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La tragedia de Hillsborough: 35 años de la catástrofe de la que surgió el fútbol negocio

El 15 de abril de 1989, el Liverpool y el Nottingham Forest se disputaban la semifinal de la FA Cup en terreno neutral, el estadio Hillsborough. Minutos antes del inicio del partido, y debido a la aglomeración de hinchas en los accesos, la policía ordenó abrir una de las puertas del fondo oeste, decisión que provocó un exceso de aforo (y que años después se demostró irresponsable): 97 aficionados murieron aplastados contra las vallas de seguridad por una avalancha humana (94 ese mismo día), desgracia que se conocería como la tragedia de Hillsborough. A causa de este incidente, la primera ministra Margaret Thatcher ordenó una investigación para mejorar la seguridad en los estadios y reducir el vandalismo de los «hooligans». El resultado de este análisis fue un documento titulado informe Taylor, el cual vio la luz en enero de 1990 y detallaba medidas como la obligación de que todos los aficionados permaneciesen sentados dentro del recinto, la prohibición del alcohol en los campos, la preferencia por los abonos de temporada, la retirada de vallas alrededor del césped... Para cumplir con estas indicaciones y financiar las obras en sus recintos, los clubes subieron los precios a sus aficionados, lo que provocó un cambio de paradigma en el mundo del fútbol: los estadios dejaban de ser lugares de empoderamiento de las clases trabajadoras para convertirse en un artículo de lujo. Cuando se cumplen 35 años de aquella desgracia, LENGUA publica un extracto de «Invasión de campo» (Ediciones B), un texto en el que el periodista Alejandro Requeijo explica cómo una catástrofe logro devenir en lucrativo negocio.

