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Enrique Florescano por Héctor Aguilar Camín: maestro de la historia y de la vida

El panorama de la cultura mexicana no sería el mismo sin las aportaciones que Enrique Florescano (1937-2023) sembró, no solo como historiador, sino como maestro y editor. Su visión para entender la historia como un ente vivo y a la vez eterno es una visión que «cambia tan rápido como las emociones y tan poco como la geografía», como dice Héctor Aguilar Camín. En este texto, el alumno se despide del maestro editor, del maestro historiador pero, sobre todo, del maestro de vida que moldeó a innumerables generaciones de lectores y escritores.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/193386-enrique-florescano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Enrique Florescano<\/a><\/span>\u00a0era nueve a\u00f1os y un d\u00eda mayor que yo: naci\u00f3 el 8 de julio de 1937 en San Juan de Coscomatepec, estado de Veracruz. Lo conoc\u00ed en el a\u00f1o de 1969, durante los cursos del doctorado en Historia de El Colegio de M\u00e9xico, donde \u00e9l era maestro de oficio y yo estudiante de ocasi\u00f3n. Vest\u00eda con elegancia aristocr\u00e1tica y usaba una barbita luciferina. En cada clase abr\u00eda una ventana por donde mirar hacia las alamedas de la historiograf\u00eda francesa.<\/p><p>Florescano fue mi maestro de muchas maneras. Me ense\u00f1\u00f3 a leer la historia y me ense\u00f1\u00f3 a trabajar. Fue decisivo en mi vida intelectual y en mi vida pr\u00e1ctica. Fue mi maestro de historia del siglo XVIII en El Colegio de M\u00e9xico. Hab\u00eda obtenido su doctorado en Par\u00eds con una investigaci\u00f3n que sigue siendo \u00fanica dentro de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/41678-ebook-mitos-mexicanos-nueva-edicion-9786073137584\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la historia mexicana<\/a><\/span>: una historia de los precios del ma\u00edz, cuyo vaiv\u00e9n calamitoso, dictado por los ciclos naturales y por la manipulaci\u00f3n de los acaparadores, echaba una extra\u00f1a y potente luz sobre la sociedad colonial, y sobre los desarreglos que precipitaron la independencia de M\u00e9xico.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"2\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ygj8e9v\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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clase fue fascinante. Nos ley\u00f3 el siglo de la incubaci\u00f3n de la Independencia en clave econ\u00f3mica, en el contexto de las reformas borb\u00f3nicas, una de las grandes oleadas modernizadoras de nuestra historia. Tambi\u00e9n, uno de los grandes momentos de resistencia de la sociedad tradicional. La idea de la resistencia al cambio es una de las pulsiones hist\u00f3ricas de M\u00e9xico. La versi\u00f3n espa\u00f1ola del libro de John Womack sobre Zapata dec\u00eda en sus primeras l\u00edneas: \u00abEsta es la historia de unos campesinos que no quer\u00edan cambiar y por lo mismo hicieron una revoluci\u00f3n\u00bb. La historia de la Independencia de Florescano habr\u00eda podido decir: \u00abEsta es la historia de unos intereses que no quer\u00edan cambiar y para evitar el cambio hicieron la revoluci\u00f3n de Independencia\u00bb.<\/p><p>El libro de Florescano era una vertiente de la historia que hab\u00eda aprendido en Francia, con Ruggiero Romano y Ernest Labrousse, en la gran escuela de historia de los Annales. Aquella escuela nos ense\u00f1\u00f3 a ver la historia como un territorio donde suceden cosas r\u00e1pidas (los hechos) y cosas lentas (las estructuras, las mentalidades). Las ense\u00f1anzas de Florescano sembraron en mi cabeza una tentaci\u00f3n que no ha cesado: entender lo de hoy como un cambio inscrito en las entra\u00f1as largas del ayer. La visi\u00f3n de la historia como algo que cambia tan r\u00e1pido como las emociones y tan poco como la geograf\u00eda. No creo haber recibido una ense\u00f1anza mayor sobre c\u00f3mo leer la historia.