Cine y series

La novela de Tarantino: literatura bastarda con gloria

Quentin Tarantino dijo una vez que sus libros preferidos son las novelas basadas en películas, quizás el más bastardo de los géneros literarios, más cercano a la mecanografía que a la escritura. Un fenómeno en los años setenta, cuando todavía no existía el videocassette y no había otra forma de volver una y otra vez a un film, resulta lógico que el desembarco del director en la literatura sea la novelización de su último trabajo en el cine, «Érase una vez en Hollywood», con una operación auténticamente tarantinesca: no contar nada tal como aparece en la pantalla. La llegada de la película a Netflix en América Latina es el pretexto perfecto para releer esa primera novela (publicada en 2021 por Reservoir Books) que, ya sabemos, no será la última: Tarantino prometió filmar solo una vez más antes de abandonar el cine para dedicarse exclusivamente a escribir y confirmar que es el único sobreviviente de Hollywood con un estilo de escritura reconocible desde el primero hasta el último minuto de su obra.

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","meta_keywords":"Revista Lengua Quentin Tarantino \u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood","short_content":"<p>Quentin Tarantino dijo una vez que sus libros preferidos son las novelas basadas en pel\u00edculas, quiz\u00e1s el m\u00e1s bastardo de los g\u00e9neros literarios, m\u00e1s cercano a la mecanograf\u00eda que a la escritura. Un fen\u00f3meno en los a\u00f1os setenta, cuando todav\u00eda no exist\u00eda el videocassette y no hab\u00eda otra forma de volver una y otra vez a un film, resulta l\u00f3gico que el desembarco del director en la literatura sea la novelizaci\u00f3n de su \u00faltimo trabajo en el cine, \u00ab\u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood\u00bb, con una operaci\u00f3n aut\u00e9nticamente tarantinesca: no contar nada tal como aparece en la pantalla. 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novelizaciones de pel\u00edculas existen desde los inicios del cine, pero se volvieron mucho m\u00e1s frecuentes en la d\u00e9cada de los 70, antes de la era del videocasete, cuando eran la \u00fanica forma realmente a mano de regresar a un filme. La llegada de los <em>blockbusters<\/em>\u00a0como <em>Tibur\u00f3n<\/em> hizo evidente que hab\u00eda que aprovechar comercialmente el inagotable inter\u00e9s del p\u00fablico por estos sucesos cinematogr\u00e1ficos fuera de toda escala, expandiendo su mundo a un conjunto de productos satelitales como secuelas, series de televisi\u00f3n, c\u00f3mics, videojuegos, juguetes y, claro, novelas.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p>La novelizaci\u00f3n acaso sea el m\u00e1s bastardo de los g\u00e9neros literarios, m\u00e1s cercano a la mecanograf\u00eda que a la escritura, ya que pareciera que solo pone en papel el argumento de una pel\u00edcula, aumentando los detalles en las biograf\u00edas de los personajes o en las historias secundarias. Sin embargo, no es infrecuente que las novelizaciones tomen desv\u00edos inesperados con respecto a sus fuentes y presenten cierto grado de independencia, no tanto por un \u00edmpetu creativo de los novelistas contratados para el trabajo, sino porque suelen ser perpetradas a partir de un borrador del guion y sin conocer el filme, de modo que el trabajo de descripci\u00f3n de la pel\u00edcula no tiene m\u00e1s remedio que recurrir tambi\u00e9n a la imaginaci\u00f3n. Es sabido que uno de los escritores m\u00e1s activos en este rubro, el autor de ciencia ficci\u00f3n Alan Dean Foster, debi\u00f3 completar su novelizaci\u00f3n de <em>Alien<\/em> sin tener ni idea de qu\u00e9 aspecto ten\u00eda el monstruo en la pel\u00edcula.<\/p><p>Sus autores suelen ser escritores de g\u00e9neros populares en busca de dinero r\u00e1pido. Algunas veces, tambi\u00e9n los guionistas del filme, que aprovechan para meter en el libro todas las p\u00e1ginas de su guion que quedaron fuera de la pel\u00edcula. Muy ocasionalmente, est\u00e1n atribuidas al director: la novelizaci\u00f3n de <em>Encuentros cercanos del tercer tipo<\/em> est\u00e1 firmada por Steven Spielberg, la de <em>La guerra de la galaxias<\/em> por George Lucas y la de <em>Rocky<\/em> por Sylvester Stallone, pero es altamente improbable que hayan hecho algo m\u00e1s que poner su nombre mientras que el trabajo reca\u00eda sobre los tangibles hombros de un escritor fantasma. Hay novelistas que filmaron sus propios libros, como Clive Baker, Pier Paolo Pasolini o Catherine Breillat. Sin embargo, el caso de<em> \u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood<\/em> parece \u00fanico. Es la primera vez que un director (y guionista) encara verdaderamente la transformaci\u00f3n de su propia pel\u00edcula en una 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Tarantino declar\u00f3 que las novelas basadas en pel\u00edculas son su lectura favorita. No resulta sorprendente, entonces, que su primera incursi\u00f3n en la literatura sea la novelizaci\u00f3n de su \u00faltimo trabajo en el cine y, adem\u00e1s, propuesta como un tributo al rubro. La versi\u00f3n norteamericana del libro fue publicada directamente en una edici\u00f3n de tapa blanda a pedido del director (salt\u00e1ndose la publicaci\u00f3n de tapa dura, mucho m\u00e1s redituable para la editorial), porque tal era el modo en que aparec\u00edan tradicionalmente las novelizaciones de pel\u00edculas, as\u00ed como todos los estratos m\u00e1s bajos de la literatura popular. El dise\u00f1o retro del libro, con fotos de las estrellas en la tapa, confirma tal estirpe. 