Fenómenos

De Agatha Christie a «La paciente silenciosa»: una mirada al maquiavélico arte del «plot twist»

Publicada originalmente en 2019, la novela «La paciente silenciosa» (Alfaguara), de Alex Michaelides, sigue siendo hoy, cinco años después, un fenómeno editorial sostenido por unos números de vértigo: dos millones y medio de ejemplares despachados en 50 países, números que han llamado la atención de Brad Pitt, quien la llevará próximamente al cine. Los motivos de su éxito son muchos y variados, pero principalmente se reducen a estos dos, que son causa y consecuencia: el giro argumental final (lo que también conocemos como «plot twist») y el boca a oreja digital (en TikTok, por ejemplo, hay decenas de miles de vídeos de lectores reseñando del libro, muchos de los cuales sintetizan el desenlace con un simple y contundente «me voló la cabeza»). Aprovechando la fructífera segunda vida de este «thriller» de referencia, en LENGUA recordamos algunas de las enésimas vueltas de tuerca más representativas de la literatura contemporánea. Porque el lector es una criatura crédula por naturaleza, de ahí que existan pocas satisfacciones más excitantes que cuando ve sus expectativas destrozadas con un giro narrativo tan astuto e imprevisto que resignifica toda la historia: sin destripar nada, a continuación repasamos la importancia del golpe de efecto y algunos de esos grandes títulos que consiguieron desencajarnos la mandíbula.