<\/p><p>La lecci\u00f3n de historia que recib\u00ed de Florescano fue inolvidable. La lecci\u00f3n de trabajo tambi\u00e9n. Lo hab\u00edan nombrado director de la revista <em>Historia mexicana,<\/em> la revista trimestral que publicaba el Centro de Estudios Hist\u00f3ricos. Nos pidi\u00f3 a sus alumnos que escribi\u00e9ramos rese\u00f1as de libros para la secci\u00f3n correspondiente, y a m\u00ed me dio como tarea rese\u00f1ar el suyo. Poco despu\u00e9s me invit\u00f3 a ser secretario de redacci\u00f3n de la revista, lo cual acept\u00e9 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un recuerdo radiante de aquellos d\u00edas. Salvo esto: lleg\u00f3 a la revista un texto de historia econ\u00f3mica de alta densidad te\u00f3rica. A m\u00ed se me hizo f\u00e1cil darle la traducci\u00f3n a la esposa de un amigo, una encantadora mujer que, aparte de saber ingl\u00e9s, no ten\u00eda calificaci\u00f3n alguna para traducir, por ejemplo, la expresi\u00f3n <em>surplus value,<\/em>\u00a0\u00abplusval\u00eda\u00bb, en la jerga espa\u00f1ola. Mi amiga la tradujo por algo as\u00ed como \u00abvalor en demas\u00eda\u00bb. La traducci\u00f3n era un desastre equivalente en cada l\u00ednea. No la revis\u00e9 sino hasta que estaba en pruebas finas. Para corregirla hubo que rehacer la edici\u00f3n de la revista. Ped\u00ed disculpas, expliqu\u00e9 a Enrique mi fiasco y present\u00e9 mi renuncia. Me dio entonces la lecci\u00f3n mayor que he recibido en la vida. Me dijo: \u00abPuedes renunciar y darle la espalda al asunto. Pero el problema no es renunciar, sino arreglarlo, y tomarse el trabajo para que no vuelva a suceder\u00bb. Donde yo hab\u00eda planteado una huida irresponsable, Florescano plante\u00f3 una correcci\u00f3n responsable. Le fall\u00e9 muchas otras veces, de muchas maneras. Y su respuesta a mis fallas fue siempre la misma: \u00abArr\u00e9glalo primero, luego te quedas o te vas\u00bb.<\/p><p>Quiero decir que hab\u00eda en Florescano una confianza temeraria en las nuevas generaciones y en la plasticidad de la historia. No miraba hacia atr\u00e1s en busca de las ense\u00f1anzas del pasado y sus cronistas, sino hacia adelante, en busca de los historiadores que habr\u00edan de cambiar nuestra manera de mirar y ense\u00f1ar la historia. Quer\u00eda sacar la historia del claustro y llevarla a la plaza p\u00fablica, no para vulgarizarla, sino para hacerla parte de la reflexi\u00f3n sobre nuestro futuro. En un medio acad\u00e9mico un tanto anticuado y contenido, donde el \u00fanico flechador de empresas grandes parec\u00eda ser don Daniel Cos\u00edo Villegas, Florescano era todo ebullici\u00f3n y proyectos. Ten\u00eda el impulso de fundar cosas y el demonio personal de la innovaci\u00f3n. Quer\u00eda ventilar la casona, abrirla a otros mundos, moverla hacia la exploraci\u00f3n de nuevos temas, nuevos m\u00e9todos, nuevas obsesiones. Sus colegas lo miraban con esc\u00e1ndalo o iron\u00eda; sus alumnos con un inter\u00e9s natural por la juventud invitadora de su estilo.<\/p><p>Como ninguno de sus contempor\u00e1neos acad\u00e9micos que yo recuerde, Florescano presinti\u00f3 el terremoto cultural que se licuaba en la clase media ilustrada y en los centros de educaci\u00f3n superior de fines de los a\u00f1os sesenta, aquella oleada cr\u00edtica que quer\u00eda una cultura viva, capaz de responder a las preguntas \u00e1speras y perturbadoras de la realidad. Florescano percibi\u00f3 con claridad las fracturas de su generaci\u00f3n y las siguientes con el establecimiento pol\u00edtico y cultural del M\u00e9xico posrevolucionario. Nadie fue m\u00e1s generoso y abierto al pulso de aquella revoluci\u00f3n cultural silenciosa que corr\u00eda por la conciencia p\u00fablica, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/contralinea.com.mx\/interno\/semana\/2-de-octubre-de-1968-el-largo-camino-por-la-justicia\/#:~:text=El%202%20de%20octubre%20de,entonces%20a%20la%20sociedad%20mexicana.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">como una herida abierta, desde los d\u00edas tr\u00e1gicos del 68<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hwadnel\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Las ense\u00f1anzas de Florescano sembraron en mi cabeza una tentaci\u00f3n que no ha cesado: entender lo de hoy como un cambio inscrito en las entra\u00f1as largas del ayer. La visi\u00f3n de la historia como algo que cambia tan r\u00e1pido como las emociones y tan poco como la geograf\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kjzcree\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Estaba inc\u00f3modo en El Colegio porque no ve\u00eda grandes iniciativas culturales o editoriales