Gabriel García Márquez

La magia de Gabo sigue viva

Este 6 de marzo de 2024, el día en que Gabriel García Márquez habría cumplido 97 años (y casi diez años después de su fallecimiento), tendrá lugar un acontecimiento literario histórico, el lanzamiento del libro que marca la pauta de un calendario editorial que aguanta la respiración ante semejante hito. Hablamos -cómo no- de «En agosto nos vemos» (Random House), la novela inédita de Gabo, una obra en la que trabajó profusamente y que solo un nivel de autoexigencia superlativo le impidió decidirse finalmente a publicarla. En sus páginas, el Nobel colombiano explora a través de una mujer, de nombre Ana Magdalena Bach, temas como la sexualidad y el deseo, a los cuales impregna de los ambientes y el carácter caribeños que con tanto cariño retrató durante toda su vida. Escrita en el fascinante estilo de García Márquez, «En agosto nos vemos» es un canto a la vida y a la resistencia del goce pese al paso del tiempo. A modo de entrante, en LENGUA recordamos la figura de Gabriel García Márquez, una de las cimas de la literatura universal y primer espada del Boom latinoamericano, y buscamos más detalles sobre el libro entre algunos de los privilegiados que ya han tenido acceso al mismo.

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6 de marzo de 2024, d\u00eda en que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span> habr\u00eda cumplido 97 a\u00f1os, y diez a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de su fallecimiento, se producir\u00e1 lo que solo puede calificarse de lanzamiento literario hist\u00f3rico: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/336518-libro-en-agosto-nos-vemos-9788439743071\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><em>En agosto nos vemos,<\/em> su novela in\u00e9dita<\/a><\/span>, un compendio de lo m\u00e1s sobresaliente de su obra, en la que trabaj\u00f3 profusamente y que solo un nivel de autoexigencia superlativo le impidi\u00f3 decidirse finalmente a publicarla. Exploraci\u00f3n de un tema tan caro al Nobel colombiano como la sexualidad y el deseo, e impregnada de los ambientes y el car\u00e1cter caribe\u00f1os que con tanto cari\u00f1o retrat\u00f3, la novela la protagoniza una mujer, Ana Magdalena Bach, que cada agosto toma el transbordador hasta la isla en la que yace enterrada su madre, ritual que la provee de un surtido de encuentros inesperados que le permite jugar a ser otra persona.\u00a0<\/p><p>La edici\u00f3n de la novela ha corrido a cargo de Crist\u00f3bal Pera, editor de los dos \u00faltimos libros que Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez public\u00f3 en vida, sus memorias, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libro-de-biografias\/26250-ebook-vivir-para-contarla-9788439730002\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Vivir para contarla<\/a><\/em><\/span>, y la novela <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26249-ebook-memoria-de-mis-putas-tristes-9788439729990\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Memoria de mis putas tristes<\/a><\/em><\/span>. Pera se bas\u00f3 en las cinco versiones de <em>En agosto nos vemos<\/em> que reposan en el Harry Ransom Center, organismo de la Universidad de Texas que custodia los archivos del autor, compar\u00e1ndola con la versi\u00f3n que acumulaba cambios y \u00faltimas correcciones que su fiel secretaria, M\u00f3nica Alonso, fue guardando.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para ir abriendo boca, recordamos la figura de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, una de las cimas de la literatura universal y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/boom-latinoamericano-julio-cortazar-carlos-fuentes-gabriel-garcia-marquez-mario-vargas-llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">mascar\u00f3n de proa del Boom latinoamericano<\/a><\/span>, y buscamos m\u00e1s detalles sobre el libro entre algunos de los privilegiados que ya han tenido acceso al 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en una novela (y reescribirla).<\/strong> Como no pod\u00eda ser de otra forma, la vida de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez -que en el sentido m\u00e1s estricto posible arranca a las nueve de la ma\u00f1ana del 6 de marzo de 1927, en el municipio colombiano de Aracataca- brota gracias a unas circunstancias novelescas (dignas de un melodrama o un follet\u00edn) que \u00e9l mismo se encargar\u00eda de novelar en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26248-ebook-el-amor-en-los-tiempos-del-colera-9788439729983\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El amor en los tiempos del c\u00f3lera<\/a><\/em><\/span>. Su futuro padre -Gabriel Eligio, hijo de madre soltera, telegrafista y mujeriego- era un partido horrible a ojos de su futuro abuelo materno -el coronel Nicol\u00e1s Ricardo M\u00e1rquez Mej\u00eda-, que intent\u00f3 poner tierra de poner medio entre los amantes enviando a su futura madre -Luisa- bien lejos de las garras del apestado pretendiente. Este, sin embargo, contraatac\u00f3 con un arsenal de armas de seducci\u00f3n masiva -cartas, serenatas, mensajes telegr\u00e1ficos, poemas...- que superaron todos los obst\u00e1culos y doblegaron todas las voluntades, de modo que el matrimonio entre Gabriel y Laura se hizo finalmente posible.\u00a0<\/p><p>Curiosamente, el escritor protagonizar\u00eda su propia historia de amor novelesca, conociendo a su futura esposa, Mercedes Barcha -hija tambi\u00e9n de un boticario, ya que el pendenciero Gabriel se reform\u00f3- en un baile en la localidad de Sucre, cuando ambos eran apenas unos cr\u00edos. 