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obra.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kvp9wty\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El director (que obtuvo sus dos Oscars como guionista, uno por <em>Pulp Fiction<\/em> y otro por<em> Django sin cadenas<\/em>) declar\u00f3 que filmar\u00e1 tan solo una pel\u00edcula m\u00e1s y luego, antes de que comience lo que anticipa como una inevitable decadencia, abandonar\u00e1 el cine para dedicarse exclusivamente a escribir novelas. Se puede afirmar, sin embargo, que con sus filmes ya lo ven\u00eda haciendo. Si bien hay algunos otros realizadores de Hollywood con una evidente facilidad para la palabra, volcada no solo en guiones sino tambi\u00e9n en novelas o cuentos, como es el caso de Ethan Coen o David Cronenberg, Tarantino acaso sea el \u00fanico con un estilo de escritura propio que es reconocible en toda su obra. Sus pel\u00edculas son como novelas en el sentido de que no respetan la estructura tradicional de los tres actos, presentan narrativas no lineales, se entregan a largas digresiones y, sobre todo, inventaron una forma de hablar, un nuevo tipo de di\u00e1logo cinematogr\u00e1fico que es tambi\u00e9n novel\u00edstico y constituye su marca registrada.<\/p><p>Los celebrados devaneos de sus personajes sobre \u00abLike a Virgin\u00bb de Madonna, los nombres de las hamburguesas o la ascendencia negra de los mafiosos sicilianos, no son realmente di\u00e1logos funcionales, ya que no proporcionan informaci\u00f3n imprescindible, no hacen avanzar la acci\u00f3n, no contribuyen a delinear al personaje y ni siquiera representan de una manera realista la forma de hablar de nadie. Son pura escritura, un habla artificial que goza de su artificio, una forma de prosa que requiere de oficio literario y que es la manifestaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s notable del estilo de Tarantino. Claro que como Tarantino no solo es un escritor dotado sino tambi\u00e9n un cineasta de gran talento, no detiene su filme para exhibir sus mon\u00f3logos ingeniosos sino que estos est\u00e1n integrados en la narrativa y ubicados en momentos de m\u00e1xima emoci\u00f3n, generalmente dilatando y por esto potenciando la llegada del cl\u00edmax de la escena. Cuando Bill (David Carradine) le explica a La Novia (Uma Thurman), durante varios minutos, que el d\u00e9bil, torpe y temeroso Clark Kent no es la personalidad secreta de Superman sino el modo en que un superhombre interpreta a los humanos est\u00e1, con este aparente desv\u00edo, recargando la tensi\u00f3n de un duelo inminente que estuvimos esperando durante dos pel\u00edculas enteras.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xdsdy5b\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tarantino pone a sus personajes en diferentes escenarios, con poco que los una, y los utiliza como excusa para entregarse a un ejercicio nost\u00e1lgico de restauraci\u00f3n de su infancia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1zyq335\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Seg\u00fan dijo Tarantino, la idea para <em>\u00c9rase una vez\u2026<\/em> le vino durante el rodaje de <em>A prueba de muerte<\/em>, en la que Kurt Russell interpreta a Stuntman Mike, un doble del cine de acci\u00f3n y, tambi\u00e9n, un asesino psic\u00f3tico que mata mujeres con su autom\u00f3vil: un in\u00e9dito cruce entre J. G. Ballard y Roger Corman. Para llevar adelante las escenas ultraviolentas de este doble, Russell ten\u00eda a su propio doble de riesgo, con el que trabaj\u00f3 casi toda su carrera. El v\u00ednculo en el set de estos dos hombres de mediana edad, vestidos y peinados del mismo modo, que trabajan juntos con la familiaridad y la naturalidad de quienes se conocen desde siempre pero que, a la vez, comparten la certeza de que ese v\u00ednculo est\u00e1 llegando a su fin, fue el germen de esta pel\u00edcula. As\u00ed nacieron Rick Dalton (Leonardo Di Caprio), un actor que alcanz\u00f3 cierto \u00e9xito a mediados de los 50 pero cuya estrella, quince a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, se est\u00e1 apagando, y Cliff Booth (Brad Pitt), su mejor amigo, su asistente personal y su doble, un antiguo h\u00e9roe de guerra que quiz\u00e1s haya matado a su mujer en una discusi\u00f3n marital y a quien, salvo por Dalton, nadie contrata.