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A 20 años del nacimiento de Facebook: «Lo que Mark Zuckerberg quería era poder»

En 2003, Mark Zuckerberg era un estudiante de Harvard al que se le ocurrió una idea para ¿entretener? a sus compañeros. Su nombre era Facemash y permitía a los usuarios calificar el aspecto físico de otros alumnos de la universidad. El servicio se cerró por el uso de imágenes sin permiso. Sin embargo, este brillante tecnólogo decidió persistir y asociarse con otros amigos (Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes y Dustin Moskovit) para crear un proyecto mucho más sólido. Así fue como el 4 de febrero de 2004 nació oficialmente Facebook (o TheFacebook, como se llamaba por entonces), tal vez la red social más famosa del mundo. Y también, quizá como consecuencia, la más controvertida, ya que desde sus inicios ha estado marcada por las sombras que arrojaban las luces del éxito. «Manipulados» (Debate), de Sheera Frenkel y Cecilia Kang, es el libro perfecto para entender las transformaciones culturales, económicas y políticas que acarrean las prácticas de la empresa de Mark Zuckerberg. Coincidiendo con sus dos décadas de vida, compartimos este fragmento en el que las dos periodistas de «The New York Times» cuentan el origen de la red que alteró irremediablemente la idea que teníamos sobre la intimidad, la información, la libertad y los límites de la esfera privada.

