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Totem y tabú: cartas a las madres

Miguel Hernández desde la prisión, la tristeza atormentada de Dostoievski, la gratitud devocional de Schumann, la delicada despedida de Emily Dickinson, María Antonieta embarazada, Kafka y su suegra, Freud y su Edipo, la célebre carta ante la Guerra Civil norteamericana que inspiró la instauración del Día de la Madre en 1914. «Cartas a la madre» (Ediciones B) es una antología que permite asomarse a las mil formas de ese vínculo que viene forjando a Occidente desde la Antigua Grecia. Publicamos a continuación una selección de esas confesiones llenas de amor, deseo, enojo y perdón.

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KAFKA A SU FUTURA SUEGRA, ANNA BAUER, QUE NUNCA LLEGO\u0301 A SERLO\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>A pesar de dos noviazgos oficiales, Franz Kafka nunca llego\u0301 a casarse, aterrorizado por la posible pe\u0301rdida de su tiempo libre y de su independencia para dedicarse del todo a la literatura. En un constante vaive\u0301n, Kafka se debati\u0301a entre la necesidad de salir de la casa de sus padres, un infierno, y el rechazo a las consecuencias de la vida en pareja. Corte\u0301s y atento como pocos, aun sin llegar a casarse, escribio\u0301 cartas a su futura suegra que dejan destellos del ser humano tan raro, sublime y diferente que era el escritor.\u00a0<\/p><p>Praga<\/p><p><em>Domingo, 19 de abril de 1914\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Querida madre:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Ahora empiezan a ordena\u0301rseme un poco los recuerdos de los dos di\u0301as y, de forma tranquila y decidida, puedo darte las gracias de todo corazo\u0301n, a ti, a padre y a todos vosotros. Durante los dos di\u0301as me senti\u0301, de verdad, agasajado de manera permanente, si\u0301, permanente, y vi en el hecho de que me deis a Felice la ma\u0301s grande sen\u0303al de amor que podi\u0301a recibir de vosotros, nunca sere\u0301 lo suficientemente digno para agradece\u0301rosla.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Todo lo dema\u0301s es secundario. Secundario es que tu\u0301, querida madre, tengas esto y aquello que objetarme y en el futuro encuentres quiza\u0301 ma\u0301s cosas que objetar, sin que yo pueda cambiarlas. Nadie es perfecto para si\u0301; cua\u0301nto menos lo sera\u0301 entonces para los dema\u0301s. Que no sea esto, queridi\u0301sima madre, lo que ocupe en primer lugar tus pensamientos, sino que entregas a Felice a una persona que sin duda no la quiere menos que tu\u0301 (a su propia manera, claro esta\u0301) y que, hasta donde lleguen todas sus fuerzas, intentara\u0301 proporcionarle una vida feliz.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Y ahora venid pronto, que todos se alegran ya de vuestra venida. Cualquier retraso de vuestra llegada carece de motivo y me provoca sufrimiento. Tambie\u0301n es importante que venga\u0301is pronto para buscar piso. Si Felice no se da prisa, \u00a1empu\u0301jala un poco sin que se de\u0301 cuenta, queridi\u0301sima madre!\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Cordiali\u0301simos saludos y besos a ti y a todos de<\/em><\/p><p><em><br \/>Tu 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\/><br \/><strong>MIGUEL HERNA\u0301NDEZ A SU MADRE, CONCEPCIO\u0301N GILABERT\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Alicante 5 de enero de 1942\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Mi querida madre:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Me encuentro francamente mejor. Un poco de\u0301bil, como advertira\u0301s en la letra, pero dispuesto a ponerme bien pronto, y adema\u0301s fuerte. Ha sido un principio de tifus, segu\u0301n el resultado del ana\u0301lisis de sangre que se me hizo. Hoy ya no existe ningu\u0301n peligro. Tengo ganas de tener unas letras tuyas y saber de ti, de la ti\u0301a Antonia y dema\u0301s familia. No quiero que se te ocurra venir hasta que llegue el buen tiempo, a pesar de las ganas tan grandes que tengo de verte. Esta primavera vendra\u0301s, si no se me ocurre a mi\u0301 ir antes.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Madre, me acuerdo mucho de ti. No sufras, come, cui\u0301date y ya vendra\u0301n mejores tiempos. Ya estoy aqui\u0301 en la enfermeri\u0301a de la prisio\u0301n, un poco impaciente de llevar treinta y siete di\u0301as en cama, y eso que es la primera vez que duermo en ella despue\u0301s de dos an\u0303os y medio de prisio\u0301n (un poco ma\u0301s).\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Bueno, vieja, se me cansa la mano y te voy a abrazar, no es muy fuertemente, porque no puedo, pero si\u0301 con las fuerzas necesarias con que cuento actualmente.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Hasta la tuya te saluda y abraza otra vez tu hijo 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\/><br \/>HONORE\u0301 DE BALZAC A SU MADRE, ANNE-CHARLOTTE-LAURE SALLAMBIER\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Angulema 20 de julio de 1832\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Mi buena y excelente madre, despue\u0301s de haberte escrito con tanta prisa, ayer, me arrollo\u0301 la ternura ma\u0301s completa cuando lei\u0301 la carta que me escribes, y despue\u0301s de una hora durante la cual te adore\u0301, no tuve fuerzas para escribirte, asi\u0301 que he esperado hasta esta man\u0303ana. Pobre madre, \u00bfco\u0301mo podre\u0301 compensarte, cua\u0301ndo te compensare\u0301 y podre\u0301 jama\u0301s compensarte con ternura y amor todo lo que tu\u0301 haces por mi\u0301?