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En la carretera con Amor Towles: fraternidad y redención en la América de los 50

Desde su debut hace una década con «Normas de cortesía», el estadounidense Amor Towles, que cambió el mundo de las finanzas por las letras cuando encaraba la cincuentena, ha ocupado un lugar privilegiado en la novela de época capaz de arrastrarnos narrativamente al tiempo que nos toca la fibra sensible. En sus novelas confluyen por sistema multitud de historias, personajes y escenarios que tejen una red definida por la calidez, el sentido de la aventura, la emotividad y una capacidad de envolverte que nos retrotrae a los cuentos que de niños nos cautivaban antes de ir a dormir. «La autopista Lincoln» (Salamandra), su más reciente novela, nos transporta a 1954 para seguir a un grupo de jóvenes que aspiran a virar el conflictivo rumbo que les ha deparado la primera parte de sus vidas. Amistad, segundas oportunidades y peripecias que oscilan entre Nebraska y Nueva York.

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Hablamos con \u00e9l de su nueva novela.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Amor Towles La autopista Lincoln Salamandra","short_content":"<p>Desde su debut hace una d\u00e9cada con \u00abNormas de cortes\u00eda\u00bb, el estadounidense Amor Towles, que cambi\u00f3 el mundo de las finanzas por las letras cuando encaraba la cincuentena, ha ocupado un lugar privilegiado en la novela de \u00e9poca capaz de arrastrarnos narrativamente al tiempo que nos toca la fibra sensible. En sus novelas confluyen por sistema multitud de historias, personajes y escenarios que tejen una red definida por la calidez, el sentido de la aventura, la emotividad y una capacidad de envolverte que nos retrotrae a los cuentos que de ni\u00f1os nos cautivaban antes de ir a dormir. \u00abLa autopista Lincoln\u00bb (Salamandra), su m\u00e1s reciente novela, nos transporta a 1954 para seguir a un grupo de j\u00f3venes que aspiran a virar el conflictivo rumbo que les ha deparado la primera parte de sus vidas. Amistad, segundas oportunidades y peripecias que oscilan entre Nebraska y Nueva York.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"7vlxvr2\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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h\u00e1bito quiz\u00e1 no haga al monje pero, en ocasiones, puede hacer al escritor. La distinci\u00f3n en el vestir de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9973-amor-towles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Amor Towles<\/a><\/strong><\/span> (Boston, 1964) -costumbre que se enmarca en un gusto exquisito por cuanto est\u00e1 en su mano, algo de lo que puede dar fe este periodista dado que en 2012 visit\u00f3 su flamante casa estilo\u00a0<em>brownstone<\/em>\u00a0en\u00a0Gramercy Park, donde departi\u00f3 con el trajeado anfitri\u00f3n, socio en una firma de inversiones de Manhattan, en un estudio rebosante de madera noble, al son de un suave jazz de ambiente y disfrutando de una tabla de quesos franceses acompa\u00f1ada de un afrutado vino blanco de las cepas del valle de Napa- es un reflejo de la pulcritud y el cuidado con el que compone sus novelas. No en balde su \u00f3pera prima,<em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/38130-libro-normas-de-cortesia-9788418363351\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Normas de cortes\u00eda<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> tomaba prestado su t\u00edtulo de los 110 principios que George Washington hab\u00eda estipulado de cara a mostrar un comportamiento decoroso.\u00a0<\/p><p>Una d\u00e9cada y dos novelas despu\u00e9s, Towles se ha convertido en un autor global -cinco millones de ejemplares vendidos en m\u00e1s de treinta idiomas- perseverando en el principio de conjugar con encanto los tres pilares de toda ficci\u00f3n de entretenimiento: trama-personaje-ambientaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tras retratar los claroscuros del Nueva York chic de los a\u00f1os 30 en <em>Normas de cortes\u00eda<\/em> y la convulsa Rusia del siglo XX en<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/38367-libro-un-caballero-en-moscu-9788498388985\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un caballero en Mosc\u00fa<\/a><\/span><\/em>, en su \u00faltimo trabajo, <em>La Autopista Lincoln,<\/em> que toma su t\u00edtulo de la primera autopista que cruz\u00f3 Estados Unidos de costa a costa, combina la novela picaresca, de carretera y de formaci\u00f3n para concentrarse en las peripecias de un grupo de j\u00f3venes a lo largo de diez d\u00edas de 1954. El autor, con una base fan que incluye a poderosos y <em>celebrities,<\/em> bebe de multitud de g\u00e9neros, f\u00f3rmulas y cl\u00e1sicos que cristalizan en un veh\u00edculo narrativo que transporta en volandas al lector, igual que el Studebaker Land Cruiser a sus 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tres novelas est\u00e1n ambientadas en el pasado. \u00bfSignifica esto que la recreaci\u00f3n de una \u00e9poca es uno de los principales atractivos que le plantea la escritura?