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Aprovechando su \u00e9xito, en LENGUA recordamos esta y otras vueltas de tuerca m\u00edticas.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, libros recomendados en tiktok, libros de Alex Michaelides, novela negra","short_content":"<p>Publicada originalmente en 2019, la novela \u00abLa paciente silenciosa\u00bb (Alfaguara), de Alex Michaelides, sigue siendo hoy, cinco a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, un fen\u00f3meno editorial sostenido por unos n\u00fameros de v\u00e9rtigo: dos millones y medio de ejemplares despachados en 50 pa\u00edses, n\u00fameros que han llamado la atenci\u00f3n de Brad Pitt, quien la llevar\u00e1 pr\u00f3ximamente al cine. Los motivos de su \u00e9xito son muchos y variados, pero principalmente se reducen a estos dos, que son causa y consecuencia: el giro argumental final (lo que tambi\u00e9n conocemos como \u00abplot twist\u00bb) y el boca a oreja digital (en TikTok, por ejemplo, hay decenas de miles de v\u00eddeos de lectores rese\u00f1ando del libro, muchos de los cuales sintetizan el desenlace con un simple y contundente \u00abme vol\u00f3 la cabeza\u00bb). Aprovechando la fruct\u00edfera segunda vida de este \u00abthriller\u00bb de referencia, en LENGUA recordamos algunas de las en\u00e9simas vueltas de tuerca m\u00e1s representativas de la literatura contempor\u00e1nea. Porque el lector es una criatura cr\u00e9dula por naturaleza, de ah\u00ed que existan pocas satisfacciones m\u00e1s excitantes que cuando ve sus expectativas destrozadas con un giro narrativo tan astuto e imprevisto que resignifica toda la historia: sin destripar nada, a continuaci\u00f3n repasamos la importancia del golpe de efecto y algunos de esos grandes t\u00edtulos que consiguieron desencajarnos la mand\u00edbula.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"98x3uba\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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decirse que la historia de la literatura sufri\u00f3 un peque\u00f1o se\u00edsmo el mes de septiembre de 1925, cuando el peri\u00f3dico <em>London Evening News<\/em> publicaba la \u00faltima entrega de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/El_asesinato_de_Roger_Ackroyd\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd,<\/em><\/a><\/span> tercera de las novelas de Agatha Christie protagonizadas por su tan perspicaz como relamido inspector Hercules Poirot. Para asombro de todos los lectores, y la indignaci\u00f3n de no pocos de ellos, un giro copernicano al final de la trama revelaba que el narrador de la historia -y, para colmo, presunto ayudante del detective en la resoluci\u00f3n del caso- era el asesino. Genialidad para algunos, manipulaci\u00f3n escandalosa para otros -a la redacci\u00f3n del diario le llovieron cartas de protesta-, el desenlace marcar\u00eda un hito no solo en las ficciones de misterio -lanzando simb\u00f3licamente al g\u00e9nero una invitaci\u00f3n a seguir rizando el rizo-, sino que quedar\u00eda en el imaginario colectivo como un ejemplo recurrente sobre el poder de la ficci\u00f3n para enga\u00f1arnos, o siendo m\u00e1s ben\u00e9volos, jugar con nuestras expectativas.\u00a0<\/p><p>No puede argumentarse que la controversia de la novela partiera de la incapacidad de los lectores para enfrentarse a una sorpresa may\u00fascula. En su <em>Po\u00e9tica,<\/em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1575--aristoteles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Arist\u00f3teles<\/a><\/span> estableci\u00f3 los principios que deb\u00edan regir las tragedias, entre los cuales descollaban los tres actos -planteamiento, nudo y desenlace-, reserv\u00e1ndose el \u00faltimo para mostrar la capacidad del protagonista para superar obst\u00e1culos y desaf\u00edos a priori insalvables, as\u00ed como los cambios de car\u00e1cter experimentados durante el trayecto, momento pr\u00f3digo en revelaciones chocantes (sin salirnos de la tragedia, pensemos, por ejemplo, en el momento en que Edipo descubre que es el asesino de su propio padre). No, los lectores y el p\u00fablico llevaban siglos acostumbrados a finales que los dejaban ojipl\u00e1ticos. \u00bfQu\u00e9 fibra sensible hab\u00eda tocado pues <em>El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd?<\/em> \u00bfQu\u00e9 lo hac\u00eda tan imperdonable? La explicaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s plausible es que el relator de la historia hab\u00eda decidido confundirnos y sustraernos informaci\u00f3n clave de forma consciente e intencionada (otros lo llamar\u00e1n directamente mentir). Una cosa era un narrador no fiable, aquel de cuyo testimonio podemos albergar serias dudas -un ejemplo cl\u00e1sico ser\u00eda el de la institutriz de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/936-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Otra vuelta de tuerca,<\/em> de Henry James<\/a><\/span>-, pero que se dir\u00eda que act\u00faa de buena fe, siendo la primera v\u00edctima de unos hechos que se le escapan, que es incapaz de interpretar correctamente. Otra muy diferente, alguien que retuerce los hechos al dictado de sus caprichos e intereses, enmara\u00f1ado la cronolog\u00eda, sembrando pistas falsas, ocultando elementos 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psicolog\u00eda ha estudiado a fondo la figura del lector y demostrado que es ingenuo por naturaleza, es decir, que se inclina de forma natural a creer el testimonio de una voz que le cuenta una historia en primera persona. En definitiva, toda ficci\u00f3n se levanta sobre un pacto entre autor y lector que exige que el segundo tome por veros\u00edmiles unos acontecimientos transmitidos por el primero que, en el fondo, sabe que son producto de la imaginaci\u00f3n. Sin esta \u00absuspensi\u00f3n de la credibilidad\u00bb, expresi\u00f3n acu\u00f1ada por el poeta y fil\u00f3sofo Samuel Coleridge en 1871, el disfrute ser\u00eda imposible. Ahora bien, \u00bfd\u00f3nde est\u00e1 el l\u00edmite entre credulidad sana y ser objeto de una manipulaci\u00f3n flagrante? Aunque obviamente la tomadura de pelo escocer\u00e1 ahora y siempre, no es lo mismo un lector de 1925 que el de hoy, casi un siglo despu\u00e9s. El consumidor actual de cualquier ficci\u00f3n est\u00e1 curtido en trampas, zarandeos, <em>culs de sac...<\/em> y no solo acepta, sino que da por supuesto e incluso demanda que g\u00e9neros como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/nombres-propios\/alfaguara-negra-novela-policiaca-suspense-thriller-autores-libros-recomendados\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la novela negra o el <em>thriller<\/em><\/a><\/span> exploten los arabescos o tirabuzones narrativos y lo reten a anticiparlos (otro tema es que el mecanismo se haya ido de las manos y se abuse repetidamente de \u00e9l, acumulando bandazos y finales sucesivos). La l\u00ednea roja vendr\u00eda a ser no insultar a su inteligencia. Aunque probablemente los giros extremos m\u00e1s grabados en la mente colectiva procedan del cine -<em>El planeta de los simios,<\/em> si bien cabe recordar que la fuente es la novela hom\u00f3nima de Pierre Boulle, de 1963; <em>El sexto sentido, Sospechosos habituales...