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Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez saluda a la prensa en el d\u00eda de su 87 cumplea\u00f1os, el 6 de marzo de 2014. 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de fantasmas.<\/strong> Para los que crean firmemente en la predestinaci\u00f3n o la transmisi\u00f3n gen\u00e9tica de determinados talentos, una forma de ver el asunto es que las dulces y rom\u00e1nticas palabras vertidas por su padre, a la desesperada y a trav\u00e9s de los m\u00faltiples canales citados, son las que propician la llegada al mundo de un futuro maestro de las palabras. Sin embargo, Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez siempre destac\u00f3 la capacidad fabuladora de sus abuelos maternos -quienes lo cr\u00edan durante su m\u00e1s temprana infancia- a la hora de buscar el germen a su futura creatividad desbocada. Aqu\u00ed llega de nuevo don M\u00e1rquez Mej\u00eda, tan fecundo en el lecho -fue padre de doce criaturas (solo tres oficiales) con distintas mujeres- como a la hora de compartir batallitas (en sentido literal pues fue un veterano de la Guerra de los Mil D\u00edas), que transmite a su nieto el amor por las batallas, el circo y la consulta de diccionarios, y al que fascina con el relato del hombre al que mat\u00f3 en combate y cuyo peso simb\u00f3lico siempre carg\u00f3 en el alma.\u00a0<\/p><p>M\u00e1s relevante a\u00fan fue el ascendente de su abuela, Tranquilina Iguar\u00e1n Cotes, de origen gallego, se\u00f1ora supersticiosa donde las haya, suministradora de historias sobrenaturales que explicaba con la naturalidad propia de quien no duda ni por un instante de su veracidad. Mina, como la llama afectuosamente el peque\u00f1o Gabriel, le ense\u00f1a que el mundo del aqu\u00ed y del all\u00e1, lo visible y lo invisible, lo explicable y lo inexplicable, los vivos y los muertos, conviven en igualdad de condiciones. En definitiva, que la realidad puede ser M\u00c1GICA. Los que quieran saber m\u00e1s sobre la ni\u00f1ez extraordinaria del que fue el mayor de once hermanos -y que tuvo adem\u00e1s cuatro hermanastros-, y que perdi\u00f3 parcialmente la visi\u00f3n del ojo izquierdo al mirar directamente a un eclipse, deben acudir a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libro-de-biografias\/26250-ebook-vivir-para-contarla-9788439730002\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Vivir para contarla<\/a><\/em><\/span>, que permite de paso conocer la manera en que recicl\u00f3 en su obra experiencias y episodios y relatos familiares que demandaban ser moldeadas por la literatura.<\/p><p><br \/><strong>El mejor oficio.<\/strong> Aunque la escritura es el destino manifiesto de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez -en el internado ya compone poemas, a los veinte a\u00f1os publica su primer cuento...-, la presi\u00f3n familiar lo llev\u00f3 a cursar estudios universitarios de Derecho que acabar\u00eda abandonando, y esa debilidad por las palabras encuentra su primer gran lienzo en el periodismo, segundo flechazo s\u00edsmico tras el de Mercedes. <em>El Universal,<\/em> de Cartagena de Indias, luego <em>El Heraldo,<\/em> de Barranquilla, pero sobre todo <em>El Espectador,<\/em> de Bogot\u00e1, son los diarios en los que ejerce de columnista y reportero, entregado al que califica de \u00abmejor oficio del mundo\u00bb. En el proceso de investigaci\u00f3n y posterior cribado, ensamblaje y exposici\u00f3n de toda la documentaci\u00f3n reunida, Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez se descubre extasiado. A cualquier aspirante a novelista lo invita a curtirse en la calle, cazando datos, picando piedra para obtener declaraciones, sorteando mil obst\u00e1culos..., paso previo a encontrar, entre el bullicio de la redacci\u00f3n o en la soledad del hogar, la formulaci\u00f3n expresiva que le haga m\u00e1s justicia a la historia, pues \u00abla \u00e9tica siempre debe acompa\u00f1ar al periodismo, como el zumbido al moscard\u00f3n\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Jubiloso profesor de talleres sobre periodismo -y promotor en 1994 de la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/fundaciongabo.org\/es\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Fundaci\u00f3n para un Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano<\/a><\/span>-, no se cansaba de lamentar algunas de los enemigos de su buen desempe\u00f1o: el uso de la grabadora, unos planes de estudios demasiado centrados en la teor\u00eda, la pleites\u00eda a la tecnolog\u00eda, las prisas y la reducci\u00f3n del espacio...\u00a0 La lectura de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26242-ebook-relato-de-un-naufrago-9788439729877\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Relato de un n\u00e1ufrago<\/a><\/em><\/span> (1955) -catorce cr\u00f3nicas sobre el naufragio de un destructor y las peripecias de uno de sus supervivientes, el marinero Luis Alejandro Velasco- o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26240-ebook-noticia-de-un-secuestro-9788439729853\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Noticia de un secuestro<\/a><\/em><\/span> (1996) -en torno a la oleada de secuestros que sufri\u00f3 Colombia en el marco del narcoterrorismo de los a\u00f1os 90- permite adentrarse en la tentacular concepci\u00f3n que el Nobel ten\u00eda del periodismo y sus posibilidades, tanto narrativas como de 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de m\u00e1gico, M de Macondo.