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p>El plan original era construir un thriller con estos personajes pero, a poco de comenzar el guion, Tarantino decidi\u00f3 que Dalton y Booth eran lo suficientemente interesantes para sostener la pel\u00edcula sin necesidad de una trama policial que la atravesara, de modo que descart\u00f3 buena parte del argumento y se qued\u00f3 con ellos. Si el resultado parece una deriva sin demasiada estructura es porque eso es precisamente lo que es. Tarantino pone a sus personajes en diferentes escenarios, con poco que los una, y los utiliza como excusa para entregarse a un ejercicio nost\u00e1lgico de restauraci\u00f3n de su infancia: hace una reconstrucci\u00f3n minuciosa y erudita de Los \u00c1ngeles en 1969, y se divierte calcando <em>westerns<\/em> televisivos, musicales y copias italianas del cine de Hollywood, probablemente todo lo que ve\u00eda cuando chico (de hecho, el ni\u00f1o Tarantino tiene una breve aparici\u00f3n en la novela, como un fan de las pel\u00edculas de Dalton). Si bien cada escena es disfrutable por s\u00ed misma, la forma libre de la pel\u00edcula hace que sea dif\u00edcil entregarse completamente al relato. De todos modos, sabemos que Sharon Tate y Charles Manson son dos de los personajes centrales, as\u00ed que est\u00e1 claro hacia d\u00f3nde se dirige.<\/p><p><\/p><p>As\u00ed como es una celebraci\u00f3n de su \u00e9poca, la pel\u00edcula desprecia la contracultura de los 60: \u00ab<em>Fucking hippies<\/em>\u00bb es un mantra que Dalton repite frecuentemente. Hay un enfrentamiento generacional entre este actor maduro, tan moldeado por costumbres del pasado que ya empieza a ser una reliquia, y los representantes de la nueva era, todos <em>hippies<\/em> sin atributos positivos: son traicioneros, delirantes, manipulables, aprovechadores y sucios. Y, como les si faltara algo, son miembros del clan Manson. Entre un representante del Hollywood cl\u00e1sico y los asesinos de Sharon Tate no hace falta aclarar d\u00f3nde deposita Tarantino sus 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batalla cultural (y eventualmente f\u00edsica) entre dos generaciones reproduce una m\u00e1s actual entre la generaci\u00f3n de Tarantino (los <em>boomers<\/em>, los X) y los <em>millennials<\/em>, los abanderados de la correcci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica y la inclusi\u00f3n. La pel\u00edcula en su totalidad se hace eco de los sentimientos de Dalton y es un \u00ab<em>fuck you<\/em>\u00bb\u00a0al Hollywood <em>woke<\/em>. Deliberadamente toma el camino opuesto a toda la normativa vigente seg\u00fan la que ahora se eval\u00faan las pel\u00edculas: los protagonistas son dos hombres blancos, heterosexuales, cisg\u00e9nero y de mediana edad (la \u00abcr\u00edtica\u00bb lleg\u00f3 a contar la cantidad de palabras que dice el personaje de Margot Robbie\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>menos que Di Caprio<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0para demostrar hasta qu\u00e9 punto la pel\u00edcula es sexista); no hay inclusi\u00f3n de minor\u00edas desfavorecidas salvo por un personaje asi\u00e1tico, Bruce Lee (Mike Moh), que es ridiculizado para lograr un efecto c\u00f3mico (la hija de Bruce Lee denunci\u00f3 el racismo de Tarantino en esa escena) y, como si esto fuera poco, en el cl\u00edmax, los h\u00e9roes literalmente muelen a palos y luego incineran a una mujer, una asesina que previamente intent\u00f3 matarlos. Esta escena es tan grangui\u00f1olesca, tan excesiva que no puede ser confundida con nada real como la violencia de g\u00e9nero. Es una violencia de dibujo animado que se\u00f1ala que el cine no es la vida, que en una ficci\u00f3n pueden suceder estas cosas y nadie sale lastimado.<\/p><p>Esta distinci\u00f3n b\u00e1sica es esencial en la obra de Tarantino. El aforismo m\u00e1s conocido del fil\u00f3sofo Jacques Derrida afirma que \u00abno hay nada afuera del texto\u00bb, una reposici\u00f3n del giro ling\u00fc\u00edstico que se\u00f1ala que todo signo remite a otro. En el caso de Tarantino podr\u00eda parafrasearse como \u00abno hay nada afuera del cine\u00bb o, de modo m\u00e1s amplio, de los artefactos de la cultura popular. A falta de una mitolog\u00eda, los Estados Unidos tienen su cultura pop. Las pel\u00edculas de Tarantino no remiten al mundo real sino al mundo como lo muestra la pantalla: la historia o la pol\u00edtica solo aparecen en su obra tal y como fueron explicadas por el cine. Sus g\u00e1nsteres, sus esclavos o sus oficiales nazis no tienen ninguna pretensi\u00f3n de realismo: son personajes de ficci\u00f3n que toman sus rasgos de otros personajes de ficci\u00f3n. El credo est\u00e9tico y pol\u00edtico de Tarantino nunca es m\u00e1s claro que en el final de <em>Bastardos sin gloria<\/em>, cuando Hitler es asesinado por una sobreviviente jud\u00eda en un cinemat\u00f3grafo. Es decir, el mundo real sale eyectado por la ventana porque el cine tiene uno mucho mejor que ofrecernos. El final de <em>\u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood<\/em> ejerce un revisionismo hist\u00f3rico-cin\u00e9filo similar.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h47cjh7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Las pel\u00edculas de Tarantino no remiten al mundo real sino al mundo como lo muestra la pantalla: la historia o la pol\u00edtica solo aparecen en su obra tal y como fueron explicadas por el cine.