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong> Sorprendentemente no. Empiezo con la noci\u00f3n de una historia, un motor de arranque ligado a alg\u00fan elemento narrativo. Si se queda en mi cabeza a medida que transcurren los d\u00edas o las semanas o los a\u00f1os, y no paro de incorporar nuevas ideas al bloc de notas, me animo a tirar del hilo. Luego, a medida que escribo, debo descubrir que posee riqueza suficiente, es decir, que re\u00fane una variedad de elementos y una amplitud de miras que garantizar\u00e1n una experiencia de lectura gozosa. Para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/audiolibros-de-literatura-contemporanea\/268300-audiolibro-un-caballero-en-moscu-9788418363580\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Un caballero en Mosc\u00fa<\/em><\/a><\/span> me pregunt\u00e9 qu\u00e9 le ocurrir\u00eda a un individuo atrapado en un edificio durante un largo periodo de tiempo y la idoneidad de la Rusia sovi\u00e9tica lleg\u00f3 luego. En el caso de <em>La autopista Lincoln<\/em> part\u00ed de imaginarme a un chaval siendo conducido a casa por el alcaide de un centro para menores y tener la confianza de que empieza una nueva vida, ajeno al hecho de que en el maletero llevan a dos polizones del mismo correccional. De inmediato supe que deb\u00eda ambientarla en los a\u00f1os 50.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vkbp7zh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMis novelas funcionan al modo de los decorados en las obras teatrales, son lienzos de estilo impresionista que generan una cierta atm\u00f3sfera y que no han de distraer de cuanto ocurre al frente del escenario. No dejan de ser algo arbitrarios, ni siquiera me documento a conciencia sobre ellos. Priorizo mostrar a los personajes de un modo v\u00edvido y po\u00e9tico\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"sut9hmf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Por lo tanto, el tiempo y el lugar brotan de la naturaleza de la historia y no por un inter\u00e9s particular en reflejar una \u00e9poca en concreto.\u00a0\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Exacto. Considero que los periodos hist\u00f3ricos de mis novelas funcionan al modo de los decorados en las obras teatrales, son lienzos de estilo impresionista que generan una cierta atm\u00f3sfera y que no han de distraer de cuanto ocurre al frente del escenario. No dejan de ser algo arbitrarios, ni siquiera me documento a conciencia sobre ellos. Priorizo mostrar a los personajes de un modo v\u00edvido y po\u00e9tico.<\/p><p><strong>Sin embargo, la elecci\u00f3n de 1954 seguro que fue deliberada porque condiciona la historia de m\u00faltiples maneras.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Mi m\u00e9todo consiste en planificar todo con mucho detalle. Para cuando me siento a escribir el primer cap\u00edtulo, s\u00e9 qu\u00e9 ocurrir\u00e1 de principio a fin en la novela y tengo la evoluci\u00f3n de los personajes y las caracter\u00edsticas de los diferentes escenarios muy clara. Los a\u00f1os 50 del siglo pasado es un momento muy interesante de la historia de los Estados Unidos porque el pa\u00eds se halla en v\u00edas de una transici\u00f3n crucial. En 1954 est\u00e1 a punto de irrumpir toda una serie de fen\u00f3menos que marcar\u00e1n su rumbo hist\u00f3rico de los a\u00f1os 60 en adelante: las movilizaciones por los derechos civiles -de hecho 1954 es el a\u00f1o en que el Tribunal Supremo decreta el fin de la segregaci\u00f3n racial-, los movimientos feministas, la emergencia de la cultura juvenil, la irrupci\u00f3n de la televisi\u00f3n\u2026 Convergen pues toda una serie de fuerzas en estado latente, las placas tect\u00f3nicas empiezan a moverse\u2026 de haberse ambientado en los 60 el tono habr\u00eda sido forzosamente muy distinto, basta pensar en c\u00f3mo la revoluci\u00f3n sexual y\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la guerra<\/a><\/span> de Vietnam lo habr\u00edan condicionado todo. Quiz\u00e1 entonces el momento hist\u00f3rico, tan turbulento y abrumador, habr\u00eda dejado en un segundo plano la experiencia interna de mis personajes, que me interesa m\u00e1s 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Amor Towles en Madrid en septiembre de 2022. Cr\u00e9dito: As\u00eds G. 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sus dos novelas anteriores los personajes se mov\u00edan e la esfera del privilegio, mientras que ahora son m\u00e1s buscavidas o supervivientes. De todos modos, si hay un mensaje que las une a todas es que el dinero nunca es la respuesta, sus libros tienen un macado componente anti materialista.\u00a0<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Hay varios motivos que lo explican. Uno ser\u00eda tan burdo como que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/cl\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/elena-ferrante-dos-amigas-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el dinero ha definido las acciones humanas<\/a><\/span> desde hace m\u00e1s de mil a\u00f1os, un elemento de continuidad en la historia de Occidente. Y en segundo lugar porque el dinero, junto al lenguaje, constituye un elemento revelador del estrato social al que pertenecemos, algo que determina nuestra vida, c\u00f3digos morales, expectativas, limitaciones, beneficios\u2026 Me atrae mucho observar c\u00f3mo nos comportamos en cada estrato y las consecuencias de saltar de uno a otro.\u00a0 \u00a0<\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/303834-libro-la-autopista-lincoln-9788418681158\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La autopista Lincoln<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0se cose con multitud de historias pero su aspiraci\u00f3n parece ser estar a la altura o llegar a formar parte del libro Compendio de h\u00e9roes, aventureros y otros viajeros intr\u00e9pidos del profesor Abacus Abrnathe que reverencia Billy, el ni\u00f1o de la historia.