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Coincidiendo con sus dos d\u00e9cadas de vida, compartimos este fragmento en el que las dos periodistas de \u00abThe New York Times\u00bb cuentan el origen de la red que alter\u00f3 irremediablemente la idea que ten\u00edamos sobre la intimidad, la informaci\u00f3n, la libertad y los l\u00edmites de la esfera 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continuaci\u00f3n, se puso de nuevo a trabajar en la creaci\u00f3n de una red social privada, solo para alumnos. Varios compa\u00f1eros suyos andaban dando vueltas a la misma idea. Entre ellos destacaban particularmente Cameron y Tyler Winklevoss, que, junto con Divya Narendra, provisto igualmente de buenos contactos, hab\u00edan hablado con Zuckerberg acerca de elaborar un programa inform\u00e1tico para el trabajo que estaban llevando a cabo. Pero Zuckerberg hab\u00eda centrado su inter\u00e9s en un alumno que iba ya muy por delante de \u00e9l. A comienzos de aquel mismo oto\u00f1o, un alumno de primero llamado Aaron Greenspan hab\u00eda lanzado una red social llamada \u00abthe Face Book\u00bb. Era un sitio web muy sencillo, con pretensiones de parecer profesional. La idea de Greenspan era crear una p\u00e1gina que pudiera resultar \u00fatil para profesores o para buscadores de empleo. Pero las primeras iteraciones de the Face Book suscitaron cr\u00edticas porque permit\u00eda a los estudiantes colgar datos personales de otros compa\u00f1eros, y el peri\u00f3dico estudiantil <em>The Harvard Crimson<\/em> atac\u00f3 el proyecto calific\u00e1ndolo de posible riesgo para la seguridad. Al cabo de poco tiempo el sitio qued\u00f3 estancado como consecuencia del rechazo suscitado.\u00a0<\/p><p>Greenspan acudi\u00f3 a Zuckerberg a ra\u00edz de o\u00edr hablar de \u00e9l en el campus, y los dos entablaron una amistad competitiva. El 8 de enero de 2004, cuando de repente apareci\u00f3 en su pantalla un mensaje instant\u00e1neo de Zuckerberg, Greenspan qued\u00f3 sorprendido; no le hab\u00eda dado nunca su nombre de usuario en AOL. Esa misma noche ambos hab\u00edan participado en Kirkland House en una cena bastante inc\u00f3moda, durante la cual Zuckerberg hab\u00eda esquivado todas las preguntas de Greenspan acerca del tipo de proyectos que estaba interesado en llevar a cabo pr\u00f3ximamente. Pero a lo largo de una serie de chats, Zuckerberg plante\u00f3 la idea de combinar su red social en fase de desarrollo con el proyecto de Greenspan. Este rechaz\u00f3 la propuesta de que redise\u00f1ara su sitio web y pregunt\u00f3 a Zuckerberg si quer\u00eda incorporar lo que estaba construyendo en la plataforma que \u00e9l ya hab\u00eda lanzado.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abSer\u00eda algo as\u00ed como si Delta tuviera Song Airlines\u00bb, coment\u00f3 Greenspan.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abDelta posee ya Song Airlines\u00bb, respondi\u00f3 Zuckerberg.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wkll1ip\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>(...) mientras que muchos alumnos adoptaron inmediatamente la creaci\u00f3n de Zuckerberg llamada FaceMash, otros se sintieron alarmados por la invasi\u00f3n de la privacidad que supon\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1ozdvh8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Zuckerberg no estaba muy entusiasmado con la idea de recortar sus ambiciones para adaptarlas a lo que Greenspan ya hab\u00eda construido, y se pregunt\u00f3 en voz alta si no podr\u00edan tal vez competir uno con otro. Zuckerberg quer\u00eda que su creaci\u00f3n fuera menos formal. Era m\u00e1s probable que los usuarios hablaran de sus aficiones o de su m\u00fasica favorita en sus salas de estar y no en sus despachos. Si la red social daba la sensaci\u00f3n de ser \u00abdemasiado funcional\u00bb, dijo a Greenspan, los usuarios no compartir\u00edan muchas cosas. \u00c9l quer\u00eda dise\u00f1ar un sitio para \u00abperder el tiempo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Manifest\u00f3, adem\u00e1s, que ya estaba pensando en la manera en la que pod\u00edan readaptarse los datos personales. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.bbc.com\/mundo\/noticias-47123501\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El sitio de Greenspan<\/a><\/span> ped\u00eda a los usuarios que compartieran bits de informaci\u00f3n espec\u00edficos con una finalidad espec\u00edfica. Los n\u00fameros de tel\u00e9fono permit\u00edan que los compa\u00f1eros de clase se pusieran en contacto unos con otros; las direcciones proporcionaban puntos de encuentro para que se reunieran los grupos de estudio. \u00abEn un sitio web en el que la gente da informaci\u00f3n personal para una sola cosa hace falta much\u00edsimo trabajo y much\u00edsima precauci\u00f3n a la hora de utilizar esa informaci\u00f3n para otra cosa\u00bb, dijo Zuckerberg. \u00c9l quer\u00eda que los usuarios compartieran los datos de forma no predeterminada, expandiendo y diversificando los tipos de informaci\u00f3n que lograra reunir.\u00a0<\/p><p>Los dos j\u00f3venes discutieron la posibilidad de compartir una base de datos com\u00fan de usuarios, junto con la idea de registrar autom\u00e1ticamente a los estudiantes en las dos versiones de TheFacebook (como fue bautizada la plataforma en esos momentos) tan pronto como se dieran de alta en una de ellas. La conversaci\u00f3n tuvo sus altibajos, pero al final Zuckerberg pens\u00f3 que su proyecto ofrec\u00eda unas caracter\u00edsticas \u00fanicas y prefiri\u00f3 quedarse su dise\u00f1o, que era m\u00e1s informal.