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d2ryqrh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La novela <em>\u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood<\/em> es inequ\u00edvocamente una obra de Tarantino, tanto como la pel\u00edcula que le dio origen. Su estilo es notable en cada p\u00e1gina. El mon\u00f3logo en que un proxeneta franc\u00e9s le explica a Cliff Booth qu\u00e9 debe hacer para vivir de las mujeres est\u00e1 a la altura de cualquiera de sus mejores escenas en el cine y si no aparece en <em>\u00c9rase una vez\u2026<\/em> es porque fue escrito despu\u00e9s de que el filme estuviera terminado. As\u00ed como la pel\u00edcula no tiene una estructura convencional, la novela parece construida como el conjunto de \u00abextras\u00bb de un DVD reproducidos de modo aleatorio. Hay una total ruptura con la din\u00e1mica de enigmas y revelaciones que llevan de la nariz a los lectores de los relatos tradicionales. De hecho, antes de concluir el primer tercio del libro, se revela el final de la pel\u00edcula, la escena que cruza a Dalton con sus odiados <em>hippies<\/em>. No solo eso, el narrador detalla las consecuencias de estas acciones hasta el final de la carrera del actor. Mucho m\u00e1s que la pel\u00edcula, el libro rechaza apoyar su arquitectura en suspense o inc\u00f3gnitas. Aquello que nos impulsa a seguir leyendo es la voz de Tarantino, no la resoluci\u00f3n de una historia.<\/p><p>En la pel\u00edcula, el realizador juega a filmar los duelos de los <em>westerns<\/em> de los 50 o las persecuciones en auto de los <em>eurothrillers<\/em>. Del mismo modo, en la novela no obedece los dictados de la l\u00f3gica narrativa sino que, m\u00e1s bien, persigue su disfrute como autor. As\u00ed, el exsoldado y doble de acci\u00f3n Cliff Booth se revela tambi\u00e9n como un cin\u00e9filo avezado que reflexiona de modo igualmente s\u00f3lido sobre el cl\u00e1sico er\u00f3tico de Vilgot Sojman <em>Soy curiosa<\/em> (amarillo) como sobre el cine de Akira Kurosawa, al tiempo que se reserva duras palabras para la obra de Michelangelo Antonioni. En los abundantes pasajes en que alguien habla de cine, ya sea sobre directores desconocidos del cine de acci\u00f3n,<em> spaghetti westerns<\/em> o la obra de Roman Polanski, no hay una distinci\u00f3n entre la voz del narrador y la de los personajes. Quien habla es Tarantino. Incidentalmente, se revel\u00f3 que el realizador firm\u00f3 con su editorial un contrato por dos libros y que el segundo ser\u00eda uno de cr\u00edtica cinematogr\u00e1fica. Este tambi\u00e9n funciona como un anticipo de ese otro.<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5b5a7dr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>As\u00ed como la pel\u00edcula no tiene una estructura convencional, la novela parece construida como el conjunto de \u00abextras\u00bb de un DVD reproducidos de modo aleatorio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qx79gq6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p>La novela es un conjunto de largos desv\u00edos con la forma de cap\u00edtulos que expanden y muchas veces resignifican la pel\u00edcula. Los personajes centrales, en particular Cliff, son totalmente redimensionados. Por ejemplo, se explicita si mat\u00f3 a su mujer, se detalla su experiencia en la guerra, su vida como expatriado en Francia y su actividad como organizador de peleas de perros. El individuo ambiguo del filme se vuelve aqu\u00ed despiadado al punto de que se permite matar a dos mafiosos a sangre fr\u00eda solo para ver si puede salirse con la suya. Sus escenas en la novela no desentonar\u00edan en una de Elmore Leonard, autor favorito de Tarantino, al que adapt\u00f3 en Jackie Brown.<\/p><p>Tambi\u00e9n los personajes secundarios, como Roman Polanski o Sharon Tate (Margot Robbie en el film) aqu\u00ed ganan espesor, en particular Tate, quien despliega una voz y una interioridad equivalente a la de cualquier personaje masculino, seguramente no tanto como una respuesta a las cr\u00edticas de sexismo de la pel\u00edcula, sino porque es lo que Tarantino consider\u00f3 que el personaje requer\u00eda en este nuevo formato. Roland Barthes escribi\u00f3 un c\u00e9lebre art\u00edculo llamado \u00abEl placer del texto\u00bb en el que reivindicaba la lectura como una actividad fundamentalmente hedonista. En <em>\u00c9rase una vez en Hollywood<\/em>, tanto la pel\u00edcula como el libro, Tarantino tom\u00f3 una aproximaci\u00f3n similar como autor y claramente decidi\u00f3 ocuparse solo de aquello que le da placer. Si uno comparte los gustos del director, es un placer que se contagia.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lyjxo67\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dune-villeneuve-la-conquista-del-desierto\\\">Dune: la conquista del desierto<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-colson-whitehead\\\">\u00abEl ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo\u00bb o el holocausto norteamericano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/philip-Roth-La-conjura-contra-America-hbo\\\">La pandemia del odio: \u00abLa conjura contra Am\u00e9rica\u00bb, de Philip 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15 minutos
Copias históricas de Mein Kampf (Mi lucha), el primer libro de Adolf Hitler.