-,<\/em> la literatura de los \u00faltimos veinte a\u00f1os ha dado brillantes muestras de historias que han impactado con vuelcos que resignificaban todo lo le\u00eddo hasta ese momento. 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Cr\u00e9dito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"omqpt31\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Fotograma de <em>The Usual Suspects<\/em> (conocida como <em>Los sospechosos de siempre<\/em> o <em>Sospechosos comunes<\/em> en Latinoam\u00e9rica y <em>Sospechosos habituales<\/em> en Espa\u00f1a), pel\u00edcula dirigida por Bryan Singer. En la imagen, desde la izquierda, los actores Stephen Baldwin, Benicio del Toro, Gabriel Byrne y Kevin Spacey. Cr\u00e9dito: cortes\u00eda de Polygram Filmed 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faltar\u00edan ejemplos, pero cabe destacar dos de ellos por la fuerza y astucia de su planteamiento: 1) <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/20029-ebook-perdida-9788439727545\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Perdida<\/em> (Reservoir Books)<\/a><\/span>, el <em>best seller<\/em> global de Gillian Flynn, de 2012, objeto de una celebrada adaptaci\u00f3n al cine a cargo de David Fincher. La inocencia o culpabilidad de un hombre en la desaparici\u00f3n de su esposa es la inc\u00f3gnita base de una historia que se ramifica y muta de formas que noquean al lector. Por medio del salto del punto de vista entre los dos c\u00f3nyuges, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1456-gillian-flynn\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Flynn<\/a><\/span> nos obliga a recalibrar constantemente los hechos, abandon\u00e1ndonos en manos de dos trileros dispuestos a que nos explote el cerebro. Un matrimonio fundamentado en los secretos y las falsas apariencias deviene en el espejo perfecto de las t\u00e9cnicas empleadas por la novelista para destrozar nuestra inocencia lectora. 2) <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/14109-ebook-vestido-de-novia-9788420418292?mot_tcid=babb6a09-993e-47d3-852d-0898dd794491\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Vestido de novia<\/em> (Alfaguara)<\/a><\/span>, probablemente el juego de manos m\u00e1s abracadabrante que ha facturado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/3125-pierre-lemaitre\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pierre Lemaitre<\/a><\/span>, quien en sus novelas polic\u00edacas reg\u00f3 sus tramas, siempre milim\u00e9tricamente confeccionadas, de un esp\u00edritu particularmente l\u00fadico y gamberro. Una mujer, Sophie Duguet, comienza a perder el control sobre su mente y sus acciones (sufre lagunas de memoria, extrav\u00eda cosas, lleva a cabo peque\u00f1os hurtos...), lo que la arroja a un estado permanente de desconcierto y turbulencias para el que carece de explicaci\u00f3n. Cuando al fin la encuentre, y el lector con ella, mejor ser\u00e1 que ambos est\u00e9n sentados. Entrar en m\u00e1s detalles ser\u00eda peor que revelarle a un ni\u00f1o la verdad sobre Santa Claus...<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dmdkrfd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfD\u00f3nde est\u00e1 el l\u00edmite entre credulidad sana y ser objeto de una manipulaci\u00f3n flagrante? Aunque la tomadura de pelo escocer\u00e1 ahora y siempre, no es lo mismo un lector de 1925 que el de hoy. El consumidor actual est\u00e1 curtido en trampas y demanda que la novela negra explote los tirabuzones narrativos (...). La l\u00ednea roja vendr\u00eda a ser no insultar a su inteligencia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"alng1hm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Un recurso muy valioso a la hora de explorar el giro narrativo bomb\u00e1stico en un contexto en el que la sobreproducci\u00f3n de contenidos de entretenimiento en los m\u00e1s diversos formatos es apabullante ha sido el de la psicolog\u00eda perturbada. En 2003, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4871-dennis-lehane\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Dennis Lehane<\/a><\/span> homenajeaba al terror g\u00f3tico y al <em>pulp<\/em> en <em>Shutter Island<\/em> -posteriormente llevada a la pantalla grande por Martin Scorsese-, haci\u00e9ndonos acompa\u00f1ar, a mediados de los a\u00f1os 50, a un agente federal a un hospital\/isla para enfermos mentales del que se hab\u00eda escapado un paciente. Historia de redenci\u00f3n salvaje con una pregunta tr\u00e1gica en su centro -\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 ser\u00eda peor: vivir como un monstruo o morir como un hombre bueno?\u00bb-, su protagonista encarnaba una suerte de paroxismo de las trampas que nos puede tejer nuestro cerebro traumatizado. La idea de la decodificaci\u00f3n problem\u00e1tica del entorno ha estado en la base de <em>best sellers<\/em> planetarios de los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os como <em>La chica del tren,<\/em> de Paula Hawkins, o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/20487-ebook-la-mujer-en-la-ventana-9788425356643\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>La mujer en la ventana<\/em> (Grijalbo)<\/a><\/span>, de A.J. Finn, <em>thrillers<\/em> con crimen en los que mujeres en un estado emocional vulnerable serv\u00edan a sus creadores la posibilidad de explotar, tan angustiosa como entretenidamente, el mecanismo del narrador no fiable y los consiguientes giros sorpresivos cuando al fin se revelaban las brechas (o no) entre sus lecturas de la realidad y la 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a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su publicaci\u00f3n, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/14495-ebook-la-paciente-silenciosa-9788420435510\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>La paciente silenciosa<\/em> (Alfaguara)<\/a><\/span>, de Alex Michaelides (Chipre, 1977), que en cierta forma bebe tanto de <em>Shutter Island<\/em> -la mente como laberinto espeluznante, un espacio claustrof\u00f3bico...-, como de los libros citados de Lemaitre, Flynn, Hawkins y Finn -la mujer que funciona al modo de un enorme misterio para el lector, y en ocasiones para s\u00ed misma- sigue levantando pasiones entre los lectores y generando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/tan-poca-vida-hanya-yanagihara-libro-viral-tiktok\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">contenido entusiasta en las redes sociales<\/a><\/span> (<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.tiktok.com\/discover\/la-paciente-silenciosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">en TikTok ha devenido todo un fen\u00f3meno<\/a><\/span>), en buena medida por un giro final que consigue que el comentario m\u00e1s repetido sea \u00abme vol\u00f3 la cabeza\u00bb.