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Violencia debería ser «Violencio»

En «Veinte, veintiuno» (Random House, 2023), Laia Jufresa, una de las mejores escritoras mexicanas de la actualidad, narra cinco estaciones en la vida de su pequeña familia bilingüe para retratar -con la pandemia de fondo- las vivencias cotidianas que nos incumben, obsesionan, angustian y que, pese a todo, nos impulsan a seguir habitando este presente enrarecido. Entre esas vivencias se halla, claro, su manera de afrontar el feminismo, la maternidad y la crianza: en las siguientes líneas, apenas 1.000 palabras extraídas de esta obra de no ficción (su debut en el género, un texto que se lee como si fueran entradas de un diario personal), Jufresa se sincera ante la perspectiva de que su hija de cuatro años crezca en un país -que es reflejo de muchos otros- en el que la violencia (que debería ser en masculino) se descarga una y otra vez sobre el cuerpo de las mujeres.

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un sustantivo que recorre la pandemia, el mundo, la vida, y que mi hija a\u00fan no conoce, pero que desde luego deber\u00eda ser en masculino: violencia. Violencia deber\u00eda ser <em>Violencio.<\/em><\/p><p>-<\/p><p>Mam\u00e1, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 parece como que est\u00e1s triste?\u00a0<\/p><p>No s\u00e9 qu\u00e9 decirle. Tiene cuatro a\u00f1os. Mientras ella jugaba yo le\u00ed sobre <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">otro feminicidio en el Estado de M\u00e9xico<\/a><\/span>, donde hay uno cada cuantos d\u00edas, donde la inmensa mayor\u00eda quedan impunes.\u00a0<\/p><p>Le digo nom\u00e1s: Por las noticias, pero ya se me pasar\u00e1.\u00a0<\/p><p>-<\/p><p>Pero no se me pasa. No se nos pasa. No se nos va a pasar. Lo que afecta a una nos afecta a todas. No igual, por supuesto, hay inmensas, abismales diferencias de circunstancia y de riesgo y de consecuencias. 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que s\u00ed s\u00e9 es que algunas cosas no cambian en el mundo al rev\u00e9s. El 8 de marzo de 2020, como el del 2021, las im\u00e1genes de la marcha de las mujeres en M\u00e9xico son una poderosa mezcla de empoderamiento e impotencia. De coraje y solidaridad. De desesperanza y desahogo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como la gente que s\u00f3lo reza en semana santa, como los que s\u00f3lo consienten a su mam\u00e1 el 10 de mayo, yo paso el 8 de marzo pegada a las noticias, con una mezcla de admiraci\u00f3n a distancia, culpa de privilegio, horror de todo y empat\u00eda con todas. Como resultado tengo los ojos hinchados cuando recojo a mi hija en la escuela.\u00a0<\/p><p>Mam\u00e1, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 est\u00e1s llorando?\u00a0<\/p><p>Por las noticias.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero \u00a1mam\u00e1!, \u00bfQU\u00c9 son la <em>niticias?\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 le digo a mi hija de cuatro a\u00f1os? \u00bfQue estoy llorando porque hoy es el d\u00eda de la mujer, pero el gobierno de mi pa\u00eds culpabiliza a las v\u00edctimas y se cerc\u00f3 con un muro contra las mujeres? \u00bfQue las manifestantes escribieron sobre el muro los muchos, los demasiados nombres de las v\u00edctimas de feminicidio? \u00bfQue las as\u00ed llamadas fuerzas de seguridad <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/mexico\/2021-03-09\/el-gobierno-de-ciudad-de-mexico-abre-una-investigacion-sobre-los-incidentes-en-la-marcha-del-8-m.html#\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">arrojaron gas sobre las protestantes, para \\\"dispersarlas\\\"<\/a><\/span>?\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfQue imagino a los oficiales reunidos sentenciando, en una versi\u00f3n machista y macabra de la m\u00e1xima de Wittgenstein: <em>Hay mujeres que no se pueden silenciar, las tenemos que dispersar?<\/em><\/p><p>Al final lo que le digo es: Las noticias, Olivia, son una caca podrida.\u00a0<\/p><p>-<\/p><p>Si plantas una pistola en un texto, es sabido, la vas a tener que usar. Pero en este texto no usamos pistola. La plantamos nom\u00e1s para que se entienda de d\u00f3nde venimos. Y de d\u00f3nde nos fuimos. Sobre todo, que se entienda por qu\u00e9 no volvemos. Por las pistolas. Porque se usan. Porque en M\u00e9xico a diario se mata gente. Hombres, mujeres y ni\u00f1os. Diez mujeres al d\u00eda y de las diez al menos una es menor de edad. En M\u00e9xico se matan ni\u00f1as.\u00a0<\/p><p>Todos los d\u00edas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hml6myl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/rosario-castellanos-feminismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El cuerpo sometido de las mujeres: la lucha feminista sigue<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Escritoras latinoamericanas: Una detallada biograf\u00eda de un fen\u00f3meno mundial<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/isabel-allende-por-lydia-cacho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Isabel Allende por Lydia Cacho: la mujer que grit\u00f3 su nombre al viento<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Rosa Beltr\u00e1n: las distintas maneras de vivir como mujer (en un pa\u00eds donde matan once por d\u00eda)<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza vuelve a \u00abLa Casta\u00f1eda\u00bb: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n ha le\u00eddo 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5 minutos
Querétaro, México, 8 de marzo de 2021. Por el Día Internacional de la Mujer, colectivos feministas y organizaciones civiles convocaron una marcha masiva contra la violencia de género y los feminicidios. Crédito: Getty Images.