Crédito: Getty Images.

Las novelizaciones de películas existen desde los inicios del cine, pero se volvieron mucho más frecuentes en la década de los 70, antes de la era del videocasete, cuando eran la única forma realmente a mano de regresar a un filme. La llegada de los blockbusters como Tiburón hizo evidente que había que aprovechar comercialmente el inagotable interés del público por estos sucesos cinematográficos fuera de toda escala, expandiendo su mundo a un conjunto de productos satelitales como secuelas, series de televisión, cómics, videojuegos, juguetes y, claro, novelas. 

La novelización acaso sea el más bastardo de los géneros literarios, más cercano a la mecanografía que a la escritura, ya que pareciera que solo pone en papel el argumento de una película, aumentando los detalles en las biografías de los personajes o en las historias secundarias. Sin embargo, no es infrecuente que las novelizaciones tomen desvíos inesperados con respecto a sus fuentes y presenten cierto grado de independencia, no tanto por un ímpetu creativo de los novelistas contratados para el trabajo, sino porque suelen ser perpetradas a partir de un borrador del guion y sin conocer el filme, de modo que el trabajo de descripción de la película no tiene más remedio que recurrir también a la imaginación. Es sabido que uno de los escritores más activos en este rubro, el autor de ciencia ficción Alan Dean Foster, debió completar su novelización de Alien sin tener ni idea de qué aspecto tenía el monstruo en la película.

