Cómic

El viaje de Miyazaki: sindicalismo, manga, animación, ecologismo y política

Que Hayao Miyazaki es una de las grandes figuras de la animación de los últimos 40 años es algo que a estas alturas ya nadie puede poner en duda, y es por eso que el anuncio de una nueva película (¡este señor no quiere retirarse!) o cualquier publicación que lleve su firma es una excusa para festejar entre todos aquellos que hemos caído rendidos ante su talento: casi de forma paralela al estreno de su más reciente película, «El chico y la garza», nos ha llegado tanto en castellano como en catalán «El viaje de Shuna» (Salamandra Graphic), una obra inédita en España, en la que vemos a un Miyazaki anterior a la fundación de Ghibli ofreciendo al lector algo que se encuentra a medio camino entre el libro ilustrado y el manga. Esto puede sorprender a los que solo conozcan la faceta de director de animación del Miyazaki, así que puede ser interesante que hagamos un breve repaso a su figura en su totalidad. Oriol Estrada, divulgador de cultura japonesa especializado en manga y anime y organizador del Salón del Manga de Barcelona, nos lleva de la mano por este fascinante camino.

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nacido en 1941, es un ni\u00f1o de la guerra. Su padre trabajaba para la industria militar construyendo partes de aviones y eso hizo que no pasara por las penurias econ\u00f3micas que la mayor\u00eda de civiles japoneses sufrieron durante la guerra del Pac\u00edfico, pero aun as\u00ed los bombardeos y todo el ambiente b\u00e9lico tuvieron un impacto profundo en \u00e9l. Su obsesi\u00f3n por los aviones y por la guerra, que tan a menudo vemos en sus obras por muy dispares que sean, tienen aqu\u00ed sus ra\u00edces. Todo indicaba que Hayao seguir\u00eda los pasos de su padre y acabar\u00eda recogiendo el testigo de la empresa Miyazaki Airplane, pero no tardar\u00eda en picarle el gusanillo art\u00edstico. En buena medida, esto le lleg\u00f3 con el impact\u00f3 que caus\u00f3 en \u00e9l la pel\u00edcula\u00a0<em>El cuento de la serpiente blanca,<\/em>\u00a0la primera pel\u00edcula de animaci\u00f3n en color japonesa, una cinta creada por el estudio Toei Animation (una producci\u00f3n que podr\u00edamos considerar fara\u00f3nica, con unos 14.000 trabajadores que terminaron la pel\u00edcula en menos de 10 meses). Unos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, Miyazaki entrar\u00eda a trabajar en ese mismo estudio, donde empieza a labrarse un camino que le llevar\u00eda a convertirse en el (probablemente) director de animaci\u00f3n japon\u00e9s m\u00e1s popular en todo el mundo. Su paso por Toei fue bastante accidentado, lo cual nos da algunas pistas para entender qui\u00e9n era por entonces Miyazaki y c\u00f3mo acabar\u00eda afectando aquella etapa en el corpus de su obra. Siendo uno de los l\u00edderes sindicales de los trabajadores del estudio, no tard\u00f3 mucho tiempo en organizar una huelga, enemist\u00e1ndose as\u00ed con la direcci\u00f3n de la empresa. En sus trifulcas conoci\u00f3 a Takahata Isao, quien se convirti\u00f3 en uno de sus grandes compa\u00f1eros en el mundo de la animaci\u00f3n. Ambos acabaron saltando del estudio precisamente por sus ideas entre el marxismo y el mao\u00edsmo, y empezar\u00edan a trabajar en proyectos varios, a veces juntos y otras por separado: desde\u00a0<em>Heidi<\/em>\u00a0hasta\u00a0<em>Conan, el ni\u00f1o del futuro,<\/em>\u00a0pasando por una pel\u00edcula de\u00a0<em>Lupin III,<\/em>\u00a0para finalmente reencontrarse y empezar el proyecto com\u00fan del ahora famos\u00edsimo Studio Ghibli.<\/p><p>Con permiso de <em>La princesa Mononoke<\/em>, el \u00e9xito mundial definitivo de Miyazaki y de Ghibli llega con el Oscar y el Oso de Oro que recibi\u00f3 por <em>El viaje de Chihiro<\/em> en 2002, pero los aficionados a la animaci\u00f3n japonesa hac\u00eda ya muchos a\u00f1os que conoc\u00edan y respetaban enormemente a este director por pel\u00edculas como <em>Porco Rosso, Mi vecino Totoro<\/em> y, l\u00f3gicamente, <em>La princesa Mononoke,<\/em> pero tambi\u00e9n por <em>Nausica\u00e4 del Valle del Viento,<\/em> tanto en su versi\u00f3n animada como en la del manga original. Como dec\u00edamos al principio, la de autor de manga es su faceta m\u00e1s desconocida para el gran p\u00fablico, pero realmente ha jugado un papel m\u00e1s que interesante e importante en el desarrollo de su carrera. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/331117-libro-el-viaje-de-shuna-9788419409249\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El viaje de Shuna<\/a><\/em><\/span> se ha entendido a menudo como una especie de ensayo de lo que vendr\u00eda poco despu\u00e9s, una f\u00e1bula inspirada en un cuento tibetano con tintes ecologistas que reflexiona sobre el progreso, la relaci\u00f3n del ser humano con la naturaleza y lo divino, un discurso habitual en la mayor\u00eda de pel\u00edculas de Miyazaki. No solo se dice que su protagonista reaparece a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s como Ashitaka en <em>La princesa Mononoke,<\/em> sino que tambi\u00e9n pudo tener su influencia en el desarrollo de <em>Nausica\u00e4.