<\/strong> Primero llegaron un pu\u00f1ado de relatos, publicados en <em>El Espectador<\/em> entre 1947 y 1952, m\u00e1s tarde una novela, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26236-ebook-la-hojarasca-9788439729808\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La hojarasca<\/a><\/em><\/span>, en 1955, que tard\u00f3 a\u00f1os en encontrar editor y que apenas se vendi\u00f3, pero que su responsable siempre se\u00f1al\u00f3 como favorita por su \u00absinceridad y espontaneidad\u00bb. El resto es... Historia. \u00bfQu\u00e9 decir de uno de los universos literarios m\u00e1s celebrados y analizados de las letras contempor\u00e1neas, merecedor de ensayos, tesis doctorales, art\u00edculos y todo tipo de textos que lo han puesto del derecho y del rev\u00e9s, buscando hasta el \u00faltimo hilo autobiogr\u00e1fico, las influencias m\u00e1s nimias y las interpretaciones m\u00e1s abstractas? Con todo, quiz\u00e1 merezca la pena recordar su amor temprano por Franz Kafka y S\u00f3focles, as\u00ed como su deuda confesa con las voces y t\u00e9cnicas aprendidas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Virginia Woolf<\/a><\/span> y William Faulkner, pero ninguno de estos monstruos habr\u00eda bastado si no hubiera ca\u00eddo de ni\u00f1o en la marmita de los relatos -m\u00e1s grandes que la vida, es decir, puras novelas- de sus abuelos y si la cultura caribe\u00f1a no lo hubiera cortejado con sus escenarios, atm\u00f3sferas, folclore y temperamento.\u00a0 \u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La soledad, el amor, el fatalismo, la violencia, los conflictos b\u00e9licos, la seducci\u00f3n, la lucha contra las convenciones sociales, las tensiones pol\u00edticas, la nostalgia, la melancol\u00eda... recorren una obra exuberante (en todos los sentidos: hechos, escenarios, estructura, prosa...) que, si nos vi\u00e9ramos forzados a la tarea imposible de resumir en una palabra, a buscarle <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/caparros-por-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">un Aleph<\/a><\/span> que de alg\u00fan modo la contuviera por entero, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-garcia-marquez-camino-a-macondo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">dir\u00edamos MACONDO<\/a><\/span>. Entre las geograf\u00edas imaginarias m\u00e1s c\u00e9lebres y ricas de la literaria universal (ah\u00ed con el condado de Yoknapatawpha, de Faulkner; la Regi\u00f3n, de Benet; o la Tierra Media, de Tolkien, por citar solo tres ejemplos), este pueblo -aunque su creador prefer\u00eda considerarlo \u00abun estado de \u00e1nimo\u00bb-, fundado por el expedicionario Jos\u00e9 Arcadio Buend\u00eda a partir de un sue\u00f1o, se adue\u00f1\u00f3 de cinco de sus novelas: <em>La hojarasca, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26243-ebook-los-funerales-de-la-mama-grande-9788439729921\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Los funerales de la Mam\u00e1 Grande<\/a><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26314-ebook-cien-anos-de-soledad-9788439731764\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/a><\/span>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26239-ebook-la-mala-hora-9788439729846?mot_tcid=6d81348c-5762-406a-b358-3830ae1903b4\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La mala hora<\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26239-ebook-la-mala-hora-9788439729846?mot_tcid=6d81348c-5762-406a-b358-3830ae1903b4\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><\/a><\/em>\u00a0y <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/310023-ebook-el-coronel-no-tiene-quien-le-escriba-edicion-ilustrada-9788439740735\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El coronel no tiene quien le escriba<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> El porqu\u00e9 de su elecci\u00f3n contiene un microrrelato en s\u00ed mismo: desde los primeros viajes que hizo de ni\u00f1o en tren desde Aracataca, junto a su abuelo, al autor siempre le llam\u00f3 la atenci\u00f3n el nombre de una finca bananera que cruzaba por delante de su ventana al poco de empezar la ruta, Macondo. En la evocaci\u00f3n de su sonoridad po\u00e9tica hallar\u00eda d\u00e9cadas m\u00e1s tarde el impulso para convertirlo en el m\u00e1s hechizante emplazamiento del realismo m\u00e1gico, escuela o corriente que para Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez era una simple etiqueta para lo que \u00e9l entend\u00eda como una obviedad: que la novela es el lugar donde la realidad se ve expandida y elevada por la imaginaci\u00f3n hasta alcanzar potencialidades infinitas<\/p><p>Y un apunte al hilo de esto: en un nuevo rizo entre realidad y ficci\u00f3n, los ciudadanos de Aracataca votaron en refer\u00e9ndum no renombrar el municipio como Macondo; es decir, decidieron no hacer el viaje inverso al realizado por el escritor, convertir la novela en 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cambiar y volver a empezar.