\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>ROBERT SCHUMANN A SU MADRE, CHRISTIANE SCHNABEL\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Monheim, cerca de Nu\u0308remberg 2 de abril de 1828\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Pienso en ti a menudo, mi buena y querida madre, y en todas las excelentes ma\u0301ximas con las que me armaste para la batalla de la vida... Querida madre, \u00a1cua\u0301ntas veces te he ofendido y he malinterpretado tus sabias intenciones! Perdona a tu hijo, que espera expiar las faltas de su exaltada juventud con buenas acciones y una vida virtuosa. \u00a1Que\u0301 extraordinario ascendiente tienen los padres sobre sus hijos! Al quedar hue\u0301rfano de padre, tengo au\u0301n mayores obligaciones para contigo, queridi\u0301sima madre. Solo a ti debo mi vida feliz, mis expectativas de contar con un futuro alegre y sereno. Que tu hijo se muestre digno y responda siempre al amor de su madre llevando una buena vida. Pero tu\u0301 debes ser, como siempre, mi madre bondadosa e indulgente, y juzgarme con benevolencia cuando cometa una transgresio\u0301n, amonestarme con delicadeza cuando mis extravagancias me adentren en exceso en el peligroso laberinto de la vida. Jean Paul dice: \u00abLa amistad y el amor recorren este mundo casi velados y con los labios sellados, y ningu\u0301n hombre habla de su amor a otro, porque el alma no tiene forma de hablar; pero los nin\u0303os pueden revelar su amor, expresar en voz alta su devocio\u0301n al corazo\u0301n de sus padres, y reintegrar adoracio\u0301n por amor...\u00bb.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em><br \/>Robert<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>FIO\u0301DOR DOSTOIEVSKI A SU MADRE, MARIA DOSTOIEVSKAIA\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>[Moscu\u0301, abril-mayo de 1834]\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Querida mama\u0301:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Una vez te fuiste, querida mama\u0301, empece\u0301 a echarte muchi\u0301simo de menos, y cuando ahora pienso en ti, querida mama\u0301, me invade tal tristeza que resulta imposible ahuyentarla. \u00a1Si supieras cua\u0301nto me gustari\u0301a verte! Apenas puedo esperar a que llegue ese feliz momento. Cada vez que pienso en ti rezo a Dios por tu salud. Haznos saber, querida mama\u0301, si has llegado bien, dale un beso a Andryushenka y Verochka de mi parte. Beso tus manos y seguire\u0301 siendo tu hijo obediente.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em><br \/>F. Dostoievski\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>MARI\u0301A ANTONIETA, EMBARAZADA, A SU MADRE, MARI\u0301A TERESA I DE AUSTRIA\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Versalles 19 de abril de 1778\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Sen\u0303ora, mi querida madre:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Mi primer impulso, que me arrepiento de no haber seguido, hace ocho di\u0301as, fue comunicarle mis esperanzas a mi querida madre. Me contuve por el temor de causar una gran tristeza, si al cabo mis esperanzas se desvaneci\u0301an. Todavi\u0301a no esta\u0301n totalmente aseguradas, y no confiare\u0301 por completo en ellas hasta los primeros di\u0301as del pro\u0301ximo mes, momento del segundo ciclo. Mientras tanto, creo contar con buenas razones para confiar. Jama\u0301s he tenido retrasos; al contrario, ma\u0301s bien siempre avances. El mes de marzo, el di\u0301a tres, tuve la regla. Ya estamos a diecinueve y no ha pasado nada. Por lo dema\u0301s, me encuentro de maravilla, tengo ma\u0301s apetito y ma\u0301s suen\u0303o. Debo tambie\u0301n calmar la alarma y la inquietud de mi querida madre da\u0301ndoos una explicacio\u0301n fiel y cierta de mis ha\u0301bitos cotidianos. Desde que comenzaron estas esperanzas, he interrumpido cualquier viaje en coche y me he limitado a breves paseos a pie. Me aseguran que, cuando haya pasado el segundo ciclo, sera\u0301 saludable estar menos encerrada. Mi querida madre pode\u0301is estar segura de que sere\u0301 prudente y estare\u0301 atenta a todos mis movimientos.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><br \/>Versalles 14 de agosto de 1778\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p><em>Estoy llena de felicidad porque, encontra\u0301ndose mi embarazo en un momento tan delicado, mi salud siga siendo tan buena. Mi bebe\u0301 se movio\u0301 por primera vez el viernes 31 de julio, a las diez y media de la noche. Desde entonces, se revuelve frecuentemente, lo cual me causa un gran ju\u0301bilo. No puedo expresar a mi querida madre lo feliz que me hace cada movimiento. Durante este tiempo, he engordado mucho, incluso ma\u0301s de lo que es corriente a los cinco meses. Si duda no merezco ningu\u0301n elogio por la fiesta de Triano\u0301n, me habri\u0301a sido imposible fingir nada. Unos di\u0301as despue\u0301s, volvi\u0301 a mi vida ordinaria. Mi cabeza no da abasto con los pensamientos que me atormentan. Sigue siendo verdad que son necesarios para alejar las conjeturas y los razonamientos. Por medio de los filo\u0301sofos e intrigas de todo tipo, el rey de Prusia ha logrado un gran nu\u0301mero de partidarios y, en ciertos momentos, me veo obligada a mostrar un rostro alegre, para el que sin duda no tengo causa ni ganas. Vamos a pasar ocho di\u0301as en Choisy. No he crei\u0301do que deba oponerme a los dos especta\u0301culos que siempre esta\u0301n presentes en los viajes, habri\u0301amos tenido una discusio\u0301n sobre ello. Se ha decidido que mi bebe\u0301 sea bautizado y reciba su nombre justo despue\u0301s de nacer. Si mi querida madre tiene la bondad de ser la madrina, espero que tenga la bondad de enviar su consentimiento y los nombres que quiera darle. El rey de Espan\u0303a sera\u0301 el padrino. Estoy muy impaciente por la pro\u0301xima carta. Me atrevo a pensar que me traera\u0301 un buen resultado: \u00a1Dios quiera que no sea decepcionante!