la mente de todos los rusos de su tiempo, así como el autor de obras maravillosas que revolucionarían la escena de aquellos días, representadas en un sinfín de teatros nacionales, como era el caso de La gaviota, Tío Vania, Las tres hermanas o El jardín de los cerezos.

Una de las cuestiones principales, que atañía directamente a su biografía, por la que estos dos grandes escritores de distintas épocas estarían unidos, sería la infancia. Infancias desgraciadas, «infancias robadas» —como diría Irène— de niños no queridos. Como ella misma escribiría en El vino de la soledad, una de sus obras más desgarradoras y autobiográficas, la infancia, ese periodo del que el ser humano nunca se llega a «curar», más que una etapa de formación puede ser perfectamente un momento de «desviación del alma». Unos años de gran dureza que hermanarán a Chéjov y Némirovsky, aportándoles en la edad adulta una resistencia y fortaleza inusitadas. Toda violencia —recordará Irène en su libro, en ese continuo diálogo que establece con su admirado maestro más de medio siglo después— le resultaba repugnante: «Desde la infancia, había querido salvaguardar su libertad interior, su dignidad, y lo había conseguido pese a los golpes, la pobreza y el trabajo embrutecedor».

Programada para 1942, cuya edición se pensaba acompañar de numerosos y poco conocidos documentos, La vida de Chéjov aparecería finalmente en 1946, una vez acabada la guerra, con un prólogo del escritor francés Jean-Jacques Bernard. Dramaturgo y novelista, jefe de filas de la llamada «escuela del silencio», Bernard había sido capturado en la redada del 12 de diciembre de 1941 contra 743 «personajes notables judíos», casi todos con nacionalidad francesa. Logró ser puesto en libertad tres meses después, en razón de su estado de salud, dejando escrito lo siguiente en aquel prólogo consagrado a un bello libro dolorosamente póstumo: «Nacida en el Este, Irène iría a morir al Este. Arrancada para vivir de su tierra natal, sería arrancada para morir de su tierra de elección. Entre estas dos páginas queda inscrita una existencia demasiado corta, aunque brillante: una joven rusa que llegó para dejar escritas sobre el libro de oro de nuestra lengua páginas que lo enriquecerían. En memoria de los veinte años que pasó entre nosotros, lloramos ahora al escritor francés».

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