y \u00e9l era un aventurero natural de iniciativas culturales. Le ofrecieron en esos d\u00edas, con el cambio de gobierno de 1970, la direcci\u00f3n del Departamento de Estudios Hist\u00f3ricos del Instituto Nacional de Antropolog\u00eda e Historia. Era un centro de investigaciones peque\u00f1ito, perdido en el organigrama. Estaba en la falda del Castillo de Chapultepec, en lo que hab\u00eda sido en los a\u00f1os veinte la casa de los presidentes sonorenses. Acept\u00f3 y repiti\u00f3 la f\u00f3rmula: me invit\u00f3 a trabajar con \u00e9l dirigiendo nada menos que un seminario de balance de la historiograf\u00eda pol\u00edtica mexicana. Quer\u00eda que hici\u00e9ramos un balance de lo que se hab\u00eda hecho en ese<em> campo<\/em> y dij\u00e9ramos lo que faltaba por hacer. Nada menos. Trabaj\u00e9 a\u00f1os en eso, invent\u00e1ndome un conocimiento que no ten\u00eda y dirigiendo a otros que tampoco. Por ah\u00ed debe estar en buen reposo f\u00fanebre el enorme manuscrito resultante de aquel 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las aulas de seminarios de aquel centro de investigaciones hist\u00f3ricas se incub\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.nexos.com.mx\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la revista <\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.nexos.com.mx\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nexos<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> una extensi\u00f3n de las obsesiones de Florescano: crear vida cultural, llevar a la investigaci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica nuevos m\u00e9todos y nuevos temas, romper el cerco de la academia, sacar el conocimiento especializada a la calle, acercarlo al presente, a la realidad.<\/p><p>Antes de tener nombre y forma, <em>Nexos<\/em> tuvo un camino en los seminarios de discusi\u00f3n que Florescano convocaba en el Departamento de Investigaciones Hist\u00f3ricas, reuniones para discutir textos acad\u00e9micos de resonancia actual. Los seminarios eran los s\u00e1bados en el Castillo de Chapultepec. Acud\u00edan intelectuales, acad\u00e9micos y escritores, de todas las edades y todas las disciplinas. Entre los que recuerdo: Carlos Monsiv\u00e1is, el exrector Pablo Gonz\u00e1lez Casanova, los fil\u00f3sofos Luis Villoro y Carlos Pereyra, el ling\u00fcista Antonio Alatorre, los antrop\u00f3logos Arturo Warman, Guillermo Bonfil, los m\u00e9dicos Julio Frenk, Luis Ca\u00f1edo, Daniel Lopez Acu\u00f1a, los economistas Rolando Cordera, Jos\u00e9 Blanco, los historiadores Lorenzo Meyer, el propio Florescano. En esas discusiones surgi\u00f3 la idea de una revista alternativa a<em> Plural,<\/em> que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/38725-libro-octavio-paz-9788430616862\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Octavio Paz<\/a><\/span> dirig\u00eda en el diario <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.excelsior.com.mx\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Exc\u00e9lsior<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> desde 1971. A los asistentes al seminario de los s\u00e1bados, y desde luego a los miembros de <em>La cultura en M\u00e9xico,<\/em> las posiciones de <em>Plural<\/em> nos parec\u00edan elitistas y de derecha. Alguien dijo: \u00abVamos a crear una revista. A poner una casa enfrente de <em>Plural<\/em><i>\u00bb<\/i><em>.<\/em> En 1976 fue desaparecido el <em>Exc\u00e9lsior<\/em> de Julio Scherer, y con \u00e9l, <em>Plural.<\/em> Se despobl\u00f3 el espacio period\u00edstico y cultural. Muy pronto, la iniciativa de una reforma pol\u00edtica del nuevo presidente Jos\u00e9 L\u00f3pez Portillo y de su secretario de Gobernaci\u00f3n, Jes\u00fas Reyes Heroles, reabri\u00f3 opciones en ambos mundos.<\/p><p>Scherer fund\u00f3 <em>Proceso<\/em> en diciembre de 1976. Paz fund\u00f3 <em>Vuelta<\/em> en 1977. Manuel Becerra Acosta, expulsado de <em>Exc\u00e9lsior<\/em> junto con Scherer, fund\u00f3 <em>Unom\u00e1suno<\/em>, en noviembre de 1977. Enrique Florescano fund\u00f3 <em>Nexos<\/em> en 1978. Lo primero que se nos ocurri\u00f3 en <em>Nexos<\/em> fue lo que a todos: hacer algo como el <em>New York Review of Books.