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Cuando se cumplen 35 a\u00f1os, LENGUA publica un texto de Alejandro Requeijo que explica c\u00f3mo una cat\u00e1strofe logro devenir en lucrativo negocio.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, La tragedia de Hillsborough, Libros de f\u00fatbol","short_content":"<p>El 15 de abril de 1989, el Liverpool y el Nottingham Forest se disputaban la semifinal de la FA Cup en terreno neutral, el estadio Hillsborough. Minutos antes del inicio del partido, y debido a la aglomeraci\u00f3n de hinchas en los accesos, la polic\u00eda orden\u00f3 abrir una de las puertas del fondo oeste, decisi\u00f3n que provoc\u00f3 un exceso de aforo (y que a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s se demostr\u00f3 irresponsable): 97 aficionados murieron aplastados contra las vallas de seguridad por una avalancha humana (94 ese mismo d\u00eda), desgracia que se conocer\u00eda como la tragedia de Hillsborough. A causa de este incidente, la primera ministra Margaret Thatcher orden\u00f3 una investigaci\u00f3n para mejorar la seguridad en los estadios y reducir el vandalismo de los \u00abhooligans\u00bb. El resultado de este an\u00e1lisis fue un documento titulado informe Taylor, el cual vio la luz en enero de 1990 y detallaba medidas como la obligaci\u00f3n de que todos los aficionados permaneciesen sentados dentro del recinto, la prohibici\u00f3n del alcohol en los campos, la preferencia por los abonos de temporada, la retirada de vallas alrededor del c\u00e9sped... Para cumplir con estas indicaciones y financiar las obras en sus recintos, los clubes subieron los precios a sus aficionados, lo que provoc\u00f3 un cambio de paradigma en el mundo del f\u00fatbol: los estadios dejaban de ser lugares de empoderamiento de las clases trabajadoras para convertirse en un art\u00edculo de lujo. Cuando se cumplen 35 a\u00f1os de aquella desgracia, LENGUA publica un extracto de \u00abInvasi\u00f3n de campo\u00bb (Ediciones B), un texto en el que el periodista Alejandro Requeijo explica c\u00f3mo una cat\u00e1strofe logro devenir en lucrativo negocio.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"gn2d2qi\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Inglaterra, 16 de abril de 1989. Margaret Thatcher, primera ministra del Reino Unido desde 1979 a 1990, visit\u00f3 el estadio de Hillsborough el d\u00eda despu\u00e9s de la estampida que provoc\u00f3 la muerte de 96 personas, todas ellas aficionadas del Liverpool. Cr\u00e9ditos: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5de9rdm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Sheffield, Inglaterra, 16 de abril de 1989. Margaret Thatcher, primera ministra del Reino Unido desde 1979 a 1990, visit\u00f3 el estadio de Hillsborough el d\u00eda despu\u00e9s de la estampida que provoc\u00f3 la muerte de 97 personas, todas ellas aficionadas del Liverpool (se calcularon 96, pero <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.marca.com\/futbol\/premier-league\/2021\/07\/29\/610268e246163fe62e8b4617.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">en 2021 se sumo una v\u00edctima m\u00e1s<\/a><\/span>, un hincha que falleci\u00f3 32 a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s a causa de lesiones provocadas en el incidente). Cr\u00e9ditos: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"517v3f2\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Thatcher y el informe Taylor\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Es importante saber por qu\u00e9 pasan las cosas, qui\u00e9n decide que cambien y cu\u00e1les son sus verdaderas motivaciones. Sin diagn\u00f3stico, no hay terapia posible. Los estadios eran lugares de empoderamiento de las clases trabajadoras y el tiempo les ha arrebatado el f\u00fatbol para convertirlo en un art\u00edculo de lujo. El partido del domingo, el d\u00eda de descanso, era el momento de uni\u00f3n en torno al estadio del barrio y el club que les representaba. Si hubiese que marcar un punto de inflexi\u00f3n habr\u00eda que remontarse a 1990 y a un nombre: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Informe_Taylor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">lord Taylor of Gosforth<\/a><\/span>. Casi ning\u00fan aficionado al f\u00fatbol sabe que por este se\u00f1or ingl\u00e9s los estadios en Europa pasaron a contar con butacas en todo el aforo para ver el partido sentado dejando atr\u00e1s <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/la-boca-y-la-bombonera-invasion-de-campo-alejandro-requeijo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">las tradicionales bancadas o grader\u00edos donde se permanec\u00eda de pie<\/a><\/span>. O que sus recomendaciones fueron determinantes para encarecer el f\u00fatbol y alejarlo de las clases populares a las que se les culp\u00f3 de la violencia en los estadios brit\u00e1nicos en el marco de la ola ultraconservadora que impuls\u00f3 Margaret Thatcher. La Dama de Hierro estaba enfrentada a los sectores obreristas de su pa\u00eds, muchos de los cuales expresaban su rechazo al Gobierno tambi\u00e9n desde las gradas de los estadios. El ejemplo m\u00e1s conocido es el de la afici\u00f3n del Liverpool, una ciudad industrial especialmente castigada por las pol\u00edticas de Downing Street en la d\u00e9cada de los ochenta. No era raro escuchar c\u00e1nticos en Anfield deseando la muerte a la primera ministra procedentes de la popular grada de The Kop.<\/p><p>El 15 de abril de 1989 se enfrentaban los Reds y el Nottingham Forest en las semifinales de la FA Cup en Hillsborough, el estadio del Sheffield Wednesday. Las dos aficiones se dieron cita en cancha neutral para disputar el encuentro, y una avalancha humana en el acceso les cost\u00f3 la vida a noventa y siete personas, todas del Liverpool. A aquellos sucesos se les conoce como la tragedia de Hillsborough y las v\u00edctimas est\u00e1n siempre presentes en la iconograf\u00eda del club. No hay celebraci\u00f3n sin recuerdo a los muertos de aquel d\u00eda. El \u00eddolo del Liverpool Steven Gerrard perdi\u00f3 a un primo de apenas diez a\u00f1os. La respuesta de las autoridades fue culpar a los aficionados, algo parecido al amago de la polic\u00eda francesa en la edici\u00f3n de la final de la Champions de 2022, cuando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/deportes\/2023-02-13\/la-uefa-principal-responsable-del-caos-en-la-final-de-la-champions-de-2022.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el desastre organizativo en los accesos<\/a><\/span> oblig\u00f3 a retrasar el inicio del partido entre el Real Madrid y el 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1989 estaban muy presentes otras cat\u00e1strofes relacionadas con aficiones inglesas que causaron decenas de muertes como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tragedia_de_Heysel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la del estadio Heysel de Bruselas<\/a><\/span> o la del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tragedia_de_Valley_Parade\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">incendio en el Valley Parade de Bradford<\/a><\/span>. La maquinaria medi\u00e1tica se ceb\u00f3 con los aficionados. En su libro <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.hojadelata.net\/tienda\/una-historia-popular-del-futbol\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Una historia popular del f\u00fatbol<\/a><\/em><\/span>, Micka\u00ebl Correia cita ejemplos de algunas informaciones publicadas en los tabloides brit\u00e1nicos que ahondaron en esa criminalizaci\u00f3n. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Coverage_of_the_Hillsborough_disaster_by_The_Sun\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>The Sun<\/em> lleg\u00f3 a difundir que la polic\u00eda hab\u00eda visto a la gente orinar<\/a><\/span> sobre los cad\u00e1veres de Hillsborough. Con todo a favor, el Gobierno de Thatcher encarg\u00f3 a lord Taylor un estudio sobre c\u00f3mo prevenir el vandalismo en los estadios. El resultado se plasm\u00f3 en 1990 en el famoso informe: todos sentados, nada de alcohol en los campos, dar preferencia a los abonos de temporada por encima de las entradas sueltas, reducci\u00f3n considerable de aforos, mejorar los accesos para evitar aglomeraciones, retirar las vallas alrededor del c\u00e9sped... Para corresponder con estas indicaciones y financiar las obras en sus recintos, muchos de los clubes subieron los precios a sus aficionados. Las entradas para un partido concreto dejaron de ser rentables frente a los abonos de temporada, pero no todos pod\u00edan pagarlo. El periodista <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/as.com\/opinion\/2020\/01\/11\/portada\/1578699467_144742.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Diego Barcala condens\u00f3 en una columna publicada en el diario <em>As<\/em><\/a><\/span> los efectos que estas medidas tuvieron para el f\u00fatbol presencial: \u00abEn apenas un lustro, los abonos de liga en Inglaterra subieron un 1.108 por ciento. Hooligans fuera, y clases populares, tambi\u00e9n. 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Inglaterra, 15 de abril de 2009. 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resto de los pa\u00edses copi\u00f3 el modelo r\u00e1pidamente, aunque ninguno tuviese los mismos problemas con la violencia. Hoy entrar con una cerveza en el estadio conlleva expulsi\u00f3n inmediata si te pillan. Pero pagando 200 euros por una entrada vip o un palco de temporada a raz\u00f3n de 2.000 euros s\u00ed puedes inflarte a ginebra y whisky porque ya se sabe que los \u00fanicos que dan problemas son los pobres. Muchos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, demasiados, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.jesip.org.uk\/downloads\/hillsborough-report-2012\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">una investigaci\u00f3n independiente public\u00f3 en 2012<\/a><\/span> un estudio sobre lo que pas\u00f3 realmente en Hillsborough. Se acredit\u00f3 que la culpa de la avalancha humana fue la negligente actuaci\u00f3n de la polic\u00eda de Thatcher. El entonces primer ministro brit\u00e1nico, David Cameron, pidi\u00f3 perd\u00f3n desde la C\u00e1mara de los Comunes a las familias de los fallecidos que, por fin, encontraron algo de justicia por parte de sus instituciones. Margaret Thatcher dej\u00f3 el n\u00famero 10 de Downing Street a los pocos meses de publicarse el informe Taylor y muri\u00f3 en 2013, un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s de las disculpas del Gobierno brit\u00e1nico a la gente de Liverpool. En Anfield Road no hubo muchas l\u00e1grimas por el fallecimiento de la Dama de 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/messi-psg-clubes-estado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ciudadano Messi al PSG: la oscura trama detr\u00e1s de los clubes-Estado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/la-boca-y-la-bombonera-invasion-de-campo-alejandro-requeijo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La Boca y La Bombonera, un destino y un mito: tango, f\u00fatbol y chorip\u00e1n<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/eduardo-sacheri-hoy-si-argentina-francia-final-mundial\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Eduardo Sacheri: Hoy s\u00ed<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/el-estadio-vacio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El estadio vac\u00edo: historias de cuando al f\u00fatbol se le arrebat\u00f3 el alma<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/maradona-victor-hugo-morales-mundial-de-mexico\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abGenio, genio, genio\u00bb: Maradona y \u00abla jugada de todos los 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5 minutos
Sheffield, Inglaterra, 16 de abril de 1989. Margaret Thatcher, primera ministra del Reino Unido desde 1979 a 1990, visitó el estadio de Hillsborough el día después de la estampida que provocó la muerte de 96 personas, todas ellas aficionadas del Liverpool. Créditos: Getty Images.