\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>U\u0301LTIMA CARTA DE SAMUEL JOHNSON A SU MADRE, SARAH JOHNSON\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>20 de enero de 1759\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Querida y respetada madre:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Ni su estado ni su cara\u0301cter me permiten decir mucho. Ha sido la mejor madre del mundo, y creo que la mejor mujer. Le agradezco su indulgencia para conmigo, y le pido perdo\u0301n por todo lo que he hecho mal, asi\u0301 como por todo lo que he omitido hacer bien. Que Dios le conceda su Espi\u0301ritu Santo y la reciba en la felicidad eterna, por el amor de Jesu- cristo. Ame\u0301n. El Sen\u0303or Jesu\u0301s reciba su espi\u0301ritu. Ame\u0301n.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Soy, queridi\u0301sima madre, su devoto hijo,\u00a0<br \/><br \/><\/em><\/p><p><em>Sam. Johnson\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>EMILY DICKINSON A SUS PRIMOS\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Noviembre de 1882\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Queridos primos,<\/em><\/p><p><em>Me hubiera gustado escribiros antes, pero la muerte de mama\u0301 casi aturde mi espi\u0301ritu. He atendido algunas diligencias de amor, aunque he escrito de forma un tanto intuitiva. Poco quedaba ya de la ti\u0301a que conocisteis. Se ratifico\u0301 la gran misio\u0301n del dolor \u2014cultivado hasta la ternura por la persistente tristeza, de modo que murio\u0301 una madre superior a la que hubiera fallecido de haberlo hecho antes. No hubo despedida terrenal. Se nos escapo\u0301 de las manos como un copo de nieve arrastrado por el viento, y ahora forma parte de la deriva llamada \u00abinfinito\u00bb. No sabemos do\u0301nde esta\u0301, aunque muchos nos lo dicen. Creo que, de algu\u0301n modo, seremos agasajados por nuestro Creador \u2014que Aquel que nos dio esta notable tierra tiene el poder de sorprender au\u0301n ma\u0301s a aquello que E\u0301l ha creado. Ma\u0301s alla\u0301 de eso, todo es silencio... Madre estaba muy hermosa cuando murio\u0301. Los serafines son artistas solemnes. La iluminacio\u0301n que solo llega una vez se detuvo en sus rasgos, y cuando la depositamos en la tumba pareci\u0301a que oculta\u0301bamos una imagen; pero la hierba que recibio\u0301 a mi padre bastara\u0301 a su invitada, a la que pidio\u0301 en el altar que lo visitara durante toda su vida. No puedo decir co\u0301mo es la Eternidad. Me rodea como si fuera el mar... Gracias por acordaros de mi\u0301. Recuerdo\u2014palabra poderosa. \u00abLa que me has dado antes de la creacio\u0301n del mundo\u00bb. <\/em>(Juan, 17, 24. N. de la T.)\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Con carin\u0303o,\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><em><br \/>Emily\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4p0pq44\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abPoco quedaba ya de la t\u00eda que conocisteis. Se nos escapo\u0301 de las manos como un copo de nieve arrastrado por el viento, y ahora forma parte de la deriva llamada \\\"infinito\\\"\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/>Emily Dickinson<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wdffte6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>JULIA WARD HOWE, \u00abLLAMAMIENTO A TODAS LAS MUJERES DEL MUNDO\u00bb\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>La historia de la celebracio\u0301n del di\u0301a de la Madre difiere en cada pai\u0301s, pero se inicia en Estados Unidos. La carta escrita por la militante cato\u0301lica Julia Ward Howe en 1870, como reaccio\u0301n a la barbarie de la Guerra Civil y en homenaje al papel destacado que desempen\u0303aron las mujeres, impulso\u0301 un movimiento que resulto\u0301 decisivo para que el presidente Woodrow Wilson instituyera el di\u0301a de la Madre en 1914.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p><em>Una vez ma\u0301s, ante los ojos del mundo cristiano, dos grandes naciones han consumido su habilidad y poder en el asesinato mutuo. Una vez ma\u0301s, las cuestiones sagradas de la justicia internacional se han sometido a la fatal mediacio\u0301n de las armas de guerra. En esta e\u0301poca de progreso, en este siglo de la luz, se ha permitido que la ambicio\u0301n de los gobernantes trueque los queridos intereses de la vida dome\u0301stica por los sangrientos intercambios del campo de batalla. Asi\u0301 han hecho los hombres. Asi\u0301 lo hara\u0301n los hombres. Pero las mujeres ya no tienen que formar parte de los procedimientos que llenan al mundo de pena y horror. A pesar de los postulados de la fuerza fi\u0301sica, la madre tiene una palabra sagrada e imperativa que decir a sus hijos, que deben la vida a su sufrimiento. Esa palabra debe ser escuchada y contestada como nunca antes.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u00a1Alzaos, pues, mujeres cristianas de hoy! \u00a1Alzaos, todas las mujeres con corazo\u0301n, ya sea vuestro bautismo de agua o de la\u0301grimas! Decid con firmeza: No permitiremos que las cuestiones significativas las decidan organismos irrelevantes. No permitiremos que nuestros maridos vengan a nosotras, apestando a matanzas, en busca de caricias y aplauso. No consentiremos que nos arranquen a nuestros hijos para que olviden todo lo que hemos podido ensen\u0303arles sobre la caridad, la misericordia y la paciencia. Nosotras, mujeres de un pai\u0301s, sentiremos demasiada ternura hacia las de otro pai\u0301s, para permitir que nuestros hijos sean instruidos para herir a los suyos. Desde el seno de este mundo devastado se eleva una voz que se une a la nuestra. Dice: \u00a1Desarme, desarme! La espada del asesinato no es la balanza de la justicia. La sangre no limpia el deshonor, ni la violencia justifica la posesio\u0301n. Al igual que los hombres a menudo han abandonado el arado y el yunque en respuesta al llamamiento a la guerra, que las mujeres dejen ahora todo lo que pueda quedar del hogar para celebrar un gran di\u0301a de reunio\u0301n y consejo.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Que se reu\u0301nan primero, como mujeres, para llorar y homenajear a los muertos. Que luego se aconsejen solemnemente unas a otras respecto a los medios para que la gran familia humana pueda vivir en paz, el hombre como hermano del hombre, y que cada una deje tras de si\u0301 la sagrada impronta, no del Ce\u0301sar, sino de Dios.