<\/p><p>Estudiante de Literatura Inglesa y de Psicoterapia, Michaelides estuvo muy influenciado desde ni\u00f1o por la mitolog\u00eda griega, de ah\u00ed que, cuando se plante\u00f3 dar el salto de la escritura de guiones cinematogr\u00e1ficos a la novela -cansado de aguantar egos destructivos en el plat\u00f3 y de carecer de libertad creativa, al tiempo que frustrado ante la imposibilidad de dar aut\u00e9ntico relieve a los personajes-, encontrara en el mito de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/porlagreciadezeus.es\/admeto-y-alcestis\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Alcestis y Admeto<\/a><\/span> uno de los motores narrativos. De cara a completar su \u00f3pera prima, no menos determinante fueron su familiaridad con los mecanismos de la psicoterapia y su trabajo en una unidad de seguridad para j\u00f3venes con problemas psiqui\u00e1tricos. Traducida en cincuenta pa\u00edses, <em>La paciente silencios<\/em>a ha vendido dos millones y medio de ejemplares, al tiempo que sus derechos cinematogr\u00e1ficos han sido adquiridos por la productora de Brad Pitt.<\/p><p>La trama gira en torno al misterio que supone la falta de respuestas a los motivos que impelieron a Alicia Berenson, una pintora exitosa, a descerrajar cinco tiros en la cabeza de su marido, un fot\u00f3grafo de moda. Sumida en un silencio inquebrantable, la asesina lleva seis a\u00f1os recluida en un centro psiqui\u00e1trico en el norte de Londres, al que llega un psicoterapeuta forense, Theo Faber, decidido a devolverle la voz y sacar a la luz la verdad de un caso que no ha dejado de fascinar a Inglaterra.\u00a0<\/p><p>Bajo la influencia confesa de ascendentes tan variados como Agatha Christie, Alfred Hitchcock y las mencionadas tragedias griegas, el autor reflexiona sobre los abismos de la mente y el poder cat\u00e1rtico del arte (y de la confesi\u00f3n) para sobreponerse a los traumas, apostando a generar tensi\u00f3n por medio de los espacios en blanco -l\u00e9ase, el mutismo de la protagonista- y la lenta revelaci\u00f3n de los secretos enquistados, al tiempo que va conformando un puzle diab\u00f3lico en el que se juega astutamente con las l\u00edneas temporales y las fuentes de informaci\u00f3n inesperadas. Nada diremos del final, m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de insistir en que reconfigura todo lo le\u00eddo e invita a una revisi\u00f3n para intentar dilucidar c\u00f3mo se las ingeni\u00f3 el escritor para dejarnos con la boca abierta. Michaelides ha publicado otros dos\u00a0<em>thrillers<\/em>\u00a0superventas,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/238115-libro-las-doncellas-9788420455488\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Las doncellas<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0y\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/343171-libro-la-furia-9788420468563?mot_tcid=5de321d8-fd85-4857-bd7b-c5ac46d5dc83\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La furia<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(ambas tambi\u00e9n en Alfaguara), en los que la intriga, el crimen, la psicolog\u00eda y los mitos vuelven a combinarse de maneras que propulsan la lectura hacia delante.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t67fmkt\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Cinco a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su publicaci\u00f3n, <em>La paciente silenciosa,<\/em> que en cierta forma bebe tanto de <em>Shutter Island<\/em> como de algunos libros de Pierre Lemaitre o Gillian Flynn, sigue levantando pasiones entre los lectores (en TikTok ha devenido todo un fen\u00f3meno), en buena medida por un giro final que consigue que el comentario m\u00e1s repetido sea \u00abme vol\u00f3 la cabeza\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yv9hdr7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Y cuantos disfrutaron de <em>La paciente silenciosa<\/em> est\u00e1n estos d\u00edas de enhorabuena con la publicaci\u00f3n de una novela que aborda algunos temas concomitantes y echa mano de recursos narrativos similares para convertir el viaje en una fuente de misterio hechizante y de angustia gozosa, con capas y m\u00e1s capas de nuevos significados abri\u00e9ndose sin descanso. En <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/341720-libro-anna-o-9788419456601\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>Anna O<\/em> (Salamandra)<\/a><\/span>, Matthew Blake ha conseguido seducir a miles de lectores -un fen\u00f3meno internacional, publicado en m\u00e1s de treinta pa\u00edses- con una aproximaci\u00f3n original y sugerente: vincular el crimen al sue\u00f1o. La protagonista que da t\u00edtulo a la novela no solo parece cometer un doble asesinato en un estado de sonambulismo extremo, sino que a continuaci\u00f3n padece el denominado s\u00edndrome de resignaci\u00f3n, un trastorno neurol\u00f3gico funcional, vinculado a estados depresivos y a experiencias traum\u00e1ticas, por el que la persona cae en un letargo o catatonia profundos. \u00bfC\u00f3mo entender y juzgar (en un sentido tanto moral como ante los tribunales) los actos de un individuo si se han cometido en un estado inconsciente? Preguntas de tan dif\u00edcil respuesta son las que plantea una historia inquietante y absorbente.\u00a0<\/p><p>Quedan advertidos: tambi\u00e9n les esperan unos giros de \u00f3rdago. Los que salieron airados de la lectura de <em>El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd<\/em> en 1925 probablemente hubieran llevado a su autor a los tribunales.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pld9atq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/pierre-lemaitre-diccionario-apasionado-de-la-novela-negra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Una muy breve historia de la novela negra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 Hollywood<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alex-Michaelides-Las-Doncellas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Alex Michaelides y el siniestro arte de llevar a los dioses al div\u00e1n<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/mick-herron-jackson-lamb-john-le-carre-las-reglas-de-londres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mick Herron y el esp\u00eda que surgi\u00f3 del fr\u00edo... de Londres<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/sandrone-dazieri-no-huyas-novela-negra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Contracultura y novela negra: Sandrone Dazieri y el nuevo \u00abgiallo\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/bernard-minier-lucia-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bernard Minier: el Mal est\u00e1 en los detalles<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/pierre-lemaitre-novelista-el-ancho-mundo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pierre Lemaitre contra el tiempo: apuntes del novelista que quiere llegar a ser<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"uvnrv5s\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Desde la izquierda: Agatha Christie (crédito: Getty Images), Henry James (D. R.), Sarah Waters (Getty Images), Pierre Lemaitre (Marta Calvo), Gillian Flynn (Heidi Jo Brady), Dennis Lehane (Gaby Gerster) y Alex Michaelides (D. R.).

