Mapa de las Lenguas 2021

Álvaro Bisama y su «Mala lengua»: tras la sombra de Pablo de Rokha

Todo mapa es una representación del mundo que refleja la visión de quien lo dibuja, y el Mapa de las Lenguas no tiene fronteras ni capitales: trece libros, un año y un territorio común para la literatura de veintiún países que comparten un idioma con tantas voces y lenguas como hablantes. Invitados por LENGUA, los autores de esta edición exponen su geografía literaria. Aquí, Álvaro Bisama sobre su novela «Mala lengua».

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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">Deber\u00eda hablar ac\u00e1 sobre el poeta chileno\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/225795-epopeya-9789568856878\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pablo de Rokha<\/a><\/span> (1894-1968) o por qu\u00e9 escrib\u00ed un libro sobre \u00e9l, por qu\u00e9 me perd\u00ed varios a\u00f1os ley\u00e9ndolo, persiguiendo su sombra, tratando de entender de d\u00f3nde ven\u00eda su voz y c\u00f3mo se hab\u00eda alumbrado u oscurecido con los a\u00f1os.\u00a0 Deber\u00eda decir que no se llamaba as\u00ed, que su nombre era Carlos D\u00edaz Loyola, que se identificaba con la figura de Job y que sus compa\u00f1eros de liceo lo hab\u00edan bautizado el Amigo Piedra. Deber\u00eda decir que pas\u00e9 varios a\u00f1os leyendo su poes\u00eda como si fuese un puzle y tratando de entender su vida como un artefacto literario gigantesco, un objeto total e insoportable, lleno de vida como pueden estar los cl\u00e1sicos secretos; una lista de obras donde habitan las voces y los fantasmas del siglo XX, con las promesas y los sue\u00f1os y las pesadillas y los caminos olvidados del campo chileno; con Mao y el mapa de Chile como una inmensa mesa, una mesa larga, whitmaniana o rabeleisiana, una mesa que quiz\u00e1 define obras suyas como <em>Genio del pueblo<\/em> y la \u00abepopeya de las comidas y bebidas de Chile\u00bb porque en ellas se sientan juntos los vivos y los muertos, los viejos h\u00e9roes del pueblo y los familiares campesinos olvidados y poetas y amigos y enemigos, una mesa que es una forma de la memoria y un poema infernal, pero que tambi\u00e9n es un pa\u00eds perdido, que solo existe como 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explicar su mala suerte y decir que su historia es parecida a la de Chile, porque es una tragedia interrumpida por el asombro y la revoluci\u00f3n, por la fiesta y la violencia. Deber\u00eda extenderme sobre eso, sobre c\u00f3mo recordamos a De Rokha desde la caricatura construida por sus enemigos como alguien intolerable, obsesivo y violento; y que seg\u00fan ese retrato mezquino \u00e9l es apenas un enemigo de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/poesia\/26366-poesia-de-amor-flash-poesia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pablo Neruda<\/a><\/span>, pero en cualquier caso un enemigo formidable, conspirativo y persecutorio, un enemigo total que nos sirve para revelar las sombras y luces nerudianas, sus contradicciones y su cursiler\u00eda. Deber\u00eda decir que en realidad no me importa Neruda, que De Rokha existi\u00f3 en la poes\u00eda antes que \u00e9l y que su primera obra, <em>Los gemidos<\/em> (que es de 1922, el mismo a\u00f1o de <em>Trilce<\/em>, <em>Desolaci\u00f3n<\/em> y <em>La tierra bald\u00eda<\/em>), ya es un mapa del mundo completo y todo lo que vino despu\u00e9s, ese corpus gigantesco que no cabe en ninguna antolog\u00eda, es feroz y conmovedor porque existe a la vez como memoria, panfleto y confesi\u00f3n; existe como una voz insobornable, capaz de mascar, de entender la literatura como una guerrilla, una barricada, acaso una fuerza capaz de cambiar o inventar o quemar el 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s\u00ed, deber\u00eda decir que De Rokha tuvo un amor y una familia y que su esposa, Win\u00e9tt, y sus hijos, poetas y pintores, fueron un clan maravilloso y terrible que componen otra historia secreta de la literatura chilena. Deber\u00eda hablar de sus amigos, entre los que se encontraban Huidobro, Joaqu\u00edn Edwards Bello, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Carlos Droguett y Blanca Luz Brum, pero tambi\u00e9n Guillermo Qui\u00f1ones, Juan de Luigi, Mario Ferrero, Fernando Lamberg y W. H. Hays.\u00a0Deber\u00eda decir que escribir fue como armar un puzle, que le\u00ed los poemas como documentos y las cr\u00f3nicas de \u00e9poca como novelas y que todo se confundi\u00f3 siempre porque quiz\u00e1 eran lo mismo, un estilo feroz y conmovedor, una forma brutal de la belleza. Deber\u00eda decir tambi\u00e9n que De Rokha escribi\u00f3 sobre Cristo, Mao, Mahoma, Mois\u00e9s y Lenin, que fue comunista y lo echaron del partido, que viaj\u00f3 a China y recibi\u00f3 el Premio Nacional de Literatura ya viejo, en la d\u00e9cada de los sesenta, cuando ya estaba solo y luchaba por no ser otra sombra arrumbada en el patio trasero de la literatura del siglo XX. Deber\u00eda decir que fue una criatura de los caminos y los puertos pero jam\u00e1s de las ciudades, y que siempre ley\u00f3 a Chile como una provincia dentro de otra provincia. Deber\u00eda decir, narrar m\u00e1s bien, que el poeta fue vendedor viajero y profesor universitario de est\u00e9tica, que hizo suya la picaresca de los caminos y el p\u00falpito encendido de la c\u00e1tedra. Deber\u00eda contar que lo recordaban como una leyenda, como una tormenta. Deber\u00eda decir que se suicid\u00f3 de un balazo en la cabeza, una ma\u00f1ana de septiembre. Deber\u00eda decir, como una explicaci\u00f3n que no sirve de nada, que entre quienes cargaron su ata\u00fad estaba Salvador Allende. Deber\u00eda decir que la tragedia lo sigui\u00f3 de cerca: cuatro de sus hijos murieron y \u00e9l hizo literatura muchas veces como si modelase sus m\u00e1scaras mortuorias; su poes\u00eda nunca huy\u00f3 de esa realidad que lo obligaba a convocar a sus fantasmas, a llamar a Win\u00e9tt una y otra vez desde el m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la palabra, como si no pudiese prescindir de ese lazo con su dolor y su deseo y la nostalgia demoledora de su anhelo. Deber\u00eda decir que termin\u00e9 de escribir <em>Mala lengua<\/em> el a\u00f1o pasado, en medio del estallido y antes de la pandemia, en momentos en que en los muros de Santiago aparec\u00edan rayados con el rostro y los versos de De Rokha como si fuesen nuevos tatuajes en la piel de la ciudad. Deber\u00eda decir que recuerdo uno de una hoja de papel pegada con engrudo en el muro centenario del Museo de Bellas Artes, apenas a unos metros del r\u00edo Mapocho. Rodeada por la orla del nuevo alfabeto de la ciudad y el pa\u00eds, pura lengua viva, la hoja dec\u00eda: \u00abY empu\u00f1o la fatalidad como una gran bandera despedazada\u00bb. Abajo estaba la firma, sobre la que ya no puedo decir nada porque escrib\u00ed y ensay\u00e9 sobre ella para entender el alcance de su lengua literaria y el horizonte del pa\u00eds desde donde dibujaba su l\u00ednea de sombra: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/225795-epopeya-9789568856878\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pablo de 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6 minutos