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>En nombre de todas las mujeres y de la humanidad, pido encarecidamente que se fije y celebre un congreso general de mujeres, sin exclusio\u0301n de nacionalidad, en el lugar que se considere ma\u0301s conveniente, y que sea desde el principio coherente con sus objetivos, para promover la alianza de las diferentes nacionalidades, para resolver amistosamente las cuestiones internacionales, los grandes y generales intereses de la paz.\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"b5rwlbs\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abHe descubierto, tambie\u0301n en mi propio caso, [el feno\u0301meno de] estar enamorado de mi madre y celoso de mi padre, y ahora lo considero un acontecimiento universal en la primera infancia\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/>Sigmund Freud<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"v3pcslk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>SIGMUND FREUD A WILHEM FLEISS SOBRE EL COMPLEJO DE EDIPO\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Viena IX, Berggase 19 15 de octubre de 1897\u00a0<\/p><p><em>Querido Wilhem:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Mi autoana\u0301lisis es, de hecho, lo ma\u0301s esencial que tengo en la actualidad y promete convertirse en lo ma\u0301s valioso para mi\u0301 si llega a su fin. [...] Ser totalmente honesto con uno mismo es un buen ejercicio. Se me ocurrio\u0301 una idea de valor general. He descubierto, tambie\u0301n en mi propio caso, [el feno\u0301meno de] estar enamorado de mi madre y celoso de mi padre, y ahora lo considero un acontecimiento universal en la primera infancia, aunque no tan temprano como en los nin\u0303os que se han vuelto histe\u0301ricos. (Parecido a la invencio\u0301n de la filiacio\u0301n [novela familiar] en la paranoia: he\u0301roes, fundadores de una religio\u0301n). Si esto es asi\u0301, podemos entender el poder de atraccio\u0301n de Edipo rey, a pesar de todas las objeciones que la razo\u0301n plantea contra la presuposicio\u0301n del destino; y podemos comprender por que\u0301 el posterior \u00abdrama del destino\u00bb estaba destinado a fracasar de manera tan estrepitosa. Nuestros sentimientos se alzan contra cualquier compulsio\u0301n individual arbitraria, como la que se presupone en Die Ahnfrau y similares; pero la leyenda griega se aferra a una compulsio\u0301n que todos reconocen porque sienten su existencia dentro de si\u0301 mismos. En su fantasi\u0301a, cada uno de los espectadores fue una vez un Edipo en ciernes y cada uno retrocede horrorizado ante la realizacio\u0301n del suen\u0303o transferido aqui\u0301 a la realidad, con toda la cantidad de represio\u0301n que separa su estado infantil del actual.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Se me paso\u0301 fugazmente por la cabeza la idea de que lo mismo podri\u0301a tambie\u0301n estar en el fondo de Hamlet. No pienso en la intencio\u0301n consciente de Shakespeare, sino que creo, ma\u0301s bien, que un hecho real estimulo\u0301 al poeta a su representacio\u0301n, en la que su inconsciente comprendio\u0301 el inconsciente de su he\u0301roe. \u00bfCo\u0301mo justifica Hamlet, el histe\u0301rico, sus palabras: \u00abLa conciencia nos convierte a todos en cobardes\u00bb? \u00bfCo\u0301mo explica su irresolucio\u0301n para vengar a su padre con el asesinato de su ti\u0301o, el mismo hombre que envi\u0301a a sus cortesanos a la muerte sin ningu\u0301n escru\u0301pulo y que se precipita positivamente al asesinar a Laertes? \u00bfCo\u0301mo mejor que a trave\u0301s del tormento que padece por el oscuro recuerdo de que e\u0301l mismo habi\u0301a contemplado el acto contra su padre por pasio\u0301n hacia su madre, y: \u00abTratad a cada uno como se merece y, \u00bfquie\u0301n escapa al la\u0301tigo?\u00bb? Su conciencia es su inconsciente sentimiento de culpa. \u00bfY no es su alienacio\u0301n sexual en su conversacio\u0301n con Ofelia ti\u0301picamente histe\u0301rica? \u00bfY su rechazo del instinto que busca engendrar hijos? Y por u\u0301ltimo, \u00bfsu transferencia de la accio\u0301n de su propio padre al de Ofelia? Y de la misma maravillosa manera que mis pacientes histe\u0301ricos, \u00bfno se castiga al final a si\u0301 mismo al sufrir el mismo destino que su padre de ser envenenado por el mismo rival?<\/em><\/p><p><em>He centrado mi intere\u0301s en el ana\u0301lisis de un modo tan exclusivo que ni siquiera he intentado probar, en lugar de mi hipo\u0301tesis de que en todos los casos la represio\u0301n parte del aspecto femenino y se dirige contra el masculino, la hipo\u0301tesis opuesta por ti propuesta. Sin embargo, la abordare\u0301 alguna vez. Por desgracia, apenas participo en tus trabajos y progresos. En este aspecto estoy mejor que tu\u0301. Lo que puedo decirte sobre las fronteras mentales de este mundo encuentra en ti una cri\u0301tica comprensiva, y lo que tu\u0301 puedes decirme sobre sus fronteras celestes solo evoca en mi\u0301 un improductivo asombro.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Saludos cordiales para ti, tu querida esposa, y mi nuevo sobrino,\u00a0<\/em><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><em>Tu Sigm.\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5ijc6p6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><strong><br \/><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cartas-gabriela-mistral-doris-dan-maria-moreno\\\">Las cartas de Gabriela Mistral: un cl\u00f3set de cristal<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n imperturbable<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/irene-nemirovsky-la-vida-de-chejov\\\">Las vidas paralelas de Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky y Anton 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10 minutos