<\/strong> El perfeccionismo, entendido como esa b\u00fasqueda del <em>\u00abmot juste\u00bb<\/em> en expresi\u00f3n de Gustave Flaubert, era una se\u00f1a de identidad del escritor, que entregaba la obra definitiva solo despu\u00e9s de someterla a numerosos borradores. Sin embargo, incluso tras este aparente cierre, sus editores sab\u00edan bien que no deb\u00edan confiarse ya que lo m\u00e1s probable es que llegaran nuevas revisiones -a veces detalles \u00ednfimos, pongamos un adjetivo sacrificado por una alternativa que pod\u00eda aportar un matiz microsc\u00f3pico, pero relevante a ojos del autor-, al l\u00edmite de enviar el manuscrito a imprenta. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/336518-libro-en-agosto-nos-vemos-9788439743071\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">En agosto nos vemos<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0no fue una excepci\u00f3n a esta mirada rigurosa y atenta al detalle, pues ha trascendido que trabaj\u00f3 en las mejoras del manuscrito hasta que las fuerzas y la salud lo acompa\u00f1aron. La reproducci\u00f3n de algunas p\u00e1ginas facs\u00edmiles de las distintas versiones del manuscrito en la edici\u00f3n de Random House permitir\u00e1 al lector constatar semejante grado de entrega y meticulosidad.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>100% Gabo.<\/strong> Contra la suspicacia que levanta por sistema la recuperaci\u00f3n de cualquier in\u00e9dito, y m\u00e1s trat\u00e1ndose de un escritor de la talla de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez (recordemos, por ejemplo, las pol\u00e9micas derivadas de <em>hallazgos de caj\u00f3n<\/em> como los de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/893-ernest-hemingway\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Ernest Hemingway<\/a><\/span> o Harper Lee), Pilar Reyes, Directora Editorial de la Divisi\u00f3n Literaria de Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial, remarca que \u00abtenemos esta novela entre las manos gracias a la decisi\u00f3n de los herederos del autor de publicarla para nosotros, es una decisi\u00f3n feliz en el sentido de que completa una obra, pues vemos en ella no solo un texto absolutamente consistente con el mundo narrativo que Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez fue construyendo a trav\u00e9s de sus libros, sino el intento de un escritor de escribir contra viento y marea, incluso en las condiciones m\u00e1s adversas, contra sus propias limitaciones\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Miguel Aguilar, Director Literario de Debate, Taurus y Random House, tambi\u00e9n pone el acento en el encaje natural del libro en la bibliograf\u00eda del escritor, a\u00f1adiendo un matiz especial, al declarar que <em>\u00abEn agosto nos vemos<\/em> conecta con el corpus del autor ya que nos sit\u00faa en un entorno caribe\u00f1o, habla del amor y de la vida y de las relaciones humanas y los equ\u00edvocos que las rodean. Creo que es una novela muy disfrutable y muy reconocible, pero al tiempo con una protagonista mujer y una mirada al universo femenino poco habitual en Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pilar Reyes no solo detecta en la novela un broche de oro a la trayectoria de Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, sino que la piensa en t\u00e9rminos de ofrenda a los lectores y recordatorio de su apasionada entrega a la literatura. \u00abPienso que es un maravilloso cierre, por varios motivos: el amor, trasmutado aqu\u00ed en deseo, es el tema central de la novela, como lo es de la obra entera de su autor. La protagonista y su b\u00fasqueda de libertad a trav\u00e9s de esa noche que se regala a s\u00ed misma una vez al a\u00f1o, me parece una hermosa puerta de entrada a la percepci\u00f3n del universo femenino que ocupaba el inter\u00e9s creativo de Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez en sus \u00faltimos a\u00f1os. La novela est\u00e1 completa, aunque para su autor no fuera definitiva. Este libro es, adem\u00e1s, la prueba de que un escritor no puede dejar de escribir. O, por decirlo de otro modo, que no puede vivir sin escribir. Como si nos dijera que hay que contar para vivirla. 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gracias\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9nqltbm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/gabriel-garcia-marquez-nobel-literatura-america-latina\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Un brindis por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: 40 a\u00f1os del Nobel de toda Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/boom-latinoamericano-julio-cortazar-carlos-fuentes-gabriel-garcia-marquez-mario-vargas-llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El Boom antes del gran \u00abboom\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez-Mario-Vargas-Llosa-Dos-soledades\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Un di\u00e1logo \u00fanico entre Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez y Vargas Llosa: para saber qu\u00e9 es la soledad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Rayuela-Julio-Cortazar-Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Julio Cort\u00e1zar por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: el argentino que se hizo querer de todos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">R<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/gabriel-garcia-marquez-rodrigo-garcia-gabo-mercedes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">odrigo Garc\u00eda: Aracataca, Gabo y el adi\u00f3s al Club de los 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10 minutos
Septiembre de 1990. Gabriel García Márquez en una imagen tomada en una cafetería de París. Crédito: Getty Images.