<\/em> Aunque aqu\u00ed la cronolog\u00eda de la creaci\u00f3n de ambas obras no est\u00e1 muy clara, lo que s\u00ed sabemos es que <em>Nausica\u00e4<\/em> se publica a partir de 1982 y no termina hasta 1994 (s\u00ed, muchos a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde que la pel\u00edcula) y que <em>El viaje de Shuna<\/em> se publica un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s, en 1983. Fuese primero el huevo o la gallina, ambas obras parece que provienen de un mismo origen com\u00fan, tienen unos desarrollos algo parecidos (una se convierte en pel\u00edcula y la otra en drama radiof\u00f3nico), y es m\u00e1s que evidente que las tesis que hay detr\u00e1s de ambas historias han seguido expandi\u00e9ndose a lo largo de la carrera del director. Y recordemos, ambos proyectos empiezan en el mundo del 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m\u00e1s obras que vinculan a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/951345-hayao-miyazaki\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Miyazaki<\/a><\/span> con el manga, como son las historias cortas de <em>Porco Rosso<\/em> y la puede que m\u00e1s desconocida adaptaci\u00f3n al manga de <em>El gato con botas,<\/em> que acompa\u00f1aba los estrenos de la famosa franquicia que dio la mascota a Toei Animation. Pero, seg\u00fan el propio director, para \u00e9l no ten\u00eda sentido seguir una senda en la que se ve\u00eda incapaz de superar a figuras como la de Tezuka Osamu, apodado como Dios del Manga y creador de <em>Astro Boy, Black Jack<\/em> o el archiconocido manga <em>Adolf.<\/em> Pero en el terreno de la animaci\u00f3n s\u00ed se ve\u00eda capaz de ello. De hecho, aborrece todo lo que Tezuka Osamu hizo con la animaci\u00f3n japonesa (la serie de <em>Astro Boy<\/em> se considera la primera serie de anime televisiva de la historia). Seg\u00fan el director de Ghibli, Tezuka tuvo demasiada prisa en llevar la animaci\u00f3n a televisi\u00f3n, y la consecuencia de ello fue que la animaci\u00f3n japonesa acab\u00f3 siendo de mala calidad, barata y mal pagada. Todo esto sali\u00f3 de su boca una vez el Dios del Manga ya hab\u00eda muerto, y nos mostr\u00f3 otra de sus facetas m\u00e1s conocidas: el car\u00e1cter cascarrabias y algo cabez\u00f3n de Miyazaki.<\/p><p>De hecho, seguramente su cabezoner\u00eda sea uno de los factores que m\u00e1s ha contribuido a que sus pel\u00edculas (y el propio Studio Ghibli) se hayan convertido en el referente que es hoy. Un ejemplo claro es su f\u00e9rrea voluntad en seguir haciendo animaci\u00f3n de forma tradicional, dibujando a mano pr\u00e1cticamente todos los fotogramas de la pel\u00edcula. Ese car\u00e1cter obsesivo por el detalle se dice que le lleva a revisar personalmente todas y cada una de las im\u00e1genes que se utilizan en sus pel\u00edculas, o a ser \u00e9l mismo quien se encargue de dibujar algunas partes para que queden exactamente como las quiere (fue el caso del agua en <em>Ponyo en el acantilado).<\/em> Es cierto que con el tiempo ha aceptado utilizar en algunas escenas concretas o en algunas circunstancias la ayuda de herramientas digitales, pero sigue siendo un proceso principalmente manual, y lo cierto es que es algo que se hace patente en seguida, distinguiendo la animaci\u00f3n de Ghibli de la mayor\u00eda de producciones japonesas (incluso de algunas propias del estudio, que no de Miyazaki, que no han obtenido grandes resultados).\u00a0<\/p><p>A lo largo de su carrera ha trabajado muy a menudo a partir de obras ya existentes, tanto desde sus tiempos adaptando obras cl\u00e1sicas de la literatura universal, como cuando dirige su primera pel\u00edcula (que a pesar de ser una historia original, estaba protagonizada por Lupin III), incluso dirigiendo los primeros episodios de la coproducci\u00f3n japonesa e italiana de Sherlock Holmes, y con Ghibli siempre ha ofrecido una mezcla de ideas originales con adaptaciones de novelas. Pero en su forma de trabajar lo que puede sorprender (e incluso horrorizar a aquellas personas que trabajen en este tipo de producciones) es que todo se pone en marcha sin tener siquiera la historia terminada. Esto afecta tanto a las historias originales como a las adaptaciones, ya que estas \u00faltimas siempre han sido muy libres, e incluso ha habido autoras de las novelas originales que han dejado claro que el resultado final se parece solo ligeramente a su obra. No obstante, a Miyazaki le gusta trabajar con