Desde la izquierda: Agatha Christie (crédito: Getty Images), Henry James (D. R.), Sarah Waters (Getty Images), Pierre Lemaitre (Marta Calvo), Gillian Flynn (Heidi Jo Brady), Dennis Lehane (Gaby Gerster) y Alex Michaelides (D. R.).

Podría decirse que la historia de la literatura sufrió un pequeño seísmo el mes de septiembre de 1925, cuando el periódico London Evening News publicaba la última entrega de El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd, tercera de las novelas de Agatha Christie protagonizadas por su tan perspicaz como relamido inspector Hercules Poirot. Para asombro de todos los lectores, y la indignación de no pocos de ellos, un giro copernicano al final de la trama revelaba que el narrador de la historia -y, para colmo, presunto ayudante del detective en la resolución del caso- era el asesino. Genialidad para algunos, manipulación escandalosa para otros -a la redacción del diario le llovieron cartas de protesta-, el desenlace marcaría un hito no solo en las ficciones de misterio -lanzando simbólicamente al género una invitación a seguir rizando el rizo-, sino que quedaría en el imaginario colectivo como un ejemplo recurrente sobre el poder de la ficción para engañarnos, o siendo más benévolos, jugar con nuestras expectativas. 

No puede argumentarse que la controversia de la novela partiera de la incapacidad de los lectores para enfrentarse a una sorpresa mayúscula. En su Poética, Aristóteles estableció los principios que debían regir las tragedias, entre los cuales descollaban los tres actos -planteamiento, nudo y desenlace-, reservándose el último para mostrar la capacidad del protagonista para superar obstáculos y desafíos a priori insalvables, así como los cambios de carácter experimentados durante el trayecto, momento pródigo en revelaciones chocantes (sin salirnos de la tragedia, pensemos, por ejemplo, en el momento en que Edipo descubre que es el asesino de su propio padre). No, los lectores y el público llevaban siglos acostumbrados a finales que los dejaban ojipláticos. ¿Qué fibra sensible había tocado pues El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd? ¿Qué lo hacía tan imperdonable? La explicación más plausible es que el relator de la historia había decidido confundirnos y sustraernos información clave de forma consciente e intencionada (otros lo llamarán directamente mentir). Una cosa era un narrador no fiable, aquel de cuyo testimonio podemos albergar serias dudas -un ejemplo clásico sería el de la institutriz de Otra vuelta de tuerca, de Henry James-, pero que se diría que actúa de buena fe, siendo la primera víctima de unos hechos que se le escapan, que es incapaz de interpretar correctamente. Otra muy diferente, alguien que retuerce los hechos al dictado de sus caprichos e intereses, enmarañado la cronología, sembrando pistas falsas, ocultando elementos significativos...