Crédito: Carla Mc-Kay.

Debería hablar acá sobre el poeta chileno Pablo de Rokha (1894-1968) o por qué escribí un libro sobre él, por qué me perdí varios años leyéndolo, persiguiendo su sombra, tratando de entender de dónde venía su voz y cómo se había alumbrado u oscurecido con los años.  Debería decir que no se llamaba así, que su nombre era Carlos Díaz Loyola, que se identificaba con la figura de Job y que sus compañeros de liceo lo habían bautizado el Amigo Piedra. Debería decir que pasé varios años leyendo su poesía como si fuese un puzle y tratando de entender su vida como un artefacto literario gigantesco, un objeto total e insoportable, lleno de vida como pueden estar los clásicos secretos; una lista de obras donde habitan las voces y los fantasmas del siglo XX, con las promesas y los sueños y las pesadillas y los caminos olvidados del campo chileno; con Mao y el mapa de Chile como una inmensa mesa, una mesa larga, whitmaniana o rabeleisiana, una mesa que quizá define obras suyas como Genio del pueblo y la «epopeya de las comidas y bebidas de Chile» porque en ellas se sientan juntos los vivos y los muertos, los viejos héroes del pueblo y los familiares campesinos olvidados y poetas y amigos y enemigos, una mesa que es una forma de la memoria y un poema infernal, pero que también es un país perdido, que solo existe como poesía.