ese instinto y ese fluir natural de las cosas, como pidiendo a la propia historia que le vaya dictando poco a poco su 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A veces ha buscado apelar directamente al p\u00fablico femenino m\u00e1s joven para ofrecerles un modelo de conducta. Y ya sean las que entran en la adolescencia (como Chihiro o Kiki\/Nicky) como las que ya la dejan atr\u00e1s para enfrentarse al mundo adulto, las protagonistas de las pel\u00edculas de Miyazaki casi nunca han necesitado la presencia de un pr\u00edncipe azul que les saque las casta\u00f1as del fuego. El romance puede jugar una parte o ninguna en la ecuaci\u00f3n, pero no ha sido nunca el motor de la historia. Quiz\u00e1 por esto llega a sorprender, cuando lees <em>El viaje de Shuna<\/em> en el siglo XXI (recuerda que fue publicado originalmente en 1983), que el protagonista sea un chico (aunque en este caso concreto, no parece que sea un factor de peso en la historia). M\u00e1s all\u00e1 del diagn\u00f3stico social e hist\u00f3rico que se pueda hacer del avance del feminismo en Jap\u00f3n, bien cierto es que Miyazaki y Ghibli a menudo han nadado a contracorriente en este aspecto, ya que su apuesta feminista llega cuando en la industria del anime el protagonista por defecto era masculino, al menos en producciones que apelaban al gran p\u00fablico. Las cosas han cambiado bastante desde los a\u00f1os ochenta, pero sigue siendo muy destacable el trato que ha dado Miyazaki a la figura femenina a lo largo de su carrera.\u00a0<\/p><p>Algo similar podemos decir del ya mencionado discurso ecologista. Mucho antes de que el ecologismo fuese casi una moda en occidente, Miyazaki ya advert\u00eda a trav\u00e9s de <em>Shuna<\/em> o de <em>Nausica\u00e4<\/em> que los seres humanos no est\u00e1bamos tratando nada bien nuestro entorno. Desde <em>Nausica\u00e4<\/em> hasta llegar a <em>Ponyo,<\/em> pasando por <em>Totoro<\/em> o <em>Mononoke<\/em>, la naturaleza est\u00e1 siempre muy presente en todos sus trabajos. Miyazaki ha podido hacerlo con tonos muy distintos: en <em>Mi vecino Totoro,<\/em> el esp\u00edritu del bosque se convierte en este avatar de la naturaleza que nos invita a conectar con ella, algo parecido a lo que pasa con el personaje de Ponyo; pero en<em> Nausica\u00e4a en el Valle del Viento, La princesa Mononoke<\/em> o <em>El castillo ambulante<\/em> hace presencia la guerra y su poder destructivo, y se presenta la codicia como uno de los motores de la extinci\u00f3n humana y del planeta. El mensaje, al final, es parecido: para sobrevivir hay que cuidar del planeta y cuidarnos a nosotros mismos, que vendr\u00eda a ser lo 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Miyazaki ha demostrado a lo largo de su carrera que ese joven sindicalista de los a\u00f1os sesenta, aunque haya podido cambiar y evolucionar su pensamiento, sigue comprometido y demostrando una gran conciencia pol\u00edtica. Algo que puede mostrar en sus decisiones t\u00e9cnicas y art\u00edsticas, en la elecci\u00f3n de sus historias, sus protagonistas y sus destinos finales. Y todo esto, como ven\u00edamos diciendo, se refleja de una u otra manera en <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/331117-libro-el-viaje-de-shuna-9788419409249\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El viaje de Shuna<\/a>.<\/em> Una obra que cuesta definir como un c\u00f3mic (o manga), porque se asemeja m\u00e1s a un libro ilustrado, aunque sigue usando recursos propios del noveno arte. Quiz\u00e1, y ya que estamos hablando de una obra japonesa, ser\u00eda m\u00e1s acertado hablar de las <em>e-monogatari,<\/em> un eslab\u00f3n entre el historias ilustradas y el c\u00f3mic que en su momento hab\u00edan convivido (e incluso competido) con el manga en las p\u00e1ginas de las revistas infantiles japonesas en la primera mitad del siglo XX. 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divino.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gusj42j\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/keum-suk-gendry-kim-la-espera-hierba\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Keum Suk Gendry-Kim: cuando el horror llama a la puerta<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/tom-gauld-la-venganza-de-los-bibliotecarios\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Tom Gauld: \u00abEs mucho m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil re\u00edrte de aquello que amas que de lo que no\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/carlos-gimenez-alvaro-pons\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Inmortal Carlos Gim\u00e9nez<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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10 minutos
Hayao Miyazaki en la Cómic Con de San Diego del año 2009. Crédito: Getty Images.