Crédito: Max Rompo.

FRANZ KAFKA A SU FUTURA SUEGRA, ANNA BAUER, QUE NUNCA LLEGÓ A SERLO 

A pesar de dos noviazgos oficiales, Franz Kafka nunca llegó a casarse, aterrorizado por la posible pérdida de su tiempo libre y de su independencia para dedicarse del todo a la literatura. En un constante vaivén, Kafka se debatía entre la necesidad de salir de la casa de sus padres, un infierno, y el rechazo a las consecuencias de la vida en pareja. Cortés y atento como pocos, aun sin llegar a casarse, escribió cartas a su futura suegra que dejan destellos del ser humano tan raro, sublime y diferente que era el escritor. 

Praga

Domingo, 19 de abril de 1914 

Querida madre: 

Ahora empiezan a ordenárseme un poco los recuerdos de los dos días y, de forma tranquila y decidida, puedo darte las gracias de todo corazón, a ti, a padre y a todos vosotros. Durante los dos días me sentí, de verdad, agasajado de manera permanente, sí, permanente, y vi en el hecho de que me deis a Felice la más grande señal de amor que podía recibir de vosotros, nunca seré lo suficientemente digno para agradecérosla. 

Todo lo demás es secundario. Secundario es que tú, querida madre, tengas esto y aquello que objetarme y en el futuro encuentres quizá más cosas que objetar, sin que yo pueda cambiarlas. Nadie es perfecto para sí; cuánto menos lo será entonces para los demás. Que no sea esto, queridísima madre, lo que ocupe en primer lugar tus pensamientos, sino que entregas a Felice a una persona que sin duda no la quiere menos que tú (a su propia manera, claro está) y que, hasta donde lleguen todas sus fuerzas, intentará proporcionarle una vida feliz. 

Y ahora venid pronto, que todos se alegran ya de vuestra venida. Cualquier retraso de vuestra llegada carece de motivo y me provoca sufrimiento. También es importante que vengáis pronto para buscar piso. Si Felice no se da prisa, ¡empújala un poco sin que se dé cuenta, queridísima madre! 

Cordialísimos saludos y besos a ti y a todos de


Tu Franz 



MIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ A SU MADRE, CONCEPCIÓN GILABERT 

Alicante 5 de enero de 1942 

Mi querida madre: 

Me encuentro francamente mejor. Un poco débil, como advertirás en la letra, pero dispuesto a ponerme bien pronto, y además fuerte. Ha sido un principio de tifus, según el resultado del análisis de sangre que se me hizo. Hoy ya no existe ningún peligro. Tengo ganas de tener unas letras tuyas y saber de ti, de la tía Antonia y demás familia. No quiero que se te ocurra venir hasta que llegue el buen tiempo, a pesar de las ganas tan grandes que tengo de verte. Esta primavera vendrás, si no se me ocurre a mí ir antes. 