Septiembre de 1990. Gabriel García Márquez en una imagen tomada en una cafetería de París. Crédito: Getty Images.

Este 6 de marzo de 2024, día en que Gabriel García Márquez habría cumplido 97 años, y diez años después de su fallecimiento, se producirá lo que solo puede calificarse de lanzamiento literario histórico: En agosto nos vemos, su novela inédita, un compendio de lo más sobresaliente de su obra, en la que trabajó profusamente y que solo un nivel de autoexigencia superlativo le impidió decidirse finalmente a publicarla. Exploración de un tema tan caro al Nobel colombiano como la sexualidad y el deseo, e impregnada de los ambientes y el carácter caribeños que con tanto cariño retrató, la novela la protagoniza una mujer, Ana Magdalena Bach, que cada agosto toma el transbordador hasta la isla en la que yace enterrada su madre, ritual que la provee de un surtido de encuentros inesperados que le permite jugar a ser otra persona. 

La edición de la novela ha corrido a cargo de Cristóbal Pera, editor de los dos últimos libros que García Márquez publicó en vida, sus memorias, Vivir para contarla, y la novela Memoria de mis putas tristes. Pera se basó en las cinco versiones de En agosto nos vemos que reposan en el Harry Ransom Center, organismo de la Universidad de Texas que custodia los archivos del autor, comparándola con la versión que acumulaba cambios y últimas correcciones que su fiel secretaria, Mónica Alonso, fue guardando. 