Hayao Miyazaki en la Cómic Con de San Diego del año 2009. Crédito: Getty Images.

Miyazaki, nacido en 1941, es un niño de la guerra. Su padre trabajaba para la industria militar construyendo partes de aviones y eso hizo que no pasara por las penurias económicas que la mayoría de civiles japoneses sufrieron durante la guerra del Pacífico, pero aun así los bombardeos y todo el ambiente bélico tuvieron un impacto profundo en él. Su obsesión por los aviones y por la guerra, que tan a menudo vemos en sus obras por muy dispares que sean, tienen aquí sus raíces. Todo indicaba que Hayao seguiría los pasos de su padre y acabaría recogiendo el testigo de la empresa Miyazaki Airplane, pero no tardaría en picarle el gusanillo artístico. En buena medida, esto le llegó con el impactó que causó en él la película El cuento de la serpiente blanca, la primera película de animación en color japonesa, una cinta creada por el estudio Toei Animation (una producción que podríamos considerar faraónica, con unos 14.000 trabajadores que terminaron la película en menos de 10 meses). Unos años después, Miyazaki entraría a trabajar en ese mismo estudio, donde empieza a labrarse un camino que le llevaría a convertirse en el (probablemente) director de animación japonés más popular en todo el mundo. Su paso por Toei fue bastante accidentado, lo cual nos da algunas pistas para entender quién era por entonces Miyazaki y cómo acabaría afectando aquella etapa en el corpus de su obra. Siendo uno de los líderes sindicales de los trabajadores del estudio, no tardó mucho tiempo en organizar una huelga, enemistándose así con la dirección de la empresa. En sus trifulcas conoció a Takahata Isao, quien se convirtió en uno de sus grandes compañeros en el mundo de la animación. Ambos acabaron saltando del estudio precisamente por sus ideas entre el marxismo y el maoísmo, y empezarían a trabajar en proyectos varios, a veces juntos y otras por separado: desde Heidi hasta Conan, el niño del futuro, pasando por una película de Lupin III, para finalmente reencontrarse y empezar el proyecto común del ahora famosísimo Studio Ghibli.