Madre, me acuerdo mucho de ti. No sufras, come, cuídate y ya vendrán mejores tiempos. Ya estoy aquí en la enfermería de la prisión, un poco impaciente de llevar treinta y siete días en cama, y eso que es la primera vez que duermo en ella después de dos años y medio de prisión (un poco más). 

Bueno, vieja, se me cansa la mano y te voy a abrazar, no es muy fuertemente, porque no puedo, pero sí con las fuerzas necesarias con que cuento actualmente. 

Hasta la tuya te saluda y abraza otra vez tu hijo Miguel. 



HONORÉ DE BALZAC A SU MADRE, ANNE-CHARLOTTE-LAURE SALLAMBIER 

Angulema 20 de julio de 1832 

Mi buena y excelente madre, después de haberte escrito con tanta prisa, ayer, me arrolló la ternura más completa cuando leí la carta que me escribes, y después de una hora durante la cual te adoré, no tuve fuerzas para escribirte, así que he esperado hasta esta mañana. Pobre madre, ¿cómo podré compensarte, cuándo te compensaré y podré jamás compensarte con ternura y amor todo lo que tú haces por mí? 



ROBERT SCHUMANN A SU MADRE, CHRISTIANE SCHNABEL 

Monheim, cerca de Nüremberg 2 de abril de 1828 

Pienso en ti a menudo, mi buena y querida madre, y en todas las excelentes máximas con las que me armaste para la batalla de la vida... Querida madre, ¡cuántas veces te he ofendido y he malinterpretado tus sabias intenciones! Perdona a tu hijo, que espera expiar las faltas de su exaltada juventud con buenas acciones y una vida virtuosa. ¡Qué extraordinario ascendiente tienen los padres sobre sus hijos! Al quedar huérfano de padre, tengo aún mayores obligaciones para contigo, queridísima madre. Solo a ti debo mi vida feliz, mis expectativas de contar con un futuro alegre y sereno. Que tu hijo se muestre digno y responda siempre al amor de su madre llevando una buena vida. Pero tú debes ser, como siempre, mi madre bondadosa e indulgente, y juzgarme con benevolencia cuando cometa una transgresión, amonestarme con delicadeza cuando mis extravagancias me adentren en exceso en el peligroso laberinto de la vida. Jean Paul dice: «La amistad y el amor recorren este mundo casi velados y con los labios sellados, y ningún hombre habla de su amor a otro, porque el alma no tiene forma de hablar; pero los niños pueden revelar su amor, expresar en voz alta su devoción al corazón de sus padres, y reintegrar adoración por amor...». 


Robert



FIÓDOR DOSTOIEVSKI A SU MADRE, MARIA DOSTOIEVSKAIA 

[Moscú, abril-mayo de 1834] 

Querida mamá: 

Una vez te fuiste, querida mamá, empecé a echarte muchísimo de menos, y cuando ahora pienso en ti, querida mamá, me invade tal tristeza que resulta imposible ahuyentarla. ¡Si supieras cuánto me gustaría verte! Apenas puedo esperar a que llegue ese feliz momento. Cada vez que pienso en ti rezo a Dios por tu salud. Haznos saber, querida mamá, si has llegado bien, dale un beso a Andryushenka y Verochka de mi parte. Beso tus manos y seguiré siendo tu hijo obediente. 


F. Dostoievski 



MARÍA ANTONIETA, EMBARAZADA, A SU MADRE, MARÍA TERESA I DE AUSTRIA 

Versalles 19 de abril de 1778 

Señora, mi querida madre: 

Mi primer impulso, que me arrepiento de no haber seguido, hace ocho días, fue comunicarle mis esperanzas a mi querida madre. Me contuve por el temor de causar una gran tristeza, si al cabo mis esperanzas se desvanecían. Todavía no están totalmente aseguradas, y no confiaré por completo en ellas hasta los primeros días del próximo mes, momento del segundo ciclo. Mientras tanto, creo contar con buenas razones para confiar. Jamás he tenido retrasos; al contrario, más bien siempre avances. El mes de marzo, el día tres, tuve la regla. Ya estamos a diecinueve y no ha pasado nada. Por lo demás, me encuentro de maravilla, tengo más apetito y más sueño. Debo también calmar la alarma y la inquietud de mi querida madre dándoos una explicación fiel y cierta de mis hábitos cotidianos. Desde que comenzaron estas esperanzas, he interrumpido cualquier viaje en coche y me he limitado a breves paseos a pie. Me aseguran que, cuando haya pasado el segundo ciclo, será saludable estar menos encerrada. Mi querida madre podéis estar segura de que seré prudente y estaré atenta a todos mis movimientos. 