\u00a0<\/p><p>Zuckerberg intuy\u00f3 que el \u00e9xito de su plataforma depender\u00eda de la predisposici\u00f3n de sus compa\u00f1eros de estudios a compartir detalles \u00edntimos sobre s\u00ed mismos. Estaba fascinado con el comportamiento humano; su madre hab\u00eda ejercido de psiquiatra antes de tener a sus hijos, y \u00e9l mismo estaba estudiando la especialidad de psicolog\u00eda. Centr\u00f3 su atenci\u00f3n en la facilidad con la que los alumnos compart\u00edan datos personales. Cualquier foto en la que apareciera alguien borracho, cualquier chiste breve e ingenioso y cualquier an\u00e9cdota que valiera la pena citar eran contenidos libres. Y esos contenidos atraer\u00edan a m\u00e1s individuos a unirse a TheFacebook, deseosos de ver lo que estaban perdi\u00e9ndose. El reto era hacer de la plataforma un lugar al que los usuarios se engancharan y se pasaran en \u00e9l horas y horas sin pensar: \u00abComo si quisiera ser la nueva MTV\u00bb, coment\u00f3 a sus amigos. Cuanto m\u00e1s tiempo pasaran los usuarios en TheFacebook, m\u00e1s cosas llegar\u00edan a revelar sobre s\u00ed mismos, intencionadamente o no. Los amigos cuyas p\u00e1ginas visitaran, la frecuencia con la que visitaran dichas p\u00e1ginas, los contactos que aceptaran: cada conexi\u00f3n aceleraba la visi\u00f3n que ten\u00eda Zuckerberg de una red de interacciones sociales en expansi\u00f3n.<\/p><p>\u00abMark iba adquiriendo datos solo por adquirirlos, porque yo creo que se parece mucho a m\u00ed. Creo que vio que, cuantos m\u00e1s datos ten\u00edas, con m\u00e1s precisi\u00f3n pod\u00edas construir una maqueta del mundo y entenderlo \u2014ha declarado Greenspan, que sigui\u00f3 en contacto con Zuckerberg despu\u00e9s de que este lanzara su plataforma rival\u2014. Los datos son enormemente poderosos, y Mark se dio cuenta de ello. En \u00faltimo t\u00e9rmino lo que quer\u00eda Mark era poder\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Zuckerberg no estaba seguro de hasta qu\u00e9 punto pod\u00eda ser valiosa econ\u00f3micamente toda esa informaci\u00f3n, pero se dio cuenta de que cuantos m\u00e1s datos reuniera la plataforma, m\u00e1s poder acumular\u00eda \u00e9l. Su sitio web aseguraba a los estudiantes que, como la red estaba limitada a Harvard, era privada por principio. Pero las primeras condiciones de servicio de Facebook no dec\u00edan en absoluto c\u00f3mo pod\u00edan utilizarse los detalles personales de los usuarios (que todav\u00eda no hab\u00edan llegado a pensar que eran sus datos individuales).\u00a0<\/p><p>Durante los a\u00f1os siguientes, Zuckerberg har\u00eda propaganda una y otra vez del poder que ten\u00eda su invento de poner en contacto a las personas unas con otras; y de hecho, al mundo entero. 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El joven estaba a punto de celebrar el primer aniversario de su empresa de redes sociales, <em>TheFacebook.<\/em> M\u00e1s de un mill\u00f3n de personas utilizaban su plataforma, situando a aquel muchacho de apenas veinte a\u00f1os en una posici\u00f3n social muy exclusiva. Zuckerberg aceptaba su condici\u00f3n de famoso entre otros inform\u00e1ticos de ideas afines a las suyas, pero, al entrar en aquella reuni\u00f3n en particular, era evidente que estaba nervioso.\u00a0<\/p><p>Se sent\u00eda inc\u00f3modo en los c\u00edrculos pol\u00edticos de Washington, y no estaba familiarizado con el sofisticado mundo de los medios de comunicaci\u00f3n de la Costa Este. Apenas seis meses antes, se hab\u00eda trasladado a Palo Alto, California, con unos cuantos amigos de Harvard. Lo que hab\u00eda empezado siendo un experimento de las vacaciones de verano \u2014dirigir TheFacebook desde la vivienda de un rancho de cinco dormitorios con una tirolina tendida sobre la piscina del patio trasero\u2014 se hab\u00eda convertido en un permiso prolongado para ausentarse de la universidad, que pas\u00f3 reuni\u00e9ndose con inversores en capital de riesgo y empresarios que dirig\u00edan algunas de las empresas tecnol\u00f3gicas m\u00e1s interesantes del mundo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abEra como una estrella de cine enormemente torpe\u00bb, observ\u00f3 un amigo que trabajaba para la nueva empresa reci\u00e9n creada y que frecuentaba la residencia de Palo Alto que Zuckerberg y sus compa\u00f1eros de vivienda hab\u00edan bautizado \u00abCasa Facebook\u00bb. \u00abFacebook era todav\u00eda peque\u00f1a para lo habitual en Silicon Valley, pero hab\u00eda un mont\u00f3n de gente que ve\u00eda ya en ella el pr\u00f3ximo bombazo\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qbxwa06\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/steve-jobs-anuncio-primer-macintosh\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abPor qu\u00e9 1984 no ser\u00e1 como \\\"1984\\\"\u00bb: 40 a\u00f1os del primer Macintosh<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/facebook-manipulados-sheera-frenkel-cecilia-kang\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">C\u00f3mo Facebook nos convirti\u00f3 en anunciantes: la historia detr\u00e1s del \u00abMe gusta\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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15 minutos
Universidad de Harvard, en la ciudad de Cambridge, Massachusetts. Año 2004. Mark Zuckerberg (derecha) y Dustin Moskovitz, dos de los fundadores de la red social Facebook (junto con Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum y Chris Hughes). Crédito: Getty Images.