Sus autores suelen ser escritores de géneros populares en busca de dinero rápido. Algunas veces, también los guionistas del filme, que aprovechan para meter en el libro todas las páginas de su guion que quedaron fuera de la película. Muy ocasionalmente, están atribuidas al director: la novelización de Encuentros cercanos del tercer tipo está firmada por Steven Spielberg, la de La guerra de la galaxias por George Lucas y la de Rocky por Sylvester Stallone, pero es altamente improbable que hayan hecho algo más que poner su nombre mientras que el trabajo recaía sobre los tangibles hombros de un escritor fantasma. Hay novelistas que filmaron sus propios libros, como Clive Baker, Pier Paolo Pasolini o Catherine Breillat. Sin embargo, el caso de Érase una vez en Hollywood parece único. Es la primera vez que un director (y guionista) encara verdaderamente la transformación de su propia película en una novela.

Quentin Tarantino declaró que las novelas basadas en películas son su lectura favorita. No resulta sorprendente, entonces, que su primera incursión en la literatura sea la novelización de su último trabajo en el cine y, además, propuesta como un tributo al rubro. La versión norteamericana del libro fue publicada directamente en una edición de tapa blanda a pedido del director (saltándose la publicación de tapa dura, mucho más redituable para la editorial), porque tal era el modo en que aparecían tradicionalmente las novelizaciones de películas, así como todos los estratos más bajos de la literatura popular. El diseño retro del libro, con fotos de las estrellas en la tapa, confirma tal estirpe. A diferencia de toda otra novelización, esta asume que el lector vio la película y no cuenta nada tal como aparece en la pantalla: cuando se narra una escena que llegó al corte final, siempre tiene elementos nuevos y está presentada desde un punto de vista distinto del que conocen los espectadores. El texto no es solo la transposición del guion en formato de prosa sino una auténtica novela que complementa y expande la película.

Si bien hay algunos otros realizadores de Hollywood con una evidente facilidad para la palabra, volcada no solo en guiones sino también en novelas o cuentos, como es el caso de Ethan Coen o David Cronenberg, Tarantino acaso sea el único con un estilo de escritura propio que es reconocible en toda su obra. 

El director (que obtuvo sus dos Oscars como guionista, uno por Pulp Fiction y otro por Django sin cadenas) declaró que filmará tan solo una película más y luego, antes de que comience lo que anticipa como una inevitable decadencia, abandonará el cine para dedicarse exclusivamente a escribir novelas. Se puede afirmar, sin embargo, que con sus filmes ya lo venía haciendo. Si bien hay algunos otros realizadores de Hollywood con una evidente facilidad para la palabra, volcada no solo en guiones sino también en novelas o cuentos, como es el caso de Ethan Coen o David Cronenberg, Tarantino acaso sea el único con un estilo de escritura propio que es reconocible en toda su obra. Sus películas son como novelas en el sentido de que no respetan la estructura tradicional de los tres actos, presentan narrativas no lineales, se entregan a largas digresiones y, sobre todo, inventaron una forma de hablar, un nuevo tipo de diálogo cinematográfico que es también novelístico y constituye su marca registrada.

Los celebrados devaneos de sus personajes sobre «Like a Virgin» de Madonna, los nombres de las hamburguesas o la ascendencia negra de los mafiosos sicilianos, no son realmente diálogos funcionales, ya que no proporcionan información imprescindible, no hacen avanzar la acción, no contribuyen a delinear al personaje y ni siquiera representan de una manera realista la forma de hablar de nadie. Son pura escritura, un habla artificial que goza de su artificio, una forma de prosa que requiere de oficio literario y que es la manifestación más notable del estilo de Tarantino. Claro que como Tarantino no solo es un escritor dotado sino también un cineasta de gran talento, no detiene su filme para exhibir sus monólogos ingeniosos sino que estos están integrados en la narrativa y ubicados en momentos de máxima emoción, generalmente dilatando y por esto potenciando la llegada del clímax de la escena. Cuando Bill (David Carradine) le explica a La Novia (Uma Thurman), durante varios minutos, que el débil, torpe y temeroso Clark Kent no es la personalidad secreta de Superman sino el modo en que un superhombre interpreta a los humanos está, con este aparente desvío, recargando la tensión de un duelo inminente que estuvimos esperando durante dos películas enteras. 

Tarantino pone a sus personajes en diferentes escenarios, con poco que los una, y los utiliza como excusa para entregarse a un ejercicio nostálgico de restauración de su infancia.