<\/em> Luego avanzamos a la idea de hacer una versi\u00f3n mejorada de<em> La Cultura en M\u00e9xico,<\/em> el suplemento creado por Fernando Ben\u00edtez, bajo la hospitalidad de Jos\u00e9 Pag\u00e9s Llergo y su revista <em>Siempre!,<\/em> y dirigido en los setenta tard\u00edos por Carlos Monsiv\u00e1is.<\/p><p>Pensamos finalmente en hacer de<em> Nexos<\/em> un escal\u00f3n intermedio entre la prensa de todos los d\u00edas y la academia de cada trimestre. Creo que este fue el hallazgo editorial de <em>Nexos,<\/em> su hallazgo duradero: crear una publicaci\u00f3n intermedia entre la prensa y la academia, entre la opini\u00f3n p\u00fablica general y el conocimiento especializado. Lo que tendr\u00edamos que llamar hoy, porque no vino sino de \u00e9l, \u00abla f\u00f3rmula Florescano\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"u2bsij7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Florescano percibi\u00f3 con claridad las fracturas de su generaci\u00f3n y las siguientes con el establecimiento pol\u00edtico y cultural del M\u00e9xico posrevolucionario. Nadie fue m\u00e1s generoso y abierto al pulso de aquella revoluci\u00f3n cultural silenciosa que corr\u00eda por la conciencia p\u00fablica, como una herida abierta, desde los d\u00edas tr\u00e1gicos del 68.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"a2el65f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo que quiero decir con todo esto, y por si no se entiende lo repito, es que Florescano fue un maestro en la c\u00e1tedra y en la investigaci\u00f3n, pero tambi\u00e9n en el extra\u00f1o arte de vincular la academia con el p\u00fablico, al p\u00fablico con la investigaci\u00f3n, a la investigaci\u00f3n con los proyectos editoriales, a los proyectos editoriales con los presupuestos y las finanzas que pod\u00edan hacerlos posibles. Ha dejado una huella fecunda en todos esos \u00e1mbitos, porque ha tendido entre ellos puentes de rigor intelectual, de pasi\u00f3n por la reflexi\u00f3n p\u00fablica y de generosidad para abrir espacio a otros, un espacio de colaboraci\u00f3n y amistad, que envuelve y cimenta todo lo dem\u00e1s.<\/p><p>Dec\u00eda Cos\u00edo Villegas que el drama de la generaci\u00f3n de 1915 fue que sus miembros debieron cambiar la pluma por la pala. Dedicaron, por tanto, sus mejores esfuerzos al <em>hacer<\/em> sacrificando en ello su obra personal como autores. Enrique Florescano fue un intelectual de la pala y de la pluma. Fue un historiador prol\u00edfico, original y concentrado, que no dej\u00f3 nunca la biblioteca ni el archivo. Su obra termin\u00f3 siendo un fresco impresionante cuya pregunta central es por la memoria y por la construcci\u00f3n de la identidad mexicana.<\/p><p>La historia no es lo que sucedi\u00f3 sino lo que recordamos. Pocos historiadores habr\u00e1n estudiado y comprendido mejor esta inquietante paradoja que Enrique Florescano. A la exploraci\u00f3n de la memoria construida que es nuestra identidad, dedic\u00f3 los m\u00e1s fecundos libros de su cosecha:<em> Memoria mexicana<\/em> (1987,1994), <em>Etnia, estado y naci\u00f3n<\/em> (1996), <em>Memoria ind\u00edgena<\/em> (1999), una <em>Historia de las historias de la naci\u00f3n mexicana<\/em> (2002), un regreso a <em>Quetzalc\u00f3atl y los mitos fundadores de Mesoam\u00e9rica<\/em> (2004), una lectura de las <em>Im\u00e1genes de la patria a trav\u00e9s de los siglos<\/em> (2005), una arqueolog\u00eda de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/313327-ebook-los-origenes-del-poder-en-mesoamerica-9786073823340\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los or\u00edgenes del poder en Mesoam\u00e9rica<\/a><\/span>\u00a0<\/em>(2009), y su asalto al cielo de la construcci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica de los pueblos en busca de consuelo, sentido y trascendencia:<em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/41873-ebook-como-se-hace-un-dios-9786073141048\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfC\u00f3mo se hace un dios?<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> con fecha de 2016.<\/p><p>Dir\u00eda, pensando en mi maestro de los precios del ma\u00edz del a\u00f1o 1969, que como historiador, pas\u00f3 de los precios a los mitos sin moverse un \u00e1pice de las corrientes profundas, largas, envolventes de la historia mexicana. A su manera fue una contradicci\u00f3n magn\u00edfica: un historiador de lo esencial.