\u00a0<\/strong> \u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0La novela bebe de muchas tradiciones narrativas pero la m\u00e1s significativa es la del viaje del h\u00e9roe y la experiencia transformadora que tiene durante el trayecto, una corriente que abarca cl\u00e1sicos como <em>La Odisea, La Il\u00edada, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cervantes-shakespeare-quijote-cardenio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Don Quijote de La Mancha<\/a><\/span>, Los cuentos de Canterbury, Moby Dick\u2026<\/em> Por otro lado, se centra en gran medida en c\u00f3mo es la vida a los 18 a\u00f1os, en ese momento en que empiezas a ser aut\u00f3nomo en t\u00e9rminos de lo que piensas, opinas, consideras \u00e9tico o no\u2026 precisamente un momento tambi\u00e9n de reevaluar las historias que te han ido transmitiendo por los medios m\u00e1s variopintos: la Biblia, las pel\u00edculas, tus padres, los libros\u2026<\/p><p><strong>Uno de los mayores encantos de sus libros es el tono de sus narradores, que acostumbra a ser cercano, divertido, c\u00f3mplice\u2026 Genera una suerte de intimidad con el lector que provoca que con frecuencia se sienta como un ni\u00f1o al que le cuentan una f\u00e1bula antes de acostarse.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Me alegro que lo digas porque es completamente deliberado. La cercan\u00eda me parece fundamental pues desde muy joven me ha interesado el modo en que el lenguaje nos da acceso a la vida interior de otra persona. Por eso me gusta mostrar c\u00f3mo un mismo acontecimiento es interpretado y descrito de un modo diferente por m\u00e1s de uno de los protagonistas ya que ello nos permite entrar en ellos tanto como en el hecho. Tenemos un dos por uno: energ\u00eda narrativa y pase Vip a la psicolog\u00eda y las emociones de los relatores.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>\u00bfRecorri\u00f3 lo que queda de la autopista Lincoln al modo de trabajo de campo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0S\u00ed, pero s\u00f3lo despu\u00e9s de completar el primer borrador, igual que s\u00f3lo pernoct\u00e9 en el Metropol Hotel de Mosc\u00fa tras tener el primer borrador de mi novela anterior. Sigo este m\u00e9todo porque antes de enfrentarme a la realidad quiero trabajar exclusivamente con la imaginaci\u00f3n. Luego quiz\u00e1 realice algunos ajustes, a\u00f1adiendo detalles o expandiendo significativamente un \u00e1rea que se me revela m\u00e1s llena de posibilidades. En el caso de <em>La autopista Lincoln<\/em> tambi\u00e9n acud\u00ed a la hemeroteca del <em>The New York Times<\/em> para averiguar qu\u00e9 ocurri\u00f3 durante los diez d\u00edas de 1954 en los que transcurre la acci\u00f3n. Ah\u00ed descubr\u00ed alucinado que en cuarenta ciudades estadunidenses tuvo lugar un simulacro coordinado de ataque nuclear y no pude resistir la tentaci\u00f3n de reproducir la fotograf\u00eda de un Times Square 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Amor Towles en Madrid en septiembre de 2022. Cr\u00e9dito: As\u00eds G. 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sentir fascinaci\u00f3n por los magos, los artistas circenses y los timadores. \u00bfCree que se explica en parte porque los ve como reflejos del novelista?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Me fascina la gente capaz de enga\u00f1ar, ya sea a trav\u00e9s de estafas o trucos de magia, y puede que efectivamente sean tipos que provengan de la misma tradici\u00f3n de los contadores de historias. Siento una conexi\u00f3n especial con las f\u00e1bulas y las historias fant\u00e1sticas, de aqu\u00ed, por ejemplo, mi amor por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el realismo m\u00e1gico de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span> o los libros de Italo Calvino.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/303810-ebook-la-autopista-lincoln-9788418681363\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La Autopista Lincoln<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0se contagia del movimiento del viaje en carretera de los protagonistas y de las numerosas aventuras descritas en el libro de Billy, es decir, hay un dinamismo y una electricidad muy buscadas. Al mismo tiempo, la prosa es elegante y presta mucha atenci\u00f3n al detalle. \u00bfCree que los aspectos formales de una novela son los que en \u00faltima instancia la hacen memorable?<\/strong>\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Una novela incorpora miles de elementos creativos (estructura, di\u00e1logos, caracterizaci\u00f3n, localizaciones, conceptos y emociones, puntos de vista, ilusiones, met\u00e1foras, alegor\u00edas\u2026). Es muy dif\u00edcil se\u00f1alar cu\u00e1l de ellos acabar\u00e1 convirti\u00e9ndola en inolvidable aunque sospecho que la respuesta se esconde en esa idea antes apuntada que es la riqueza de los elementos que se conjugan, que se abra a m\u00faltiples dimensiones. Si das con la tecla conseguir\u00e1s que tu novela sea capaz de entretener y significar algo para personas muy diferentes, lo que se antoja el primer requisito para pasar la prueba del tiempo. Adem\u00e1s tengo la intuici\u00f3n que es clave que el lector perciba -aunque sea de un modo inconsciente- que a la hora de armar la historia ha existido un equilibrio entre planificaci\u00f3n y cierto espacio para la improvisaci\u00f3n que permita la incorporaci\u00f3n de la poes\u00eda o la anarqu\u00eda, de algo en definitiva incontrolable que resulte emotivo y profundo.<\/p><p><strong>Sus libros podr\u00edan encajar en esa categor\u00eda americana de <em>feel good novels,<\/em> aquellas novelas que levantan el \u00e1nimo y dejan un buen sabor de boca en el lector. El lado resbaladizo del asunto es que el riesgo de caer en el sentimentalismo es muy alto. \u00bfEs algo sobre lo que medita y a lo que intenta poner remedio?