Universidad de Harvard, en la ciudad de Cambridge, Massachusetts. Año 2004. Mark Zuckerberg (derecha) y Dustin Moskovitz, dos de los fundadores de la red social Facebook (junto con Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum y Chris Hughes). Crédito: Getty Images.

Resulta imposible comprender cómo Facebook se acercó a su momento crítico sin echar la vista atrás y ver lo lejos que había llegado y con cuánta rapidez lo había hecho. 

Mark Zuckerberg vio por primera vez un sitio web llamado The Facebook, que había sido concebido, programado y bautizado por otra persona. Se trataba de un proyecto sin ánimo de lucro destinado a ayudar a los amigos a ponerse en contacto unos con otros. Era gratuito. Y el primer instinto de Zuckerberg fue desentrañarlo. 

En septiembre de 2001, Zuckerberg era un alumno de diecisiete años matriculado en el último curso de la Phillips Exeter Academy, el prestigioso internado de New Hampshire que había contribuido a formar a los futuros líderes del Gobierno y de la industria durante más de dos siglos. Hijo de un dentista, Zuckerberg tenía un pedigrí muy distinto del de muchos de sus compañeros, que eran descendientes de antiguos jefes de Estado y directivos de empresa.

Pero aquel adolescente desgarbado no tardó en encontrar su sitio, destacando en las clases de latín e informática e imponiéndose como el freak de los ordenadores de su centro educativo. Alimentado a base de Red Bull y Cheetos, capitaneaba a otros estudiantes en maratones de programación que duraban toda la noche, intentando hackear los sistemas informáticos de la escuela o crear algoritmos para acelerar la realización de los deberes que les ponían. A veces se dedicaba a organizar carreras de programación que habitualmente ganaba.

Por entonces, la Asociación de Estudiantes estaba planeando subir a internet el directorio de alumnos del centro. The Photo Address Book, una edición en rústica plastificada que contenía los nombres, números de teléfono, direcciones y fotografías de tamaño carnet de los estudiantes, era toda una institución en Exeter. The Facebook, como lo llamaba todo el mundo, prácticamente no había cambiado desde hacía décadas.

La iniciativa había partido de un miembro de la asociación, Kristopher Tillery, que era del mismo curso que Zuckerberg. Como programador, Tillery se consideraba un aficionado, pero le fascinaban empresas como Napster y Yahoo!, que se habían hecho enormemente populares entre sus compañeros de estudios. Quería hacer que Exeter, escuela fundada en 1781, se sintiera fresca y moderna. ¿Qué mejor manera de conseguirlo —pensó— que subir a internet el directorio o libro de fotos, The Facebook

Nunca se imaginó que el proyecto llegara a despegar como lo hizo. La facilidad de localizar el perfil de cualquier compañero de clase pulsando unas cuantas teclas era algo completamente novedoso. Elevaba el arte de gastar bromas a unas cotas desconocidas. De pronto llegaban a las habitaciones pizzas de anchoas por docenas. Había alumnos que fingían ser algún directivo de la escuela y llamaban a sus compañeros para avisarlos de que el edificio estaba inundándose o para acusarlos de haber copiado en un examen. 