Sheffield, Inglaterra, 16 de abril de 1989. Margaret Thatcher, primera ministra del Reino Unido desde 1979 a 1990, visitó el estadio de Hillsborough el día después de la estampida que provocó la muerte de 97 personas, todas ellas aficionadas del Liverpool (se calcularon 96, pero en 2021 se sumo una víctima más, un hincha que falleció 32 años después a causa de lesiones provocadas en el incidente). Créditos: Getty Images.

La Thatcher y el informe Taylor  

Es importante saber por qué pasan las cosas, quién decide que cambien y cuáles son sus verdaderas motivaciones. Sin diagnóstico, no hay terapia posible. Los estadios eran lugares de empoderamiento de las clases trabajadoras y el tiempo les ha arrebatado el fútbol para convertirlo en un artículo de lujo. El partido del domingo, el día de descanso, era el momento de unión en torno al estadio del barrio y el club que les representaba. Si hubiese que marcar un punto de inflexión habría que remontarse a 1990 y a un nombre: lord Taylor of Gosforth. Casi ningún aficionado al fútbol sabe que por este señor inglés los estadios en Europa pasaron a contar con butacas en todo el aforo para ver el partido sentado dejando atrás las tradicionales bancadas o graderíos donde se permanecía de pie. O que sus recomendaciones fueron determinantes para encarecer el fútbol y alejarlo de las clases populares a las que se les culpó de la violencia en los estadios británicos en el marco de la ola ultraconservadora que impulsó Margaret Thatcher. La Dama de Hierro estaba enfrentada a los sectores obreristas de su país, muchos de los cuales expresaban su rechazo al Gobierno también desde las gradas de los estadios. El ejemplo más conocido es el de la afición del Liverpool, una ciudad industrial especialmente castigada por las políticas de Downing Street en la década de los ochenta. No era raro escuchar cánticos en Anfield deseando la muerte a la primera ministra procedentes de la popular grada de The Kop.