Para ir abriendo boca, recordamos la figura de Gabriel García Márquez, una de las cimas de la literatura universal y mascarón de proa del Boom latinoamericano, y buscamos más detalles sobre el libro entre algunos de los privilegiados que ya han tenido acceso al mismo.

Nacer en una novela (y reescribirla). Como no podía ser de otra forma, la vida de Gabriel García Márquez -que en el sentido más estricto posible arranca a las nueve de la mañana del 6 de marzo de 1927, en el municipio colombiano de Aracataca- brota gracias a unas circunstancias novelescas (dignas de un melodrama o un folletín) que él mismo se encargaría de novelar en El amor en los tiempos del cólera. Su futuro padre -Gabriel Eligio, hijo de madre soltera, telegrafista y mujeriego- era un partido horrible a ojos de su futuro abuelo materno -el coronel Nicolás Ricardo Márquez Mejía-, que intentó poner tierra de poner medio entre los amantes enviando a su futura madre -Luisa- bien lejos de las garras del apestado pretendiente. Este, sin embargo, contraatacó con un arsenal de armas de seducción masiva -cartas, serenatas, mensajes telegráficos, poemas...- que superaron todos los obstáculos y doblegaron todas las voluntades, de modo que el matrimonio entre Gabriel y Laura se hizo finalmente posible. 

Curiosamente, el escritor protagonizaría su propia historia de amor novelesca, conociendo a su futura esposa, Mercedes Barcha -hija también de un boticario, ya que el pendenciero Gabriel se reformó- en un baile en la localidad de Sucre, cuando ambos eran apenas unos críos. El flechazo fue tan sísmico, aseguraría más adelante el autor, que ahí mismo decidió que debía casarse con ella, esperando a contar con apenas trece años para realizar la primera petición (in)formal de matrimonio.

Ciudad de México. Gabriel García Márquez saluda a la prensa en el día de su 87 cumpleaños, el 6 de marzo de 2014. Crédito: Getty Images.

Ciudad de México. Gabriel García Márquez saluda a la prensa en el día de su 87 cumpleaños, el 6 de marzo de 2014. Crédito: Getty Images.

Historias de fantasmas. Para los que crean firmemente en la predestinación o la transmisión genética de determinados talentos, una forma de ver el asunto es que las dulces y románticas palabras vertidas por su padre, a la desesperada y a través de los múltiples canales citados, son las que propician la llegada al mundo de un futuro maestro de las palabras. Sin embargo, García Márquez siempre destacó la capacidad fabuladora de sus abuelos maternos -quienes lo crían durante su más temprana infancia- a la hora de buscar el germen a su futura creatividad desbocada. Aquí llega de nuevo don Márquez Mejía, tan fecundo en el lecho -fue padre de doce criaturas (solo tres oficiales) con distintas mujeres- como a la hora de compartir batallitas (en sentido literal pues fue un veterano de la Guerra de los Mil Días), que transmite a su nieto el amor por las batallas, el circo y la consulta de diccionarios, y al que fascina con el relato del hombre al que mató en combate y cuyo peso simbólico siempre cargó en el alma. 

Más relevante aún fue el ascendente de su abuela, Tranquilina Iguarán Cotes, de origen gallego, señora supersticiosa donde las haya, suministradora de historias sobrenaturales que explicaba con la naturalidad propia de quien no duda ni por un instante de su veracidad. Mina, como la llama afectuosamente el pequeño Gabriel, le enseña que el mundo del aquí y del allá, lo visible y lo invisible, lo explicable y lo inexplicable, los vivos y los muertos, conviven en igualdad de condiciones. En definitiva, que la realidad puede ser MÁGICA. Los que quieran saber más sobre la niñez extraordinaria del que fue el mayor de once hermanos -y que tuvo además cuatro hermanastros-, y que perdió parcialmente la visión del ojo izquierdo al mirar directamente a un eclipse, deben acudir a Vivir para contarla, que permite de paso conocer la manera en que recicló en su obra experiencias y episodios y relatos familiares que demandaban ser moldeadas por la literatura.