Con permiso de La princesa Mononoke, el éxito mundial definitivo de Miyazaki y de Ghibli llega con el Oscar y el Oso de Oro que recibió por El viaje de Chihiro en 2002, pero los aficionados a la animación japonesa hacía ya muchos años que conocían y respetaban enormemente a este director por películas como Porco Rosso, Mi vecino Totoro y, lógicamente, La princesa Mononoke, pero también por Nausicaä del Valle del Viento, tanto en su versión animada como en la del manga original. Como decíamos al principio, la de autor de manga es su faceta más desconocida para el gran público, pero realmente ha jugado un papel más que interesante e importante en el desarrollo de su carrera. El viaje de Shuna se ha entendido a menudo como una especie de ensayo de lo que vendría poco después, una fábula inspirada en un cuento tibetano con tintes ecologistas que reflexiona sobre el progreso, la relación del ser humano con la naturaleza y lo divino, un discurso habitual en la mayoría de películas de Miyazaki. No solo se dice que su protagonista reaparece años después como Ashitaka en La princesa Mononoke, sino que también pudo tener su influencia en el desarrollo de Nausicaä. Aunque aquí la cronología de la creación de ambas obras no está muy clara, lo que sí sabemos es que Nausicaä se publica a partir de 1982 y no termina hasta 1994 (sí, muchos años más tarde que la película) y que El viaje de Shuna se publica un año después, en 1983. Fuese primero el huevo o la gallina, ambas obras parece que provienen de un mismo origen común, tienen unos desarrollos algo parecidos (una se convierte en película y la otra en drama radiofónico), y es más que evidente que las tesis que hay detrás de ambas historias han seguido expandiéndose a lo largo de la carrera del director. Y recordemos, ambos proyectos empiezan en el mundo del papel.

Páginas interiores de El viaje de Shuna. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Páginas interiores de El viaje de Shuna. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Hay más obras que vinculan a Miyazaki con el manga, como son las historias cortas de Porco Rosso y la puede que más desconocida adaptación al manga de El gato con botas, que acompañaba los estrenos de la famosa franquicia que dio la mascota a Toei Animation. Pero, según el propio director, para él no tenía sentido seguir una senda en la que se veía incapaz de superar a figuras como la de Tezuka Osamu, apodado como Dios del Manga y creador de Astro Boy, Black Jack o el archiconocido manga Adolf. Pero en el terreno de la animación sí se veía capaz de ello. De hecho, aborrece todo lo que Tezuka Osamu hizo con la animación japonesa (la serie de Astro Boy se considera la primera serie de anime televisiva de la historia). Según el director de Ghibli, Tezuka tuvo demasiada prisa en llevar la animación a televisión, y la consecuencia de ello fue que la animación japonesa acabó siendo de mala calidad, barata y mal pagada. Todo esto salió de su boca una vez el Dios del Manga ya había muerto, y nos mostró otra de sus facetas más conocidas: el carácter cascarrabias y algo cabezón de Miyazaki.

De hecho, seguramente su cabezonería sea uno de los factores que más ha contribuido a que sus películas (y el propio Studio Ghibli) se hayan convertido en el referente que es hoy. Un ejemplo claro es su férrea voluntad en seguir haciendo animación de forma tradicional, dibujando a mano prácticamente todos los fotogramas de la película. Ese carácter obsesivo por el detalle se dice que le lleva a revisar personalmente todas y cada una de las imágenes que se utilizan en sus películas, o a ser él mismo quien se encargue de dibujar algunas partes para que queden exactamente como las quiere (fue el caso del agua en Ponyo en el acantilado). Es cierto que con el tiempo ha aceptado utilizar en algunas escenas concretas o en algunas circunstancias la ayuda de herramientas digitales, pero sigue siendo un proceso principalmente manual, y lo cierto es que es algo que se hace patente en seguida, distinguiendo la animación de Ghibli de la mayoría de producciones japonesas (incluso de algunas propias del estudio, que no de Miyazaki, que no han obtenido grandes resultados). 

A lo largo de su carrera ha trabajado muy a menudo a partir de obras ya existentes, tanto desde sus tiempos adaptando obras clásicas de la literatura universal, como cuando dirige su primera película (que a pesar de ser una historia original, estaba protagonizada por Lupin III), incluso dirigiendo los primeros episodios de la coproducción japonesa e italiana de Sherlock Holmes, y con Ghibli siempre ha ofrecido una mezcla de ideas originales con adaptaciones de novelas. Pero en su forma de trabajar lo que puede sorprender (e incluso horrorizar a aquellas personas que trabajen en este tipo de producciones) es que todo se pone en marcha sin tener siquiera la historia terminada. Esto afecta tanto a las historias originales como a las adaptaciones, ya que estas últimas siempre han sido muy libres, e incluso ha habido autoras de las novelas originales que han dejado claro que el resultado final se parece solo ligeramente a su obra. No obstante, a Miyazaki le gusta trabajar con ese instinto y ese fluir natural de las cosas, como pidiendo a la propia historia que le vaya dictando poco a poco su devenir.