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0En aras de la sinceridad no creo que mis libros hubiesen tenido tanto \u00e9xito sin una pizca de sentimentalismo. Uno siempre intenta traer a la superficie la riqueza de la vida y eso incluye lo que hay de bueno y de malo en la gente, las consecuencias positivas y negativas de nuestros actos, las noticias buenas y las malas\u2026 y cada novela demanda un tratamiento espec\u00edfico de estos binomios. La idea es que para que la historia sea digna de ser le\u00eda siempre hay que equilibrar la celebraci\u00f3n del esp\u00edritu humano con la oscuridad del momento hist\u00f3rico en particular o de las circunstancias vitales de los protagonistas. Si bien la ternura es un componente esencial de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/303810-ebook-la-autopista-lincoln-9788418681363\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La Autopista Lincoln<\/a><\/em><\/span> no debemos olvidar que contiene cuatro muertes, algunas de violentas y tr\u00e1gicas. Dicho esto, reconozco que no tengo inconveniente en subir de forma puntual el grado de calidez de la historia, algo que, por otra parte, dir\u00eda que tambi\u00e9n hac\u00edan\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/929-charles-dickens\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dickens<\/a><\/span> o<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1091-lev-tolstoi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Tolst\u00f3i<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bsjp5ow\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p 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historias\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xfry3px\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>En un pasaje de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28308-ebook-un-caballero-en-moscu-9788417384296\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un caballero en Mosc\u00fa<\/a><\/em><\/span>, uno de los personajes intentaba explicar el alma rusa a trav\u00e9s de la inclinaci\u00f3n de sus gentes hacia la autodestrucci\u00f3n. \u00bfDir\u00eda que su \u00faltima novela nos permite vislumbrar algunos ingredientes del alma americana?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Conf\u00edo en que sepa ofrecer destellos de la misma. Cada uno de los personajes principales representa una parte muy distinta de esa alma americana tan proteica, dado que cada uno de ellos es producto de educaciones, clases sociales, ambientes\u2026 de lo m\u00e1s variados. Para simplificarlo, en el Medio Oeste hay una larga tradici\u00f3n de hospitalidad, se conf\u00eda en el pr\u00f3jimo y se cumple con el papel del buen vecino, porque durante la dur\u00edsima expansi\u00f3n al Oeste tu supervivencia pod\u00eda depender de tener una buena relaci\u00f3n con tu vecino. En Nueva York operaba justamente lo opuesto: tu vida pod\u00eda depender de sospechar de tu vecino, la candidez pod\u00eda abocarte a acabar apaleado y con una mano delante y otra detr\u00e1s.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><em>Un caballero en Mosc\u00fa<\/em> ser\u00e1 adaptada a la televisi\u00f3n con Ewan McGregor en el papel protagonista y con usted ejerciendo de productor ejecutivo. \u00bfC\u00f3mo encara el salto?\u00a0 \u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Me siento muy afortunado porque <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">las pel\u00edculas y las series pueden traer una nueva hornada de lectores a tus libros<\/a><\/span>. Dado que uno est\u00e1 atado de manos en lo referente a c\u00f3mo los contar\u00e1n y representar\u00e1n en la pantalla, s\u00f3lo cabe esperar que las adaptaciones ampl\u00eden las posibilidades de expansi\u00f3n de la fuente original.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Sus libros han aparecido en las listas de t\u00edtulos recomendados por dos presidentes americanos, Bill Clinton y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-barack-obama-isabel-allende\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Barack Obama<\/a><\/span>. \u00bfSemejante honor le ha tra\u00eddo consecuencias inesperadas?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0\u00a1No olvides que tambi\u00e9n me col\u00e9 en la de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Bill-Gates-Como-evitar-un-desastre-climatico\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Bill Gates<\/a><\/span>! Fue un gran motivo de orgullo. Tambi\u00e9n me ha llegado que a Mick Jagger le encant\u00f3 <em>Un caballero en Mosc\u00fa<\/em> y, entre t\u00fa y yo, probablemente la ilusi\u00f3n que me hizo super\u00f3 a las anteriores.<\/p><p><strong>\u00bfAlguna de esas ideas argumentales que apunta en sus blocs de notas ya ha alzado el vuelo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Amor Towles:<\/strong>\u00a0Trabajo en una nueva novela de la que s\u00f3lo avanzar\u00e9 que empieza en El Cairo despu\u00e9s de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sobre-la-mentira-fascista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la Segunda Guerra Mundial<\/a><\/span> y acaba en Nueva York en el a\u00f1o 2000.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zq4iez3\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en detalle<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-pierre-lemaitre\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pierre Lemaitre: siempre tendremos Par\u00eds<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/joan-didion-california\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">California seg\u00fan Joan Didion: el lado oscuro del sue\u00f1o americano<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"djvlu2n\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Amor Towles en Madrid en septiembre de 2022. Crédito: Asís G. Ayerbe.