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

La paciente silenciosa

Alex Michaelides

LA NOVELA QUE HA CONMOCIONADO A 50 PAÍSES Y SEDUJO A BRAD PITT, QUIEN LA LLEVARÁ AL CINE

PREMIO DE LOS LECTORES DE GOODREADS
MEJOR LIBRO DEL MES SEGÚN THE TIMES
EN LAS LISTAS DE MÁS VENDIDOS DE ESTA...

La psicología ha estudiado a fondo la figura del lector y demostrado que es ingenuo por naturaleza, es decir, que se inclina de forma natural a creer el testimonio de una voz que le cuenta una historia en primera persona. En definitiva, toda ficción se levanta sobre un pacto entre autor y lector que exige que el segundo tome por verosímiles unos acontecimientos transmitidos por el primero que, en el fondo, sabe que son producto de la imaginación. Sin esta «suspensión de la credibilidad», expresión acuñada por el poeta y filósofo Samuel Coleridge en 1871, el disfrute sería imposible. Ahora bien, ¿dónde está el límite entre credulidad sana y ser objeto de una manipulación flagrante? Aunque obviamente la tomadura de pelo escocerá ahora y siempre, no es lo mismo un lector de 1925 que el de hoy, casi un siglo después. El consumidor actual de cualquier ficción está curtido en trampas, zarandeos, culs de sac... y no solo acepta, sino que da por supuesto e incluso demanda que géneros como la novela negra o el thriller exploten los arabescos o tirabuzones narrativos y lo reten a anticiparlos (otro tema es que el mecanismo se haya ido de las manos y se abuse repetidamente de él, acumulando bandazos y finales sucesivos). La línea roja vendría a ser no insultar a su inteligencia. Aunque probablemente los giros extremos más grabados en la mente colectiva procedan del cine -El planeta de los simios, si bien cabe recordar que la fuente es la novela homónima de Pierre Boulle, de 1963; El sexto sentido, Sospechosos habituales...-, la literatura de los últimos veinte años ha dado brillantes muestras de historias que han impactado con vuelcos que resignificaban todo lo leído hasta ese momento. Ahí están Expiación (y, en menor medida, Operación Dulce), de Ian McEwan; o Falsa identidad, de Sarah Waters, de las que no entraremos en detalles, pero sí apuntaremos que generaron una cierta controversia cuando uno de los dos escritores acusó al otro de no jugar limpio, formulando de paso un principio muy interesante a la hora de medir el giro narrativo honesto: aquel que no borra lo ocurrido/explicado, sino que lo reenfoca desde un ángulo diametralmente opuesto.  