El mejor oficio. Aunque la escritura es el destino manifiesto de Gabriel García Márquez -en el internado ya compone poemas, a los veinte años publica su primer cuento...-, la presión familiar lo llevó a cursar estudios universitarios de Derecho que acabaría abandonando, y esa debilidad por las palabras encuentra su primer gran lienzo en el periodismo, segundo flechazo sísmico tras el de Mercedes. El Universal, de Cartagena de Indias, luego El Heraldo, de Barranquilla, pero sobre todo El Espectador, de Bogotá, son los diarios en los que ejerce de columnista y reportero, entregado al que califica de «mejor oficio del mundo». En el proceso de investigación y posterior cribado, ensamblaje y exposición de toda la documentación reunida, García Márquez se descubre extasiado. A cualquier aspirante a novelista lo invita a curtirse en la calle, cazando datos, picando piedra para obtener declaraciones, sorteando mil obstáculos..., paso previo a encontrar, entre el bullicio de la redacción o en la soledad del hogar, la formulación expresiva que le haga más justicia a la historia, pues «la ética siempre debe acompañar al periodismo, como el zumbido al moscardón». 

Jubiloso profesor de talleres sobre periodismo -y promotor en 1994 de la Fundación para un Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano-, no se cansaba de lamentar algunas de los enemigos de su buen desempeño: el uso de la grabadora, unos planes de estudios demasiado centrados en la teoría, la pleitesía a la tecnología, las prisas y la reducción del espacio...  La lectura de Relato de un náufrago (1955) -catorce crónicas sobre el naufragio de un destructor y las peripecias de uno de sus supervivientes, el marinero Luis Alejandro Velasco- o Noticia de un secuestro (1996) -en torno a la oleada de secuestros que sufrió Colombia en el marco del narcoterrorismo de los años 90- permite adentrarse en la tentacular concepción que el Nobel tenía del periodismo y sus posibilidades, tanto narrativas como de denuncia.

Gabriel García Márquez en una fotografía de mayo de 1972. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gabriel García Márquez en una fotografía de mayo de 1972. Crédito: Getty Images.

M de mágico, M de Macondo. Primero llegaron un puñado de relatos, publicados en El Espectador entre 1947 y 1952, más tarde una novela, La hojarasca, en 1955, que tardó años en encontrar editor y que apenas se vendió, pero que su responsable siempre señaló como favorita por su «sinceridad y espontaneidad». El resto es... Historia. ¿Qué decir de uno de los universos literarios más celebrados y analizados de las letras contemporáneas, merecedor de ensayos, tesis doctorales, artículos y todo tipo de textos que lo han puesto del derecho y del revés, buscando hasta el último hilo autobiográfico, las influencias más nimias y las interpretaciones más abstractas? Con todo, quizá merezca la pena recordar su amor temprano por Franz Kafka y Sófocles, así como su deuda confesa con las voces y técnicas aprendidas de Virginia Woolf y William Faulkner, pero ninguno de estos monstruos habría bastado si no hubiera caído de niño en la marmita de los relatos -más grandes que la vida, es decir, puras novelas- de sus abuelos y si la cultura caribeña no lo hubiera cortejado con sus escenarios, atmósferas, folclore y temperamento.      

La soledad, el amor, el fatalismo, la violencia, los conflictos bélicos, la seducción, la lucha contra las convenciones sociales, las tensiones políticas, la nostalgia, la melancolía... recorren una obra exuberante (en todos los sentidos: hechos, escenarios, estructura, prosa...) que, si nos viéramos forzados a la tarea imposible de resumir en una palabra, a buscarle un Aleph que de algún modo la contuviera por entero, diríamos MACONDO. Entre las geografías imaginarias más célebres y ricas de la literaria universal (ahí con el condado de Yoknapatawpha, de Faulkner; la Región, de Benet; o la Tierra Media, de Tolkien, por citar solo tres ejemplos), este pueblo -aunque su creador prefería considerarlo «un estado de ánimo»-, fundado por el expedicionario José Arcadio Buendía a partir de un sueño, se adueñó de cinco de sus novelas: La hojarasca, Los funerales de la Mamá Grande, Cien años de soledad, La mala hora y El coronel no tiene quien le escriba. El porqué de su elección contiene un microrrelato en sí mismo: desde los primeros viajes que hizo de niño en tren desde Aracataca, junto a su abuelo, al autor siempre le llamó la atención el nombre de una finca bananera que cruzaba por delante de su ventana al poco de empezar la ruta, Macondo. En la evocación de su sonoridad poética hallaría décadas más tarde el impulso para convertirlo en el más hechizante emplazamiento del realismo mágico, escuela o corriente que para García Márquez era una simple etiqueta para lo que él entendía como una obviedad: que la novela es el lugar donde la realidad se ve expandida y elevada por la imaginación hasta alcanzar potencialidades infinitas