El hábito quizá no haga al monje pero, en ocasiones, puede hacer al escritor. La distinción en el vestir de Amor Towles (Boston, 1964) -costumbre que se enmarca en un gusto exquisito por cuanto está en su mano, algo de lo que puede dar fe este periodista dado que en 2012 visitó su flamante casa estilo brownstone en Gramercy Park, donde departió con el trajeado anfitrión, socio en una firma de inversiones de Manhattan, en un estudio rebosante de madera noble, al son de un suave jazz de ambiente y disfrutando de una tabla de quesos franceses acompañada de un afrutado vino blanco de las cepas del valle de Napa- es un reflejo de la pulcritud y el cuidado con el que compone sus novelas. No en balde su ópera prima, Normas de cortesía, tomaba prestado su título de los 110 principios que George Washington había estipulado de cara a mostrar un comportamiento decoroso. 

Una década y dos novelas después, Towles se ha convertido en un autor global -cinco millones de ejemplares vendidos en más de treinta idiomas- perseverando en el principio de conjugar con encanto los tres pilares de toda ficción de entretenimiento: trama-personaje-ambientación. 

Tras retratar los claroscuros del Nueva York chic de los años 30 en Normas de cortesía y la convulsa Rusia del siglo XX en Un caballero en Moscú, en su último trabajo, La Autopista Lincoln, que toma su título de la primera autopista que cruzó Estados Unidos de costa a costa, combina la novela picaresca, de carretera y de formación para concentrarse en las peripecias de un grupo de jóvenes a lo largo de diez días de 1954. El autor, con una base fan que incluye a poderosos y celebrities, bebe de multitud de géneros, fórmulas y clásicos que cristalizan en un vehículo narrativo que transporta en volandas al lector, igual que el Studebaker Land Cruiser a sus protagonistas.