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hqylz0n\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Enrique Florescano fue un intelectual de la pala y de la pluma. Fue un historiador prol\u00edfico, original y concentrado, que no dej\u00f3 nunca la biblioteca ni el archivo. Su obra termin\u00f3 siendo un fresco impresionante cuya pregunta central es por la memoria y por la construcci\u00f3n de la identidad mexicana.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"50wp24k\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/193386-enrique-florescano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La obra personal de Enrique Florescano<\/a><\/span>\u00a0re\u00fane diecinueve t\u00edtulos de autor, la coautor\u00eda de otros ocho, y la colaboraci\u00f3n como autor en 68 libros. Es tambi\u00e9n el editor de colecciones editoriales dise\u00f1adas por \u00e9l que suman cerca de mil t\u00edtulos.<\/p><p>Florescano fue desde sus primeros a\u00f1os un gran organizador y animador de la cultura. Una cultura pensada para construir el pa\u00eds, cultura en el sentido de los valores que sustentan la vida profunda, la vitalidad renovada de una sociedad, no el inventario de las obras m\u00e1s o menos art\u00edsticas que lo adornan. Como organizador de la cultura, no confundi\u00f3 nunca independencia con antigobiernismo, ni calidad con aislamiento y torres de marfil. Hubo siempre en \u00e9l la profunda fe en la cultura y en las ideas como agentes civilizadores, y la fe en la educaci\u00f3n, en particular la educaci\u00f3n p\u00fablica superior, como el lugar donde ha de pensarse en profundidad creativa el futuro de M\u00e9xico.<\/p><p>Durante muchos, sus amigos lo hemos vimos rebelarse una y otra vez por la p\u00e9rdida creciente de rumbo cr\u00edtico y ambici\u00f3n intelectual de la universidad p\u00fablica, por la burocratizaci\u00f3n de los claustros acad\u00e9micos, por la reducci\u00f3n de los presupuestos destinados a la educaci\u00f3n y a la cultura que le roban impulso y centralidad a instituciones que fueron en otro tiempo rectoras del pensamiento y el desarrollo de M\u00e9xico.<\/p><p>Historiador, maestro, editor, organizador cultural. Todos estos talentos excepcionales tuvieron su camino prol\u00edfico en una vida excepcional. Pero, al final del viaje, yo no puedo pensar en Enrique Florescano sino como lo que fue en su origen. No puedo pensar sino en el maestro inspirador y en el amigo pr\u00e1ctico, en el emisor, decisivo para m\u00ed, de una triple pedagog\u00eda: la pedagog\u00eda de la historia, la pedagog\u00eda del trabajo y la pedagog\u00eda de la amistad.<\/p><p>Gracias Enrique, de todo coraz\u00f3n.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.nexos.com.mx\/?p=32919\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">(<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Este texto fue publicado originalmente en la revista <em>Nexos<\/em><\/span>).<\/a><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ch5e508\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/guillermo-arriaga-extranas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Guillermo Arriaga o c\u00f3mo narrar la crueldad<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza vuelve a \u00abLa Casta\u00f1eda\u00bb: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/jorge-comensal-por-nona-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Comensal por Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: el escarabajo astr\u00f3nomo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/emiliano-monge-por-alejandro-vazquez-ortiz-justo-antes-del-final\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Emiliano Monge por Alejandro V\u00e1zquez Ortiz: \u00abJusto antes del final\u00bb o c\u00f3mo leer susurrando<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-agustin-por-julian-herbert-el-rock-de-la-carcel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn por Juli\u00e1n Herbert: un doble filo que vuelve a cortarnos la cabeza<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Cristina-Rivera-Garza-Selva-Almada-Liliana-Rivera-Garza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza por Selva Almada: Liliana a nuestro lado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n ha le\u00eddo a Elena 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15 minutos
Enrique Florescano. Crédito: D. R.