El 15 de abril de 1989 se enfrentaban los Reds y el Nottingham Forest en las semifinales de la FA Cup en Hillsborough, el estadio del Sheffield Wednesday. Las dos aficiones se dieron cita en cancha neutral para disputar el encuentro, y una avalancha humana en el acceso les costó la vida a noventa y siete personas, todas del Liverpool. A aquellos sucesos se les conoce como la tragedia de Hillsborough y las víctimas están siempre presentes en la iconografía del club. No hay celebración sin recuerdo a los muertos de aquel día. El ídolo del Liverpool Steven Gerrard perdió a un primo de apenas diez años. La respuesta de las autoridades fue culpar a los aficionados, algo parecido al amago de la policía francesa en la edición de la final de la Champions de 2022, cuando el desastre organizativo en los accesos obligó a retrasar el inicio del partido entre el Real Madrid y el Liverpool.  

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

Invasión de campo

Alejandro Requeijo

Un manifiesto contra el fútbol como negocio y en defensa del aficionado.

En 1989 estaban muy presentes otras catástrofes relacionadas con aficiones inglesas que causaron decenas de muertes como la del estadio Heysel de Bruselas o la del incendio en el Valley Parade de Bradford. La maquinaria mediática se cebó con los aficionados. En su libro Una historia popular del fútbol, Mickaël Correia cita ejemplos de algunas informaciones publicadas en los tabloides británicos que ahondaron en esa criminalización. The Sun llegó a difundir que la policía había visto a la gente orinar sobre los cadáveres de Hillsborough. Con todo a favor, el Gobierno de Thatcher encargó a lord Taylor un estudio sobre cómo prevenir el vandalismo en los estadios. El resultado se plasmó en 1990 en el famoso informe: todos sentados, nada de alcohol en los campos, dar preferencia a los abonos de temporada por encima de las entradas sueltas, reducción considerable de aforos, mejorar los accesos para evitar aglomeraciones, retirar las vallas alrededor del césped... Para corresponder con estas indicaciones y financiar las obras en sus recintos, muchos de los clubes subieron los precios a sus aficionados. Las entradas para un partido concreto dejaron de ser rentables frente a los abonos de temporada, pero no todos podían pagarlo. El periodista Diego Barcala condensó en una columna publicada en el diario As los efectos que estas medidas tuvieron para el fútbol presencial: «En apenas un lustro, los abonos de liga en Inglaterra subieron un 1.108 por ciento. Hooligans fuera, y clases populares, también. El fútbol que conocemos hoy empezó entonces». 

Liverpool, Inglaterra, 15 de abril de 2009. Miles de aficionados del Liverpool se citan cada año en una suerte de altar ubicado a las puertas de Anfield para rendir tributo a los amigos y familiares que perdieron en la tragedia de Hillsborough. Crédito: Getty Images.

Liverpool, Inglaterra, 15 de abril de 2009. Miles de aficionados del Liverpool se citan cada año en una suerte de altar ubicado a las puertas de Anfield para rendir tributo a los amigos y familiares que perdieron en la tragedia de Hillsborough. Crédito: Getty Images.

El resto de los países copió el modelo rápidamente, aunque ninguno tuviese los mismos problemas con la violencia. Hoy entrar con una cerveza en el estadio conlleva expulsión inmediata si te pillan. Pero pagando 200 euros por una entrada vip o un palco de temporada a razón de 2.000 euros sí puedes inflarte a ginebra y whisky porque ya se sabe que los únicos que dan problemas son los pobres. Muchos años después, demasiados, una investigación independiente publicó en 2012 un estudio sobre lo que pasó realmente en Hillsborough. Se acreditó que la culpa de la avalancha humana fue la negligente actuación de la policía de Thatcher. El entonces primer ministro británico, David Cameron, pidió perdón desde la Cámara de los Comunes a las familias de los fallecidos que, por fin, encontraron algo de justicia por parte de sus instituciones. Margaret Thatcher dejó el número 10 de Downing Street a los pocos meses de publicarse el informe Taylor y murió en 2013, un año después de las disculpas del Gobierno británico a la gente de Liverpool. En Anfield Road no hubo muchas lágrimas por el fallecimiento de la Dama de Hierro. 

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