Querétaro, México, 8 de marzo de 2021. Por el Día Internacional de la Mujer, colectivos feministas y organizaciones civiles convocaron una marcha masiva contra la violencia de género y los feminicidios. Crédito: Getty Images.

Hay un sustantivo que recorre la pandemia, el mundo, la vida, y que mi hija aún no conoce, pero que desde luego debería ser en masculino: violencia. Violencia debería ser Violencio.

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Mamá, ¿por qué parece como que estás triste? 

No sé qué decirle. Tiene cuatro años. Mientras ella jugaba yo leí sobre otro feminicidio en el Estado de México, donde hay uno cada cuantos días, donde la inmensa mayoría quedan impunes. 

Le digo nomás: Por las noticias, pero ya se me pasará. 

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Pero no se me pasa. No se nos pasa. No se nos va a pasar. Lo que afecta a una nos afecta a todas. No igual, por supuesto, hay inmensas, abismales diferencias de circunstancia y de riesgo y de consecuencias. Pero todo se nos clava y de algún modo se nos queda, y todas tendríamos que poder gritar. 

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Algún día le tendré que decir la verdad a mi hija. Que me fui de México por Violencio. Porque el 16 de agosto de 2008, a unos metros de mí, en una callecita en Creel, Chihuahua, llegaron dos camionetas llenas de hombres con metralletas y dispararon sin mirar a quién. Y aunque a mí no me tocó bala sí se me murió algo adentro, ahí, ese día, y decidí que yo prefería el exilio que el miedo. Y como tenía el absurdamente inusual privilegio de poder empacar mi maleta e irme, de tener dinero suficiente y una visa, me fui.

  • ¡En oferta!

Veinte, veintiuno

En su primera obra de no ficción, Laia Jufresa, una de las mejores escritoras mexicanas, retrata con ingenio y mucho humor las pequeñas cosas que nos incumben, obsesionan, angustian y que, pese a t...

Aunque no a estos grados del horror, México siempre ha sido Violencio. Cuando yo era niña, acompañaba a mi mamá a su trabajo de campo en las sierras, y ella, la antropóloga, llevaba pistola. La disparó una sola vez, al aire, cuando unos tipos se estaban intentando meter al centro de salud donde dormíamos. Funcionó, se espantaron y se fueron. Yo no lo recuerdo. Pero ahora que lo pienso, quizá mi pesadilla de invasión no empezó con los barrotes sino años atrás, en el centro de salud, o antes, en el miedo de mi madre. O en el de sus abuelas. En el de generaciones de mujeres teniendo que cuidarse, encerrarse, doblegarse, o armarse. 

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Una amiga que tiene una bebé de meses y se atoró con la pandemia en España, me dice: No quiero regresar, porque pues, ya sabes: no quieres criar una hija en México. 

Me lo dice así, en segunda persona. Y aunque está hablando de ella, está hablando también de mí. 

Es algo que no acabo de entender, esta mezcla de haberme querido ir y, a la vez, no saber soltar a mi país. Me lo cuestiono todo el tiempo, ¿por qué sigo escribiendo sobre México? ¿Por qué me cimbra más la violencia mexicana que la siria o la venezolana? ¿Es que en el fondo soy nacionalista o es que mi fascia emocional, esa membrana histórica que me une a otras mujeres, está de algún modo más conectada con las mexicanas? Por qué, por ejemplo, conversar en inglés me agota y platicar en español me reaviva. Seguramente los que sacan fotos del cerebro sabrían explicármelo. O quizá no. Quizá las afinidades culturales y cómo repercuten en los hemisferios cerebrales, en los músculos y el alma, sigue siendo uno de los grandes misterios de la vida humana. O tal vez es, nomás, una de las más grandes obviedades.

Laia Jufresa. Crédito: Claudia Leal.

Laia Jufresa. Crédito: Claudia Leal.

Lo que sí sé es que algunas cosas no cambian en el mundo al revés. El 8 de marzo de 2020, como el del 2021, las imágenes de la marcha de las mujeres en México son una poderosa mezcla de empoderamiento e impotencia. De coraje y solidaridad. De desesperanza y desahogo. 

Como la gente que sólo reza en semana santa, como los que sólo consienten a su mamá el 10 de mayo, yo paso el 8 de marzo pegada a las noticias, con una mezcla de admiración a distancia, culpa de privilegio, horror de todo y empatía con todas. Como resultado tengo los ojos hinchados cuando recojo a mi hija en la escuela. 

Mamá, ¿por qué estás llorando? 

Por las noticias. 

Pero ¡mamá!, ¿QUÉ son la niticias? 

¿Qué le digo a mi hija de cuatro años? ¿Que estoy llorando porque hoy es el día de la mujer, pero el gobierno de mi país culpabiliza a las víctimas y se cercó con un muro contra las mujeres? ¿Que las manifestantes escribieron sobre el muro los muchos, los demasiados nombres de las víctimas de feminicidio? ¿Que las así llamadas fuerzas de seguridad arrojaron gas sobre las protestantes, para "dispersarlas"

¿Que imagino a los oficiales reunidos sentenciando, en una versión machista y macabra de la máxima de Wittgenstein: Hay mujeres que no se pueden silenciar, las tenemos que dispersar?

Al final lo que le digo es: Las noticias, Olivia, son una caca podrida. 

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Si plantas una pistola en un texto, es sabido, la vas a tener que usar. Pero en este texto no usamos pistola. La plantamos nomás para que se entienda de dónde venimos. Y de dónde nos fuimos. Sobre todo, que se entienda por qué no volvemos. Por las pistolas. Porque se usan. Porque en México a diario se mata gente. Hombres, mujeres y niños. Diez mujeres al día y de las diez al menos una es menor de edad. En México se matan niñas. 

Todos los días.

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