Versalles 14 de agosto de 1778 

Estoy llena de felicidad porque, encontrándose mi embarazo en un momento tan delicado, mi salud siga siendo tan buena. Mi bebé se movió por primera vez el viernes 31 de julio, a las diez y media de la noche. Desde entonces, se revuelve frecuentemente, lo cual me causa un gran júbilo. No puedo expresar a mi querida madre lo feliz que me hace cada movimiento. Durante este tiempo, he engordado mucho, incluso más de lo que es corriente a los cinco meses. Si duda no merezco ningún elogio por la fiesta de Trianón, me habría sido imposible fingir nada. Unos días después, volví a mi vida ordinaria. Mi cabeza no da abasto con los pensamientos que me atormentan. Sigue siendo verdad que son necesarios para alejar las conjeturas y los razonamientos. Por medio de los filósofos e intrigas de todo tipo, el rey de Prusia ha logrado un gran número de partidarios y, en ciertos momentos, me veo obligada a mostrar un rostro alegre, para el que sin duda no tengo causa ni ganas. Vamos a pasar ocho días en Choisy. No he creído que deba oponerme a los dos espectáculos que siempre están presentes en los viajes, habríamos tenido una discusión sobre ello. Se ha decidido que mi bebé sea bautizado y reciba su nombre justo después de nacer. Si mi querida madre tiene la bondad de ser la madrina, espero que tenga la bondad de enviar su consentimiento y los nombres que quiera darle. El rey de España será el padrino. Estoy muy impaciente por la próxima carta. Me atrevo a pensar que me traerá un buen resultado: ¡Dios quiera que no sea decepcionante! 



ÚLTIMA CARTA DE SAMUEL JOHNSON A SU MADRE, SARAH JOHNSON 

20 de enero de 1759 

Querida y respetada madre: 

Ni su estado ni su carácter me permiten decir mucho. Ha sido la mejor madre del mundo, y creo que la mejor mujer. Le agradezco su indulgencia para conmigo, y le pido perdón por todo lo que he hecho mal, así como por todo lo que he omitido hacer bien. Que Dios le conceda su Espíritu Santo y la reciba en la felicidad eterna, por el amor de Jesu- cristo. Amén. El Señor Jesús reciba su espíritu. Amén. 

Soy, queridísima madre, su devoto hijo, 

Sam. Johnson 



EMILY DICKINSON A SUS PRIMOS 

Noviembre de 1882 

Queridos primos,

Me hubiera gustado escribiros antes, pero la muerte de mamá casi aturde mi espíritu. He atendido algunas diligencias de amor, aunque he escrito de forma un tanto intuitiva. Poco quedaba ya de la tía que conocisteis. Se ratificó la gran misión del dolor —cultivado hasta la ternura por la persistente tristeza, de modo que murió una madre superior a la que hubiera fallecido de haberlo hecho antes. No hubo despedida terrenal. Se nos escapó de las manos como un copo de nieve arrastrado por el viento, y ahora forma parte de la deriva llamada «infinito». No sabemos dónde está, aunque muchos nos lo dicen. Creo que, de algún modo, seremos agasajados por nuestro Creador —que Aquel que nos dio esta notable tierra tiene el poder de sorprender aún más a aquello que Él ha creado. Más allá de eso, todo es silencio... Madre estaba muy hermosa cuando murió. Los serafines son artistas solemnes. La iluminación que solo llega una vez se detuvo en sus rasgos, y cuando la depositamos en la tumba parecía que ocultábamos una imagen; pero la hierba que recibió a mi padre bastará a su invitada, a la que pidió en el altar que lo visitara durante toda su vida. No puedo decir cómo es la Eternidad. Me rodea como si fuera el mar... Gracias por acordaros de mí. Recuerdo—palabra poderosa. «La que me has dado antes de la creación del mundo». (Juan, 17, 24. N. de la T.) 

Con cariño, 


Emily 

«Poco quedaba ya de la tía que conocisteis. Se nos escapó de las manos como un copo de nieve arrastrado por el viento, y ahora forma parte de la deriva llamada "infinito"».


Emily Dickinson

JULIA WARD HOWE, «LLAMAMIENTO A TODAS LAS MUJERES DEL MUNDO» 

La historia de la celebración del día de la Madre difiere en cada país, pero se inicia en Estados Unidos. La carta escrita por la militante católica Julia Ward Howe en 1870, como reacción a la barbarie de la Guerra Civil y en homenaje al papel destacado que desempeñaron las mujeres, impulsó un movimiento que resultó decisivo para que el presidente Woodrow Wilson instituyera el día de la Madre en 1914. 

Una vez más, ante los ojos del mundo cristiano, dos grandes naciones han consumido su habilidad y poder en el asesinato mutuo. Una vez más, las cuestiones sagradas de la justicia internacional se han sometido a la fatal mediación de las armas de guerra. En esta época de progreso, en este siglo de la luz, se ha permitido que la ambición de los gobernantes trueque los queridos intereses de la vida doméstica por los sangrientos intercambios del campo de batalla. Así han hecho los hombres. Así lo harán los hombres. Pero las mujeres ya no tienen que formar parte de los procedimientos que llenan al mundo de pena y horror. A pesar de los postulados de la fuerza física, la madre tiene una palabra sagrada e imperativa que decir a sus hijos, que deben la vida a su sufrimiento. Esa palabra debe ser escuchada y contestada como nunca antes. 