Enrique Florescano. Crédito: D. R.

Enrique Florescano era nueve años y un día mayor que yo: nació el 8 de julio de 1937 en San Juan de Coscomatepec, estado de Veracruz. Lo conocí en el año de 1969, durante los cursos del doctorado en Historia de El Colegio de México, donde él era maestro de oficio y yo estudiante de ocasión. Vestía con elegancia aristocrática y usaba una barbita luciferina. En cada clase abría una ventana por donde mirar hacia las alamedas de la historiografía francesa.

Florescano fue mi maestro de muchas maneras. Me enseñó a leer la historia y me enseñó a trabajar. Fue decisivo en mi vida intelectual y en mi vida práctica. Fue mi maestro de historia del siglo XVIII en El Colegio de México. Había obtenido su doctorado en París con una investigación que sigue siendo única dentro de la historia mexicana: una historia de los precios del maíz, cuyo vaivén calamitoso, dictado por los ciclos naturales y por la manipulación de los acaparadores, echaba una extraña y potente luz sobre la sociedad colonial, y sobre los desarreglos que precipitaron la independencia de México.

Su clase fue fascinante. Nos leyó el siglo de la incubación de la Independencia en clave económica, en el contexto de las reformas borbónicas, una de las grandes oleadas modernizadoras de nuestra historia. También, uno de los grandes momentos de resistencia de la sociedad tradicional. La idea de la resistencia al cambio es una de las pulsiones históricas de México. La versión española del libro de John Womack sobre Zapata decía en sus primeras líneas: «Esta es la historia de unos campesinos que no querían cambiar y por lo mismo hicieron una revolución». La historia de la Independencia de Florescano habría podido decir: «Esta es la historia de unos intereses que no querían cambiar y para evitar el cambio hicieron la revolución de Independencia».

El libro de Florescano era una vertiente de la historia que había aprendido en Francia, con Ruggiero Romano y Ernest Labrousse, en la gran escuela de historia de los Annales. Aquella escuela nos enseñó a ver la historia como un territorio donde suceden cosas rápidas (los hechos) y cosas lentas (las estructuras, las mentalidades). Las enseñanzas de Florescano sembraron en mi cabeza una tentación que no ha cesado: entender lo de hoy como un cambio inscrito en las entrañas largas del ayer. La visión de la historia como algo que cambia tan rápido como las emociones y tan poco como la geografía. No creo haber recibido una enseñanza mayor sobre cómo leer la historia.

La lección de historia que recibí de Florescano fue inolvidable. La lección de trabajo también. Lo habían nombrado director de la revista Historia mexicana, la revista trimestral que publicaba el Centro de Estudios Históricos. Nos pidió a sus alumnos que escribiéramos reseñas de libros para la sección correspondiente, y a mí me dio como tarea reseñar el suyo. Poco después me invitó a ser secretario de redacción de la revista, lo cual acepté encantado.

Tengo un recuerdo radiante de aquellos días. Salvo esto: llegó a la revista un texto de historia económica de alta densidad teórica. A mí se me hizo fácil darle la traducción a la esposa de un amigo, una encantadora mujer que, aparte de saber inglés, no tenía calificación alguna para traducir, por ejemplo, la expresión surplus value, «plusvalía», en la jerga española. Mi amiga la tradujo por algo así como «valor en demasía». La traducción era un desastre equivalente en cada línea. No la revisé sino hasta que estaba en pruebas finas. Para corregirla hubo que rehacer la edición de la revista. Pedí disculpas, expliqué a Enrique mi fiasco y presenté mi renuncia. Me dio entonces la lección mayor que he recibido en la vida. Me dijo: «Puedes renunciar y darle la espalda al asunto. Pero el problema no es renunciar, sino arreglarlo, y tomarse el trabajo para que no vuelva a suceder». Donde yo había planteado una huida irresponsable, Florescano planteó una corrección responsable. Le fallé muchas otras veces, de muchas maneras. Y su respuesta a mis fallas fue siempre la misma: «Arréglalo primero, luego te quedas o te vas».

Quiero decir que había en Florescano una confianza temeraria en las nuevas generaciones y en la plasticidad de la historia. No miraba hacia atrás en busca de las enseñanzas del pasado y sus cronistas, sino hacia adelante, en busca de los historiadores que habrían de cambiar nuestra manera de mirar y enseñar la historia. Quería sacar la historia del claustro y llevarla a la plaza pública, no para vulgarizarla, sino para hacerla parte de la reflexión sobre nuestro futuro. En un medio académico un tanto anticuado y contenido, donde el único flechador de empresas grandes parecía ser don Daniel Cosío Villegas, Florescano era todo ebullición y proyectos. Tenía el impulso de fundar cosas y el demonio personal de la innovación. Quería ventilar la casona, abrirla a otros mundos, moverla hacia la exploración de nuevos temas, nuevos métodos, nuevas obsesiones. Sus colegas lo miraban con escándalo o ironía; sus alumnos con un interés natural por la juventud invitadora de su estilo.