Sofi Oksanen. Crédito: Xavier Torres-Bacchetta.

Fotograma de The Usual Suspects (conocida como Los sospechosos de siempre o Sospechosos comunes en Latinoamérica y Sospechosos habituales en España), película dirigida por Bryan Singer. En la imagen, desde la izquierda, los actores Stephen Baldwin, Benicio del Toro, Gabriel Byrne y Kevin Spacey. Crédito: cortesía de Polygram Filmed Entertainment.

No faltarían ejemplos, pero cabe destacar dos de ellos por la fuerza y astucia de su planteamiento: 1) Perdida (Reservoir Books), el best seller global de Gillian Flynn, de 2012, objeto de una celebrada adaptación al cine a cargo de David Fincher. La inocencia o culpabilidad de un hombre en la desaparición de su esposa es la incógnita base de una historia que se ramifica y muta de formas que noquean al lector. Por medio del salto del punto de vista entre los dos cónyuges, Flynn nos obliga a recalibrar constantemente los hechos, abandonándonos en manos de dos trileros dispuestos a que nos explote el cerebro. Un matrimonio fundamentado en los secretos y las falsas apariencias deviene en el espejo perfecto de las técnicas empleadas por la novelista para destrozar nuestra inocencia lectora. 2) Vestido de novia (Alfaguara), probablemente el juego de manos más abracadabrante que ha facturado Pierre Lemaitre, quien en sus novelas policíacas regó sus tramas, siempre milimétricamente confeccionadas, de un espíritu particularmente lúdico y gamberro. Una mujer, Sophie Duguet, comienza a perder el control sobre su mente y sus acciones (sufre lagunas de memoria, extravía cosas, lleva a cabo pequeños hurtos...), lo que la arroja a un estado permanente de desconcierto y turbulencias para el que carece de explicación. Cuando al fin la encuentre, y el lector con ella, mejor será que ambos estén sentados. Entrar en más detalles sería peor que revelarle a un niño la verdad sobre Santa Claus...

¿Dónde está el límite entre credulidad sana y ser objeto de una manipulación flagrante? Aunque la tomadura de pelo escocerá ahora y siempre, no es lo mismo un lector de 1925 que el de hoy. El consumidor actual está curtido en trampas y demanda que la novela negra explote los tirabuzones narrativos (...). La línea roja vendría a ser no insultar a su inteligencia.

Un recurso muy valioso a la hora de explorar el giro narrativo bombástico en un contexto en el que la sobreproducción de contenidos de entretenimiento en los más diversos formatos es apabullante ha sido el de la psicología perturbada. En 2003, Dennis Lehane homenajeaba al terror gótico y al pulp en Shutter Island -posteriormente llevada a la pantalla grande por Martin Scorsese-, haciéndonos acompañar, a mediados de los años 50, a un agente federal a un hospital/isla para enfermos mentales del que se había escapado un paciente. Historia de redención salvaje con una pregunta trágica en su centro -«¿Qué sería peor: vivir como un monstruo o morir como un hombre bueno?»-, su protagonista encarnaba una suerte de paroxismo de las trampas que nos puede tejer nuestro cerebro traumatizado. La idea de la decodificación problemática del entorno ha estado en la base de best sellers planetarios de los últimos años como La chica del tren, de Paula Hawkins, o La mujer en la ventana (Grijalbo), de A.J. Finn, thrillers con crimen en los que mujeres en un estado emocional vulnerable servían a sus creadores la posibilidad de explotar, tan angustiosa como entretenidamente, el mecanismo del narrador no fiable y los consiguientes giros sorpresivos cuando al fin se revelaban las brechas (o no) entre sus lecturas de la realidad y la verdad.

Imagen promocional de Perdida (Gone Girl), adaptación del libro de Gillian Flynn dirigida por David Fincher. En la imagen, Rosamund Pike y Ben Affleck. Crédito: cortesía de 20th Century Fox.

Imagen promocional de Perdida (Gone Girl), adaptación del libro de Gillian Flynn dirigida por David Fincher. En la imagen, Rosamund Pike y Ben Affleck. Crédito: cortesía de 20th Century Fox.