Páginas interiores de El viaje de Shuna. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Páginas interiores de El viaje de Shuna. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Más allá de cuestiones más técnicas o artísticas, una de las constantes del trabajo de Miyazaki tiene que ver con sus protagonistas, ya que en la gran mayoría de sus películas acostumbran a ser femeninas. A veces ha buscado apelar directamente al público femenino más joven para ofrecerles un modelo de conducta. Y ya sean las que entran en la adolescencia (como Chihiro o Kiki/Nicky) como las que ya la dejan atrás para enfrentarse al mundo adulto, las protagonistas de las películas de Miyazaki casi nunca han necesitado la presencia de un príncipe azul que les saque las castañas del fuego. El romance puede jugar una parte o ninguna en la ecuación, pero no ha sido nunca el motor de la historia. Quizá por esto llega a sorprender, cuando lees El viaje de Shuna en el siglo XXI (recuerda que fue publicado originalmente en 1983), que el protagonista sea un chico (aunque en este caso concreto, no parece que sea un factor de peso en la historia). Más allá del diagnóstico social e histórico que se pueda hacer del avance del feminismo en Japón, bien cierto es que Miyazaki y Ghibli a menudo han nadado a contracorriente en este aspecto, ya que su apuesta feminista llega cuando en la industria del anime el protagonista por defecto era masculino, al menos en producciones que apelaban al gran público. Las cosas han cambiado bastante desde los años ochenta, pero sigue siendo muy destacable el trato que ha dado Miyazaki a la figura femenina a lo largo de su carrera. 

Algo similar podemos decir del ya mencionado discurso ecologista. Mucho antes de que el ecologismo fuese casi una moda en occidente, Miyazaki ya advertía a través de Shuna o de Nausicaä que los seres humanos no estábamos tratando nada bien nuestro entorno. Desde Nausicaä hasta llegar a Ponyo, pasando por Totoro o Mononoke, la naturaleza está siempre muy presente en todos sus trabajos. Miyazaki ha podido hacerlo con tonos muy distintos: en Mi vecino Totoro, el espíritu del bosque se convierte en este avatar de la naturaleza que nos invita a conectar con ella, algo parecido a lo que pasa con el personaje de Ponyo; pero en Nausicaäa en el Valle del Viento, La princesa Mononoke o El castillo ambulante hace presencia la guerra y su poder destructivo, y se presenta la codicia como uno de los motores de la extinción humana y del planeta. El mensaje, al final, es parecido: para sobrevivir hay que cuidar del planeta y cuidarnos a nosotros mismos, que vendría a ser lo mismo.

Hayao Miyazaki. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Hayao Miyazaki. Crédito: cortesía de Salamandra Graphic.

Todo ello nos lleva a pensar en la errónea imagen que a veces se puede tener de la fantasía o las películas consideradas para niños como historias apolíticas y escapistas. Miyazaki ha demostrado a lo largo de su carrera que ese joven sindicalista de los años sesenta, aunque haya podido cambiar y evolucionar su pensamiento, sigue comprometido y demostrando una gran conciencia política. Algo que puede mostrar en sus decisiones técnicas y artísticas, en la elección de sus historias, sus protagonistas y sus destinos finales. Y todo esto, como veníamos diciendo, se refleja de una u otra manera en El viaje de Shuna. Una obra que cuesta definir como un cómic (o manga), porque se asemeja más a un libro ilustrado, aunque sigue usando recursos propios del noveno arte. Quizá, y ya que estamos hablando de una obra japonesa, sería más acertado hablar de las e-monogatari, un eslabón entre el historias ilustradas y el cómic que en su momento habían convivido (e incluso competido) con el manga en las páginas de las revistas infantiles japonesas en la primera mitad del siglo XX. La definamos como la definamos, es una obra con una enorme belleza visual que consigue trasladarnos una vez más a esos mundos fantásticos de Ghibli y Miyazaki, sin olvidarse por un momento de reflexionar sobre el desarrollo de la civilización y su relación con lo natural y lo divino.

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