Debería explicar su mala suerte y decir que su historia es parecida a la de Chile, porque es una tragedia interrumpida por el asombro y la revolución, por la fiesta y la violencia. Debería extenderme sobre eso, sobre cómo recordamos a De Rokha desde la caricatura construida por sus enemigos como alguien intolerable, obsesivo y violento; y que según ese retrato mezquino él es apenas un enemigo de Pablo Neruda, pero en cualquier caso un enemigo formidable, conspirativo y persecutorio, un enemigo total que nos sirve para revelar las sombras y luces nerudianas, sus contradicciones y su cursilería. Debería decir que en realidad no me importa Neruda, que De Rokha existió en la poesía antes que él y que su primera obra, Los gemidos (que es de 1922, el mismo año de Trilce, Desolación y La tierra baldía), ya es un mapa del mundo completo y todo lo que vino después, ese corpus gigantesco que no cabe en ninguna antología, es feroz y conmovedor porque existe a la vez como memoria, panfleto y confesión; existe como una voz insobornable, capaz de mascar, de entender la literatura como una guerrilla, una barricada, acaso una fuerza capaz de cambiar o inventar o quemar el mundo.

Y sí, debería decir que De Rokha tuvo un amor y una familia y que su esposa, Winétt, y sus hijos, poetas y pintores, fueron un clan maravilloso y terrible que componen otra historia secreta de la literatura chilena. Debería hablar de sus amigos, entre los que se encontraban Huidobro, Joaquín Edwards Bello, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Carlos Droguett y Blanca Luz Brum, pero también Guillermo Quiñones, Juan de Luigi, Mario Ferrero, Fernando Lamberg y W. H. Hays. Debería decir que escribir fue como armar un puzle, que leí los poemas como documentos y las crónicas de época como novelas y que todo se confundió siempre porque quizá eran lo mismo, un estilo feroz y conmovedor, una forma brutal de la belleza. Debería decir también que De Rokha escribió sobre Cristo, Mao, Mahoma, Moisés y Lenin, que fue comunista y lo echaron del partido, que viajó a China y recibió el Premio Nacional de Literatura ya viejo, en la década de los sesenta, cuando ya estaba solo y luchaba por no ser otra sombra arrumbada en el patio trasero de la literatura del siglo XX. Debería decir que fue una criatura de los caminos y los puertos pero jamás de las ciudades, y que siempre leyó a Chile como una provincia dentro de otra provincia. Debería decir, narrar más bien, que el poeta fue vendedor viajero y profesor universitario de estética, que hizo suya la picaresca de los caminos y el púlpito encendido de la cátedra. Debería contar que lo recordaban como una leyenda, como una tormenta. Debería decir que se suicidó de un balazo en la cabeza, una mañana de septiembre. Debería decir, como una explicación que no sirve de nada, que entre quienes cargaron su ataúd estaba Salvador Allende. Debería decir que la tragedia lo siguió de cerca: cuatro de sus hijos murieron y él hizo literatura muchas veces como si modelase sus máscaras mortuorias; su poesía nunca huyó de esa realidad que lo obligaba a convocar a sus fantasmas, a llamar a Winétt una y otra vez desde el más allá de la palabra, como si no pudiese prescindir de ese lazo con su dolor y su deseo y la nostalgia demoledora de su anhelo. Debería decir que terminé de escribir Mala lengua el año pasado, en medio del estallido y antes de la pandemia, en momentos en que en los muros de Santiago aparecían rayados con el rostro y los versos de De Rokha como si fuesen nuevos tatuajes en la piel de la ciudad. Debería decir que recuerdo uno de una hoja de papel pegada con engrudo en el muro centenario del Museo de Bellas Artes, apenas a unos metros del río Mapocho. Rodeada por la orla del nuevo alfabeto de la ciudad y el país, pura lengua viva, la hoja decía: «Y empuño la fatalidad como una gran bandera despedazada». Abajo estaba la firma, sobre la que ya no puedo decir nada porque escribí y ensayé sobre ella para entender el alcance de su lengua literaria y el horizonte del país desde donde dibujaba su línea de sombra: Pablo de Rokha.

Este año, en un mundo que está cerrando sus fronteras, asomarnos a otros territorios a través de la palabra cobra más relevancia que nunca. Mapa de las Lenguas es una colección panhispánica global que presenta la mejor literatura de veintiún países que comparten el idioma. Pero es, sobre todo, un itinerario de viaje por trece de los libros que el año pasado tuvieron mayor trascendencia en su país de origen y que, a lo largo del 2021, recorrerán el resto del ámbito del español.

Adentrarse en la obra de estas trece voces es transitar un territorio físico, tangible, pero también un espacio moral, intelectual, anímico, político y sociocultural. La lectura de un autor contemporáneo de cualquier país de habla hispana es una ventana a una forma de expresarse y escribir en español, pero también un modo de tomarle la temperatura a las preocupaciones y los anhelos de cada uno de esos lugares. 

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