Según dijo Tarantino, la idea para Érase una vez… le vino durante el rodaje de A prueba de muerte, en la que Kurt Russell interpreta a Stuntman Mike, un doble del cine de acción y, también, un asesino psicótico que mata mujeres con su automóvil: un inédito cruce entre J. G. Ballard y Roger Corman. Para llevar adelante las escenas ultraviolentas de este doble, Russell tenía a su propio doble de riesgo, con el que trabajó casi toda su carrera. El vínculo en el set de estos dos hombres de mediana edad, vestidos y peinados del mismo modo, que trabajan juntos con la familiaridad y la naturalidad de quienes se conocen desde siempre pero que, a la vez, comparten la certeza de que ese vínculo está llegando a su fin, fue el germen de esta película. Así nacieron Rick Dalton (Leonardo Di Caprio), un actor que alcanzó cierto éxito a mediados de los 50 pero cuya estrella, quince años más tarde, se está apagando, y Cliff Booth (Brad Pitt), su mejor amigo, su asistente personal y su doble, un antiguo héroe de guerra que quizás haya matado a su mujer en una discusión marital y a quien, salvo por Dalton, nadie contrata. 

El plan original era construir un thriller con estos personajes pero, a poco de comenzar el guion, Tarantino decidió que Dalton y Booth eran lo suficientemente interesantes para sostener la película sin necesidad de una trama policial que la atravesara, de modo que descartó buena parte del argumento y se quedó con ellos. Si el resultado parece una deriva sin demasiada estructura es porque eso es precisamente lo que es. Tarantino pone a sus personajes en diferentes escenarios, con poco que los una, y los utiliza como excusa para entregarse a un ejercicio nostálgico de restauración de su infancia: hace una reconstrucción minuciosa y erudita de Los Ángeles en 1969, y se divierte calcando westerns televisivos, musicales y copias italianas del cine de Hollywood, probablemente todo lo que veía cuando chico (de hecho, el niño Tarantino tiene una breve aparición en la novela, como un fan de las películas de Dalton). Si bien cada escena es disfrutable por sí misma, la forma libre de la película hace que sea difícil entregarse completamente al relato. De todos modos, sabemos que Sharon Tate y Charles Manson son dos de los personajes centrales, así que está claro hacia dónde se dirige.

Así como es una celebración de su época, la película desprecia la contracultura de los 60: «Fucking hippies» es un mantra que Dalton repite frecuentemente. Hay un enfrentamiento generacional entre este actor maduro, tan moldeado por costumbres del pasado que ya empieza a ser una reliquia, y los representantes de la nueva era, todos hippies sin atributos positivos: son traicioneros, delirantes, manipulables, aprovechadores y sucios. Y, como les si faltara algo, son miembros del clan Manson. Entre un representante del Hollywood clásico y los asesinos de Sharon Tate no hace falta aclarar dónde deposita Tarantino sus simpatías. 

Portada de The New English Weekly del 21 de marzo de 1940, ejemplar en el que Orwell publicó este texto sobre Mein Kampf.

Tarantino delante de un afiche de la película Érase una vez en Hollywood. Crédito: Getty Images.

Esta batalla cultural (y eventualmente física) entre dos generaciones reproduce una más actual entre la generación de Tarantino (los boomers, los X) y los millennials, los abanderados de la corrección política y la inclusión. La película en su totalidad se hace eco de los sentimientos de Dalton y es un «fuck you» al Hollywood woke. Deliberadamente toma el camino opuesto a toda la normativa vigente según la que ahora se evalúan las películas: los protagonistas son dos hombres blancos, heterosexuales, cisgénero y de mediana edad (la «crítica» llegó a contar la cantidad de palabras que dice el personaje de Margot Robbie menos que Di Caprio para demostrar hasta qué punto la película es sexista); no hay inclusión de minorías desfavorecidas salvo por un personaje asiático, Bruce Lee (Mike Moh), que es ridiculizado para lograr un efecto cómico (la hija de Bruce Lee denunció el racismo de Tarantino en esa escena) y, como si esto fuera poco, en el clímax, los héroes literalmente muelen a palos y luego incineran a una mujer, una asesina que previamente intentó matarlos. Esta escena es tan granguiñolesca, tan excesiva que no puede ser confundida con nada real como la violencia de género. Es una violencia de dibujo animado que señala que el cine no es la vida, que en una ficción pueden suceder estas cosas y nadie sale lastimado.