Cinco años después de su publicación, La paciente silenciosa (Alfaguara), de Alex Michaelides (Chipre, 1977), que en cierta forma bebe tanto de Shutter Island -la mente como laberinto espeluznante, un espacio claustrofóbico...-, como de los libros citados de Lemaitre, Flynn, Hawkins y Finn -la mujer que funciona al modo de un enorme misterio para el lector, y en ocasiones para sí misma- sigue levantando pasiones entre los lectores y generando contenido entusiasta en las redes sociales (en TikTok ha devenido todo un fenómeno), en buena medida por un giro final que consigue que el comentario más repetido sea «me voló la cabeza».

Estudiante de Literatura Inglesa y de Psicoterapia, Michaelides estuvo muy influenciado desde niño por la mitología griega, de ahí que, cuando se planteó dar el salto de la escritura de guiones cinematográficos a la novela -cansado de aguantar egos destructivos en el plató y de carecer de libertad creativa, al tiempo que frustrado ante la imposibilidad de dar auténtico relieve a los personajes-, encontrara en el mito de Alcestis y Admeto uno de los motores narrativos. De cara a completar su ópera prima, no menos determinante fueron su familiaridad con los mecanismos de la psicoterapia y su trabajo en una unidad de seguridad para jóvenes con problemas psiquiátricos. Traducida en cincuenta países, La paciente silenciosa ha vendido dos millones y medio de ejemplares, al tiempo que sus derechos cinematográficos han sido adquiridos por la productora de Brad Pitt.

La trama gira en torno al misterio que supone la falta de respuestas a los motivos que impelieron a Alicia Berenson, una pintora exitosa, a descerrajar cinco tiros en la cabeza de su marido, un fotógrafo de moda. Sumida en un silencio inquebrantable, la asesina lleva seis años recluida en un centro psiquiátrico en el norte de Londres, al que llega un psicoterapeuta forense, Theo Faber, decidido a devolverle la voz y sacar a la luz la verdad de un caso que no ha dejado de fascinar a Inglaterra. 

Bajo la influencia confesa de ascendentes tan variados como Agatha Christie, Alfred Hitchcock y las mencionadas tragedias griegas, el autor reflexiona sobre los abismos de la mente y el poder catártico del arte (y de la confesión) para sobreponerse a los traumas, apostando a generar tensión por medio de los espacios en blanco -léase, el mutismo de la protagonista- y la lenta revelación de los secretos enquistados, al tiempo que va conformando un puzle diabólico en el que se juega astutamente con las líneas temporales y las fuentes de información inesperadas. Nada diremos del final, más allá de insistir en que reconfigura todo lo leído e invita a una revisión para intentar dilucidar cómo se las ingenió el escritor para dejarnos con la boca abierta. Michaelides ha publicado otros dos thrillers superventas, Las doncellas y La furia (ambas también en Alfaguara), en los que la intriga, el crimen, la psicología y los mitos vuelven a combinarse de maneras que propulsan la lectura hacia delante. 

Cinco años después de su publicación, La paciente silenciosa, que en cierta forma bebe tanto de Shutter Island como de algunos libros de Pierre Lemaitre o Gillian Flynn, sigue levantando pasiones entre los lectores (en TikTok ha devenido todo un fenómeno), en buena medida por un giro final que consigue que el comentario más repetido sea «me voló la cabeza».

Y cuantos disfrutaron de La paciente silenciosa están estos días de enhorabuena con la publicación de una novela que aborda algunos temas concomitantes y echa mano de recursos narrativos similares para convertir el viaje en una fuente de misterio hechizante y de angustia gozosa, con capas y más capas de nuevos significados abriéndose sin descanso. En Anna O (Salamandra), Matthew Blake ha conseguido seducir a miles de lectores -un fenómeno internacional, publicado en más de treinta países- con una aproximación original y sugerente: vincular el crimen al sueño. La protagonista que da título a la novela no solo parece cometer un doble asesinato en un estado de sonambulismo extremo, sino que a continuación padece el denominado síndrome de resignación, un trastorno neurológico funcional, vinculado a estados depresivos y a experiencias traumáticas, por el que la persona cae en un letargo o catatonia profundos. ¿Cómo entender y juzgar (en un sentido tanto moral como ante los tribunales) los actos de un individuo si se han cometido en un estado inconsciente? Preguntas de tan difícil respuesta son las que plantea una historia inquietante y absorbente. 

Quedan advertidos: también les esperan unos giros de órdago. Los que salieron airados de la lectura de El asesinato de Roger Ackroyd en 1925 probablemente hubieran llevado a su autor a los tribunales.