Pero al cabo de poco tiempo, algunos estudiantes empezaron a quejarse a Tillery de un problema: la página de Mark Zuckerberg no funcionaba. Cada vez que los alumnos intentaban abrir su página en el sitio web, los navegadores se bloqueaban. La ventana se cerraba y a veces sus ordenadores se colgaban y tenían que reiniciarse. 

Cuando Tillery se puso a investigar el asunto, descubrió que Zuckerberg había insertado en su perfil una línea de código que provocaba los bloqueos. El inconveniente se arregló fácilmente. «Por supuesto, tenía que ser Mark —pensó Tillery—. Era muy competitivo y muy muy muy listo. Quería ver si era capaz de llevar un poco más lejos lo que yo estaba haciendo. Vi que se trataba de una prueba por su parte y comprendí que quería avisar a la gente de que sus capacidades eran... bueno, mejores que las mías».

La historia del origen de Facebook —cómo dos años después, estando ya en Harvard, Zuckerberg se emborrachó una noche y creó un blog para poner nota a sus compañeras de curso— está ya a estas alturas muy trillada. Pero lo que a menudo se pasa por alto en esa mitología es el hecho de que, mientras que muchos alumnos adoptaron inmediatamente la creación de Zuckerberg llamada FaceMash, otros se sintieron alarmados por la invasión de la privacidad que suponía. Apenas unos días después del lanzamiento de FaceMash, dos grupos de estudiantes de Harvard, Fuerza Latina, una organización cultural panlatina, y la Asociación de Mujeres Negras de Harvard enviaron sendos emails a Zuckerberg en que manifestaban su preocupación por el sitio web que había creado. 

Zuckerberg respondió directamente a ambos grupos, explicando que la popularidad de dicho sitio había sido una sorpresa. «Comprendí que algunas partes seguían estando un poco imperfectas y pedí más tiempo para pensar si realmente era apropiado o no ponerlo en circulación entre la comunidad estudiantil de Harvard —escribió en un email que sabía que sería hecho público. Y añadió—: No es así como yo quería que fueran las cosas, y pido disculpas por cualquier perjuicio causado como consecuencia de no tener en cuenta debidamente la rapidez con la que se difundiría el sitio y sus posteriores consecuencias».

El departamento de servicios informáticos de Harvard presentó una queja, alegando que Zuckerberg había violado los derechos de reproducción, y además había contravenido potencialmente las pautas vigentes en torno a las identidades del alumnado. Cuando llegó el momento de la vista de la causa, Zuckerberg repitió la explicación que había dado a los grupos de estudiantes. El sitio web había sido un experimento informático. Él estaba interesado en los algoritmos y en la informática que se ocultaba detrás de todo lo que hacía el sitio web. Nunca había esperado que el proyecto se volviera viral, repitió, y pidió disculpas por si alguno de sus compañeros había tenido la sensación de que se había violado su privacidad. Insistiendo en lo que se convertiría en un patrón ya bien conocido, todo acabó para él con una reprimenda y con la promesa de reunirse regularmente con un orientador de la universidad.

Mark Zuckerberg en mayo de 2004 en Eliot House, una de las doce casas residenciales de la Universidad de Harvard. Crédito: Getty Images.

Mark Zuckerberg en mayo de 2004 en Eliot House, una de las doce casas residenciales de la Universidad de Harvard. Crédito: Getty Images.

A continuación, se puso de nuevo a trabajar en la creación de una red social privada, solo para alumnos. Varios compañeros suyos andaban dando vueltas a la misma idea. Entre ellos destacaban particularmente Cameron y Tyler Winklevoss, que, junto con Divya Narendra, provisto igualmente de buenos contactos, habían hablado con Zuckerberg acerca de elaborar un programa informático para el trabajo que estaban llevando a cabo. Pero Zuckerberg había centrado su interés en un alumno que iba ya muy por delante de él. A comienzos de aquel mismo otoño, un alumno de primero llamado Aaron Greenspan había lanzado una red social llamada «the Face Book». Era un sitio web muy sencillo, con pretensiones de parecer profesional. La idea de Greenspan era crear una página que pudiera resultar útil para profesores o para buscadores de empleo. Pero las primeras iteraciones de the Face Book suscitaron críticas porque permitía a los estudiantes colgar datos personales de otros compañeros, y el periódico estudiantil The Harvard Crimson atacó el proyecto calificándolo de posible riesgo para la seguridad. Al cabo de poco tiempo el sitio quedó estancado como consecuencia del rechazo suscitado. 