Como ninguno de sus contemporáneos académicos que yo recuerde, Florescano presintió el terremoto cultural que se licuaba en la clase media ilustrada y en los centros de educación superior de fines de los años sesenta, aquella oleada crítica que quería una cultura viva, capaz de responder a las preguntas ásperas y perturbadoras de la realidad. Florescano percibió con claridad las fracturas de su generación y las siguientes con el establecimiento político y cultural del México posrevolucionario. Nadie fue más generoso y abierto al pulso de aquella revolución cultural silenciosa que corría por la conciencia pública, como una herida abierta, desde los días trágicos del 68.

Las enseñanzas de Florescano sembraron en mi cabeza una tentación que no ha cesado: entender lo de hoy como un cambio inscrito en las entrañas largas del ayer. La visión de la historia como algo que cambia tan rápido como las emociones y tan poco como la geografía.

Estaba incómodo en El Colegio porque no veía grandes iniciativas culturales o editoriales y él era un aventurero natural de iniciativas culturales. Le ofrecieron en esos días, con el cambio de gobierno de 1970, la dirección del Departamento de Estudios Históricos del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Era un centro de investigaciones pequeñito, perdido en el organigrama. Estaba en la falda del Castillo de Chapultepec, en lo que había sido en los años veinte la casa de los presidentes sonorenses. Aceptó y repitió la fórmula: me invitó a trabajar con él dirigiendo nada menos que un seminario de balance de la historiografía política mexicana. Quería que hiciéramos un balance de lo que se había hecho en ese campo y dijéramos lo que faltaba por hacer. Nada menos. Trabajé años en eso, inventándome un conocimiento que no tenía y dirigiendo a otros que tampoco. Por ahí debe estar en buen reposo fúnebre el enorme manuscrito resultante de aquel esfuerzo.

Enrique Florescano. Crédito: D. R.

Enrique Florescano. Crédito: D. R.

En las aulas de seminarios de aquel centro de investigaciones históricas se incubó la revista Nexos, una extensión de las obsesiones de Florescano: crear vida cultural, llevar a la investigación histórica nuevos métodos y nuevos temas, romper el cerco de la academia, sacar el conocimiento especializada a la calle, acercarlo al presente, a la realidad.

Antes de tener nombre y forma, Nexos tuvo un camino en los seminarios de discusión que Florescano convocaba en el Departamento de Investigaciones Históricas, reuniones para discutir textos académicos de resonancia actual. Los seminarios eran los sábados en el Castillo de Chapultepec. Acudían intelectuales, académicos y escritores, de todas las edades y todas las disciplinas. Entre los que recuerdo: Carlos Monsiváis, el exrector Pablo González Casanova, los filósofos Luis Villoro y Carlos Pereyra, el lingüista Antonio Alatorre, los antropólogos Arturo Warman, Guillermo Bonfil, los médicos Julio Frenk, Luis Cañedo, Daniel Lopez Acuña, los economistas Rolando Cordera, José Blanco, los historiadores Lorenzo Meyer, el propio Florescano. En esas discusiones surgió la idea de una revista alternativa a Plural, que Octavio Paz dirigía en el diario Excélsior, desde 1971. A los asistentes al seminario de los sábados, y desde luego a los miembros de La cultura en México, las posiciones de Plural nos parecían elitistas y de derecha. Alguien dijo: «Vamos a crear una revista. A poner una casa enfrente de Plural». En 1976 fue desaparecido el Excélsior de Julio Scherer, y con él, Plural. Se despobló el espacio periodístico y cultural. Muy pronto, la iniciativa de una reforma política del nuevo presidente José López Portillo y de su secretario de Gobernación, Jesús Reyes Heroles, reabrió opciones en ambos mundos.

Scherer fundó Proceso en diciembre de 1976. Paz fundó Vuelta en 1977. Manuel Becerra Acosta, expulsado de Excélsior junto con Scherer, fundó Unomásuno, en noviembre de 1977. Enrique Florescano fundó Nexos en 1978. Lo primero que se nos ocurrió en Nexos fue lo que a todos: hacer algo como el New York Review of Books. Luego avanzamos a la idea de hacer una versión mejorada de La Cultura en México, el suplemento creado por Fernando Benítez, bajo la hospitalidad de José Pagés Llergo y su revista Siempre!, y dirigido en los setenta tardíos por Carlos Monsiváis.

Pensamos finalmente en hacer de Nexos un escalón intermedio entre la prensa de todos los días y la academia de cada trimestre. Creo que este fue el hallazgo editorial de Nexos, su hallazgo duradero: crear una publicación intermedia entre la prensa y la academia, entre la opinión pública general y el conocimiento especializado. Lo que tendríamos que llamar hoy, porque no vino sino de él, «la fórmula Florescano».