¡Alzaos, pues, mujeres cristianas de hoy! ¡Alzaos, todas las mujeres con corazón, ya sea vuestro bautismo de agua o de lágrimas! Decid con firmeza: No permitiremos que las cuestiones significativas las decidan organismos irrelevantes. No permitiremos que nuestros maridos vengan a nosotras, apestando a matanzas, en busca de caricias y aplauso. No consentiremos que nos arranquen a nuestros hijos para que olviden todo lo que hemos podido enseñarles sobre la caridad, la misericordia y la paciencia. Nosotras, mujeres de un país, sentiremos demasiada ternura hacia las de otro país, para permitir que nuestros hijos sean instruidos para herir a los suyos. Desde el seno de este mundo devastado se eleva una voz que se une a la nuestra. Dice: ¡Desarme, desarme! La espada del asesinato no es la balanza de la justicia. La sangre no limpia el deshonor, ni la violencia justifica la posesión. Al igual que los hombres a menudo han abandonado el arado y el yunque en respuesta al llamamiento a la guerra, que las mujeres dejen ahora todo lo que pueda quedar del hogar para celebrar un gran día de reunión y consejo. 

Que se reúnan primero, como mujeres, para llorar y homenajear a los muertos. Que luego se aconsejen solemnemente unas a otras respecto a los medios para que la gran familia humana pueda vivir en paz, el hombre como hermano del hombre, y que cada una deje tras de sí la sagrada impronta, no del César, sino de Dios. 

En nombre de todas las mujeres y de la humanidad, pido encarecidamente que se fije y celebre un congreso general de mujeres, sin exclusión de nacionalidad, en el lugar que se considere más conveniente, y que sea desde el principio coherente con sus objetivos, para promover la alianza de las diferentes nacionalidades, para resolver amistosamente las cuestiones internacionales, los grandes y generales intereses de la paz. 

«He descubierto, también en mi propio caso, [el fenómeno de] estar enamorado de mi madre y celoso de mi padre, y ahora lo considero un acontecimiento universal en la primera infancia».


Sigmund Freud

SIGMUND FREUD A WILHEM FLEISS SOBRE EL COMPLEJO DE EDIPO 

Viena IX, Berggase 19 15 de octubre de 1897 

Querido Wilhem: 

Mi autoanálisis es, de hecho, lo más esencial que tengo en la actualidad y promete convertirse en lo más valioso para mí si llega a su fin. [...] Ser totalmente honesto con uno mismo es un buen ejercicio. Se me ocurrió una idea de valor general. He descubierto, también en mi propio caso, [el fenómeno de] estar enamorado de mi madre y celoso de mi padre, y ahora lo considero un acontecimiento universal en la primera infancia, aunque no tan temprano como en los niños que se han vuelto histéricos. (Parecido a la invención de la filiación [novela familiar] en la paranoia: héroes, fundadores de una religión). Si esto es así, podemos entender el poder de atracción de Edipo rey, a pesar de todas las objeciones que la razón plantea contra la presuposición del destino; y podemos comprender por qué el posterior «drama del destino» estaba destinado a fracasar de manera tan estrepitosa. Nuestros sentimientos se alzan contra cualquier compulsión individual arbitraria, como la que se presupone en Die Ahnfrau y similares; pero la leyenda griega se aferra a una compulsión que todos reconocen porque sienten su existencia dentro de sí mismos. En su fantasía, cada uno de los espectadores fue una vez un Edipo en ciernes y cada uno retrocede horrorizado ante la realización del sueño transferido aquí a la realidad, con toda la cantidad de represión que separa su estado infantil del actual. 

Se me pasó fugazmente por la cabeza la idea de que lo mismo podría también estar en el fondo de Hamlet. No pienso en la intención consciente de Shakespeare, sino que creo, más bien, que un hecho real estimuló al poeta a su representación, en la que su inconsciente comprendió el inconsciente de su héroe. ¿Cómo justifica Hamlet, el histérico, sus palabras: «La conciencia nos convierte a todos en cobardes»? ¿Cómo explica su irresolución para vengar a su padre con el asesinato de su tío, el mismo hombre que envía a sus cortesanos a la muerte sin ningún escrúpulo y que se precipita positivamente al asesinar a Laertes? ¿Cómo mejor que a través del tormento que padece por el oscuro recuerdo de que él mismo había contemplado el acto contra su padre por pasión hacia su madre, y: «Tratad a cada uno como se merece y, ¿quién escapa al látigo?»? Su conciencia es su inconsciente sentimiento de culpa. ¿Y no es su alienación sexual en su conversación con Ofelia típicamente histérica? ¿Y su rechazo del instinto que busca engendrar hijos? Y por último, ¿su transferencia de la acción de su propio padre al de Ofelia? Y de la misma maravillosa manera que mis pacientes histéricos, ¿no se castiga al final a sí mismo al sufrir el mismo destino que su padre de ser envenenado por el mismo rival?

He centrado mi interés en el análisis de un modo tan exclusivo que ni siquiera he intentado probar, en lugar de mi hipótesis de que en todos los casos la represión parte del aspecto femenino y se dirige contra el masculino, la hipótesis opuesta por ti propuesta. Sin embargo, la abordaré alguna vez. Por desgracia, apenas participo en tus trabajos y progresos. En este aspecto estoy mejor que tú. Lo que puedo decirte sobre las fronteras mentales de este mundo encuentra en ti una crítica comprensiva, y lo que tú puedes decirme sobre sus fronteras celestes solo evoca en mí un improductivo asombro. 

Saludos cordiales para ti, tu querida esposa, y mi nuevo sobrino, 

Tu Sigm. 

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