Greenspan acudió a Zuckerberg a raíz de oír hablar de él en el campus, y los dos entablaron una amistad competitiva. El 8 de enero de 2004, cuando de repente apareció en su pantalla un mensaje instantáneo de Zuckerberg, Greenspan quedó sorprendido; no le había dado nunca su nombre de usuario en AOL. Esa misma noche ambos habían participado en Kirkland House en una cena bastante incómoda, durante la cual Zuckerberg había esquivado todas las preguntas de Greenspan acerca del tipo de proyectos que estaba interesado en llevar a cabo próximamente. Pero a lo largo de una serie de chats, Zuckerberg planteó la idea de combinar su red social en fase de desarrollo con el proyecto de Greenspan. Este rechazó la propuesta de que rediseñara su sitio web y preguntó a Zuckerberg si quería incorporar lo que estaba construyendo en la plataforma que él ya había lanzado. 

«Sería algo así como si Delta tuviera Song Airlines», comentó Greenspan. 

«Delta posee ya Song Airlines», respondió Zuckerberg.

(...) mientras que muchos alumnos adoptaron inmediatamente la creación de Zuckerberg llamada FaceMash, otros se sintieron alarmados por la invasión de la privacidad que suponía.

Zuckerberg no estaba muy entusiasmado con la idea de recortar sus ambiciones para adaptarlas a lo que Greenspan ya había construido, y se preguntó en voz alta si no podrían tal vez competir uno con otro. Zuckerberg quería que su creación fuera menos formal. Era más probable que los usuarios hablaran de sus aficiones o de su música favorita en sus salas de estar y no en sus despachos. Si la red social daba la sensación de ser «demasiado funcional», dijo a Greenspan, los usuarios no compartirían muchas cosas. Él quería diseñar un sitio para «perder el tiempo». 

Manifestó, además, que ya estaba pensando en la manera en la que podían readaptarse los datos personales. El sitio de Greenspan pedía a los usuarios que compartieran bits de información específicos con una finalidad específica. Los números de teléfono permitían que los compañeros de clase se pusieran en contacto unos con otros; las direcciones proporcionaban puntos de encuentro para que se reunieran los grupos de estudio. «En un sitio web en el que la gente da información personal para una sola cosa hace falta muchísimo trabajo y muchísima precaución a la hora de utilizar esa información para otra cosa», dijo Zuckerberg. Él quería que los usuarios compartieran los datos de forma no predeterminada, expandiendo y diversificando los tipos de información que lograra reunir. 

Los dos jóvenes discutieron la posibilidad de compartir una base de datos común de usuarios, junto con la idea de registrar automáticamente a los estudiantes en las dos versiones de TheFacebook (como fue bautizada la plataforma en esos momentos) tan pronto como se dieran de alta en una de ellas. La conversación tuvo sus altibajos, pero al final Zuckerberg pensó que su proyecto ofrecía unas características únicas y prefirió quedarse su diseño, que era más informal. 

Zuckerberg intuyó que el éxito de su plataforma dependería de la predisposición de sus compañeros de estudios a compartir detalles íntimos sobre sí mismos. Estaba fascinado con el comportamiento humano; su madre había ejercido de psiquiatra antes de tener a sus hijos, y él mismo estaba estudiando la especialidad de psicología. Centró su atención en la facilidad con la que los alumnos compartían datos personales. Cualquier foto en la que apareciera alguien borracho, cualquier chiste breve e ingenioso y cualquier anécdota que valiera la pena citar eran contenidos libres. Y esos contenidos atraerían a más individuos a unirse a TheFacebook, deseosos de ver lo que estaban perdiéndose. El reto era hacer de la plataforma un lugar al que los usuarios se engancharan y se pasaran en él horas y horas sin pensar: «Como si quisiera ser la nueva MTV», comentó a sus amigos. Cuanto más tiempo pasaran los usuarios en TheFacebook, más cosas llegarían a revelar sobre sí mismos, intencionadamente o no. Los amigos cuyas páginas visitaran, la frecuencia con la que visitaran dichas páginas, los contactos que aceptaran: cada conexión aceleraba la visión que tenía Zuckerberg de una red de interacciones sociales en expansión.