Esta distinción básica es esencial en la obra de Tarantino. El aforismo más conocido del filósofo Jacques Derrida afirma que «no hay nada afuera del texto», una reposición del giro lingüístico que señala que todo signo remite a otro. En el caso de Tarantino podría parafrasearse como «no hay nada afuera del cine» o, de modo más amplio, de los artefactos de la cultura popular. A falta de una mitología, los Estados Unidos tienen su cultura pop. Las películas de Tarantino no remiten al mundo real sino al mundo como lo muestra la pantalla: la historia o la política solo aparecen en su obra tal y como fueron explicadas por el cine. Sus gánsteres, sus esclavos o sus oficiales nazis no tienen ninguna pretensión de realismo: son personajes de ficción que toman sus rasgos de otros personajes de ficción. El credo estético y político de Tarantino nunca es más claro que en el final de Bastardos sin gloria, cuando Hitler es asesinado por una sobreviviente judía en un cinematógrafo. Es decir, el mundo real sale eyectado por la ventana porque el cine tiene uno mucho mejor que ofrecernos. El final de Érase una vez en Hollywood ejerce un revisionismo histórico-cinéfilo similar.

Las películas de Tarantino no remiten al mundo real sino al mundo como lo muestra la pantalla: la historia o la política solo aparecen en su obra tal y como fueron explicadas por el cine.

La novela Érase una vez en Hollywood es inequívocamente una obra de Tarantino, tanto como la película que le dio origen. Su estilo es notable en cada página. El monólogo en que un proxeneta francés le explica a Cliff Booth qué debe hacer para vivir de las mujeres está a la altura de cualquiera de sus mejores escenas en el cine y si no aparece en Érase una vez… es porque fue escrito después de que el filme estuviera terminado. Así como la película no tiene una estructura convencional, la novela parece construida como el conjunto de «extras» de un DVD reproducidos de modo aleatorio. Hay una total ruptura con la dinámica de enigmas y revelaciones que llevan de la nariz a los lectores de los relatos tradicionales. De hecho, antes de concluir el primer tercio del libro, se revela el final de la película, la escena que cruza a Dalton con sus odiados hippies. No solo eso, el narrador detalla las consecuencias de estas acciones hasta el final de la carrera del actor. Mucho más que la película, el libro rechaza apoyar su arquitectura en suspense o incógnitas. Aquello que nos impulsa a seguir leyendo es la voz de Tarantino, no la resolución de una historia.

En la película, el realizador juega a filmar los duelos de los westerns de los 50 o las persecuciones en auto de los eurothrillers. Del mismo modo, en la novela no obedece los dictados de la lógica narrativa sino que, más bien, persigue su disfrute como autor. Así, el exsoldado y doble de acción Cliff Booth se revela también como un cinéfilo avezado que reflexiona de modo igualmente sólido sobre el clásico erótico de Vilgot Sojman Soy curiosa (amarillo) como sobre el cine de Akira Kurosawa, al tiempo que se reserva duras palabras para la obra de Michelangelo Antonioni. En los abundantes pasajes en que alguien habla de cine, ya sea sobre directores desconocidos del cine de acción, spaghetti westerns o la obra de Roman Polanski, no hay una distinción entre la voz del narrador y la de los personajes. Quien habla es Tarantino. Incidentalmente, se reveló que el realizador firmó con su editorial un contrato por dos libros y que el segundo sería uno de crítica cinematográfica. Este también funciona como un anticipo de ese otro.

Así como la película no tiene una estructura convencional, la novela parece construida como el conjunto de «extras» de un DVD reproducidos de modo aleatorio.

La novela es un conjunto de largos desvíos con la forma de capítulos que expanden y muchas veces resignifican la película. Los personajes centrales, en particular Cliff, son totalmente redimensionados. Por ejemplo, se explicita si mató a su mujer, se detalla su experiencia en la guerra, su vida como expatriado en Francia y su actividad como organizador de peleas de perros. El individuo ambiguo del filme se vuelve aquí despiadado al punto de que se permite matar a dos mafiosos a sangre fría solo para ver si puede salirse con la suya. Sus escenas en la novela no desentonarían en una de Elmore Leonard, autor favorito de Tarantino, al que adaptó en Jackie Brown.

También los personajes secundarios, como Roman Polanski o Sharon Tate (Margot Robbie en el film) aquí ganan espesor, en particular Tate, quien despliega una voz y una interioridad equivalente a la de cualquier personaje masculino, seguramente no tanto como una respuesta a las críticas de sexismo de la película, sino porque es lo que Tarantino consideró que el personaje requería en este nuevo formato. Roland Barthes escribió un célebre artículo llamado «El placer del texto» en el que reivindicaba la lectura como una actividad fundamentalmente hedonista. En Érase una vez en Hollywood, tanto la película como el libro, Tarantino tomó una aproximación similar como autor y claramente decidió ocuparse solo de aquello que le da placer. Si uno comparte los gustos del director, es un placer que se contagia. 

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