Florescano percibió con claridad las fracturas de su generación y las siguientes con el establecimiento político y cultural del México posrevolucionario. Nadie fue más generoso y abierto al pulso de aquella revolución cultural silenciosa que corría por la conciencia pública, como una herida abierta, desde los días trágicos del 68.

Lo que quiero decir con todo esto, y por si no se entiende lo repito, es que Florescano fue un maestro en la cátedra y en la investigación, pero también en el extraño arte de vincular la academia con el público, al público con la investigación, a la investigación con los proyectos editoriales, a los proyectos editoriales con los presupuestos y las finanzas que podían hacerlos posibles. Ha dejado una huella fecunda en todos esos ámbitos, porque ha tendido entre ellos puentes de rigor intelectual, de pasión por la reflexión pública y de generosidad para abrir espacio a otros, un espacio de colaboración y amistad, que envuelve y cimenta todo lo demás.

Decía Cosío Villegas que el drama de la generación de 1915 fue que sus miembros debieron cambiar la pluma por la pala. Dedicaron, por tanto, sus mejores esfuerzos al hacer sacrificando en ello su obra personal como autores. Enrique Florescano fue un intelectual de la pala y de la pluma. Fue un historiador prolífico, original y concentrado, que no dejó nunca la biblioteca ni el archivo. Su obra terminó siendo un fresco impresionante cuya pregunta central es por la memoria y por la construcción de la identidad mexicana.

La historia no es lo que sucedió sino lo que recordamos. Pocos historiadores habrán estudiado y comprendido mejor esta inquietante paradoja que Enrique Florescano. A la exploración de la memoria construida que es nuestra identidad, dedicó los más fecundos libros de su cosecha: Memoria mexicana (1987,1994), Etnia, estado y nación (1996), Memoria indígena (1999), una Historia de las historias de la nación mexicana (2002), un regreso a Quetzalcóatl y los mitos fundadores de Mesoamérica (2004), una lectura de las Imágenes de la patria a través de los siglos (2005), una arqueología de Los orígenes del poder en Mesoamérica (2009), y su asalto al cielo de la construcción histórica de los pueblos en busca de consuelo, sentido y trascendencia: ¿Cómo se hace un dios?, con fecha de 2016.

Diría, pensando en mi maestro de los precios del maíz del año 1969, que como historiador, pasó de los precios a los mitos sin moverse un ápice de las corrientes profundas, largas, envolventes de la historia mexicana. A su manera fue una contradicción magnífica: un historiador de lo esencial.

Enrique Florescano fue un intelectual de la pala y de la pluma. Fue un historiador prolífico, original y concentrado, que no dejó nunca la biblioteca ni el archivo. Su obra terminó siendo un fresco impresionante cuya pregunta central es por la memoria y por la construcción de la identidad mexicana.

La obra personal de Enrique Florescano reúne diecinueve títulos de autor, la coautoría de otros ocho, y la colaboración como autor en 68 libros. Es también el editor de colecciones editoriales diseñadas por él que suman cerca de mil títulos.

Florescano fue desde sus primeros años un gran organizador y animador de la cultura. Una cultura pensada para construir el país, cultura en el sentido de los valores que sustentan la vida profunda, la vitalidad renovada de una sociedad, no el inventario de las obras más o menos artísticas que lo adornan. Como organizador de la cultura, no confundió nunca independencia con antigobiernismo, ni calidad con aislamiento y torres de marfil. Hubo siempre en él la profunda fe en la cultura y en las ideas como agentes civilizadores, y la fe en la educación, en particular la educación pública superior, como el lugar donde ha de pensarse en profundidad creativa el futuro de México.

Durante muchos, sus amigos lo hemos vimos rebelarse una y otra vez por la pérdida creciente de rumbo crítico y ambición intelectual de la universidad pública, por la burocratización de los claustros académicos, por la reducción de los presupuestos destinados a la educación y a la cultura que le roban impulso y centralidad a instituciones que fueron en otro tiempo rectoras del pensamiento y el desarrollo de México.

Historiador, maestro, editor, organizador cultural. Todos estos talentos excepcionales tuvieron su camino prolífico en una vida excepcional. Pero, al final del viaje, yo no puedo pensar en Enrique Florescano sino como lo que fue en su origen. No puedo pensar sino en el maestro inspirador y en el amigo práctico, en el emisor, decisivo para mí, de una triple pedagogía: la pedagogía de la historia, la pedagogía del trabajo y la pedagogía de la amistad.

Gracias Enrique, de todo corazón.



(Este texto fue publicado originalmente en la revista Nexos).

El maestro y su pupilo

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