«Mark iba adquiriendo datos solo por adquirirlos, porque yo creo que se parece mucho a mí. Creo que vio que, cuantos más datos tenías, con más precisión podías construir una maqueta del mundo y entenderlo —ha declarado Greenspan, que siguió en contacto con Zuckerberg después de que este lanzara su plataforma rival—. Los datos son enormemente poderosos, y Mark se dio cuenta de ello. En último término lo que quería Mark era poder». 

Zuckerberg no estaba seguro de hasta qué punto podía ser valiosa económicamente toda esa información, pero se dio cuenta de que cuantos más datos reuniera la plataforma, más poder acumularía él. Su sitio web aseguraba a los estudiantes que, como la red estaba limitada a Harvard, era privada por principio. Pero las primeras condiciones de servicio de Facebook no decían en absoluto cómo podían utilizarse los detalles personales de los usuarios (que todavía no habían llegado a pensar que eran sus datos individuales). 

Durante los años siguientes, Zuckerberg haría propaganda una y otra vez del poder que tenía su invento de poner en contacto a las personas unas con otras; y de hecho, al mundo entero. Pero, en aquellos primeros días, su principal interés era completamente distinto. En un chat online, dejó bien claro cuánto acceso tenía a los datos que había acumulado. Zuckerberg empezó la conversación con una fanfarronada, diciendo a su amigo que, si alguna vez necesitaba información sobre alguien de Harvard, no tenía más que decírselo:

Zuck: Tengo más de cuatro mil emails, fotografías, direcciones, SNS (servicios de redes sociales). 

Amigo: ¿Qué? ¿Y cómo lo has conseguido? 

Zuck: La gente simplemente me los ha dado. 

Zuck: No sé por qué. 

Zuck: Pues porque «confían en mí». 

Zuck: ¡Menudos pringados!

Palo Alto, California, septiembre de 2005. Chris Hughes (izquierda) y Mark Zuckerberg, dos de los fundadores de Facebook. Crédito: Getty Images.

Palo Alto, California, septiembre de 2005. Chris Hughes (izquierda) y Mark Zuckerberg, dos de los fundadores de Facebook. Crédito: Getty Images.

En enero de 2005, Zuckerberg entró en una pequeña sala de conferencias en The Washington Post para mantener una reunión de trabajo con el presidente de uno de los periódicos más antiguos y más respetados de Estados Unidos. El joven estaba a punto de celebrar el primer aniversario de su empresa de redes sociales, TheFacebook. Más de un millón de personas utilizaban su plataforma, situando a aquel muchacho de apenas veinte años en una posición social muy exclusiva. Zuckerberg aceptaba su condición de famoso entre otros informáticos de ideas afines a las suyas, pero, al entrar en aquella reunión en particular, era evidente que estaba nervioso. 

Se sentía incómodo en los círculos políticos de Washington, y no estaba familiarizado con el sofisticado mundo de los medios de comunicación de la Costa Este. Apenas seis meses antes, se había trasladado a Palo Alto, California, con unos cuantos amigos de Harvard. Lo que había empezado siendo un experimento de las vacaciones de verano —dirigir TheFacebook desde la vivienda de un rancho de cinco dormitorios con una tirolina tendida sobre la piscina del patio trasero— se había convertido en un permiso prolongado para ausentarse de la universidad, que pasó reuniéndose con inversores en capital de riesgo y empresarios que dirigían algunas de las empresas tecnológicas más interesantes del mundo. 

«Era como una estrella de cine enormemente torpe», observó un amigo que trabajaba para la nueva empresa recién creada y que frecuentaba la residencia de Palo Alto que Zuckerberg y sus compañeros de vivienda habían bautizado «Casa Facebook». «Facebook era todavía pequeña para lo habitual en Silicon Valley, pero había un montón de gente que veía ya en ella el próximo bombazo».

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