Y un apunte al hilo de esto: en un nuevo rizo entre realidad y ficción, los ciudadanos de Aracataca votaron en referéndum no renombrar el municipio como Macondo; es decir, decidieron no hacer el viaje inverso al realizado por el escritor, convertir la novela en realidad.

Gabriel García Márquez en su escritorio en una imagen de 1983. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gabriel García Márquez en su escritorio en una imagen de 1983. Crédito: Getty Images.

Tachar, cambiar y volver a empezar. El perfeccionismo, entendido como esa búsqueda del «mot juste» en expresión de Gustave Flaubert, era una seña de identidad del escritor, que entregaba la obra definitiva solo después de someterla a numerosos borradores. Sin embargo, incluso tras este aparente cierre, sus editores sabían bien que no debían confiarse ya que lo más probable es que llegaran nuevas revisiones -a veces detalles ínfimos, pongamos un adjetivo sacrificado por una alternativa que podía aportar un matiz microscópico, pero relevante a ojos del autor-, al límite de enviar el manuscrito a imprenta. En agosto nos vemos no fue una excepción a esta mirada rigurosa y atenta al detalle, pues ha trascendido que trabajó en las mejoras del manuscrito hasta que las fuerzas y la salud lo acompañaron. La reproducción de algunas páginas facsímiles de las distintas versiones del manuscrito en la edición de Random House permitirá al lector constatar semejante grado de entrega y meticulosidad.

100% Gabo. Contra la suspicacia que levanta por sistema la recuperación de cualquier inédito, y más tratándose de un escritor de la talla de Gabriel García Márquez (recordemos, por ejemplo, las polémicas derivadas de hallazgos de cajón como los de Ernest Hemingway o Harper Lee), Pilar Reyes, Directora Editorial de la División Literaria de Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial, remarca que «tenemos esta novela entre las manos gracias a la decisión de los herederos del autor de publicarla para nosotros, es una decisión feliz en el sentido de que completa una obra, pues vemos en ella no solo un texto absolutamente consistente con el mundo narrativo que García Márquez fue construyendo a través de sus libros, sino el intento de un escritor de escribir contra viento y marea, incluso en las condiciones más adversas, contra sus propias limitaciones». 

Miguel Aguilar, Director Literario de Debate, Taurus y Random House, también pone el acento en el encaje natural del libro en la bibliografía del escritor, añadiendo un matiz especial, al declarar que «En agosto nos vemos conecta con el corpus del autor ya que nos sitúa en un entorno caribeño, habla del amor y de la vida y de las relaciones humanas y los equívocos que las rodean. Creo que es una novela muy disfrutable y muy reconocible, pero al tiempo con una protagonista mujer y una mirada al universo femenino poco habitual en García Márquez». 

Pilar Reyes no solo detecta en la novela un broche de oro a la trayectoria de García Márquez, sino que la piensa en términos de ofrenda a los lectores y recordatorio de su apasionada entrega a la literatura. «Pienso que es un maravilloso cierre, por varios motivos: el amor, trasmutado aquí en deseo, es el tema central de la novela, como lo es de la obra entera de su autor. La protagonista y su búsqueda de libertad a través de esa noche que se regala a sí misma una vez al año, me parece una hermosa puerta de entrada a la percepción del universo femenino que ocupaba el interés creativo de García Márquez en sus últimos años. La novela está completa, aunque para su autor no fuera definitiva. Este libro es, además, la prueba de que un escritor no puede dejar de escribir. O, por decirlo de otro modo, que no puede vivir sin escribir. Como si nos dijera que hay que contar para vivirla. Esa es una lección clara y conmovedora ante la que sus lectores solo podemos, con el corazón abierto, darle las gracias».

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