Sus tres novelas están ambientadas en el pasado. ¿Significa esto que la recreación de una época es uno de los principales atractivos que le plantea la escritura?

Amor Towles: Sorprendentemente no. Empiezo con la noción de una historia, un motor de arranque ligado a algún elemento narrativo. Si se queda en mi cabeza a medida que transcurren los días o las semanas o los años, y no paro de incorporar nuevas ideas al bloc de notas, me animo a tirar del hilo. Luego, a medida que escribo, debo descubrir que posee riqueza suficiente, es decir, que reúne una variedad de elementos y una amplitud de miras que garantizarán una experiencia de lectura gozosa. Para Un caballero en Moscú me pregunté qué le ocurriría a un individuo atrapado en un edificio durante un largo periodo de tiempo y la idoneidad de la Rusia soviética llegó luego. En el caso de La autopista Lincoln partí de imaginarme a un chaval siendo conducido a casa por el alcaide de un centro para menores y tener la confianza de que empieza una nueva vida, ajeno al hecho de que en el maletero llevan a dos polizones del mismo correccional. De inmediato supe que debía ambientarla en los años 50.

«Mis novelas funcionan al modo de los decorados en las obras teatrales, son lienzos de estilo impresionista que generan una cierta atmósfera y que no han de distraer de cuanto ocurre al frente del escenario. No dejan de ser algo arbitrarios, ni siquiera me documento a conciencia sobre ellos. Priorizo mostrar a los personajes de un modo vívido y poético».

Por lo tanto, el tiempo y el lugar brotan de la naturaleza de la historia y no por un interés particular en reflejar una época en concreto.  

Amor Towles: Exacto. Considero que los periodos históricos de mis novelas funcionan al modo de los decorados en las obras teatrales, son lienzos de estilo impresionista que generan una cierta atmósfera y que no han de distraer de cuanto ocurre al frente del escenario. No dejan de ser algo arbitrarios, ni siquiera me documento a conciencia sobre ellos. Priorizo mostrar a los personajes de un modo vívido y poético.

Sin embargo, la elección de 1954 seguro que fue deliberada porque condiciona la historia de múltiples maneras. 

Amor Towles: Mi método consiste en planificar todo con mucho detalle. Para cuando me siento a escribir el primer capítulo, sé qué ocurrirá de principio a fin en la novela y tengo la evolución de los personajes y las características de los diferentes escenarios muy clara. Los años 50 del siglo pasado es un momento muy interesante de la historia de los Estados Unidos porque el país se halla en vías de una transición crucial. En 1954 está a punto de irrumpir toda una serie de fenómenos que marcarán su rumbo histórico de los años 60 en adelante: las movilizaciones por los derechos civiles -de hecho 1954 es el año en que el Tribunal Supremo decreta el fin de la segregación racial-, los movimientos feministas, la emergencia de la cultura juvenil, la irrupción de la televisión… Convergen pues toda una serie de fuerzas en estado latente, las placas tectónicas empiezan a moverse… de haberse ambientado en los 60 el tono habría sido forzosamente muy distinto, basta pensar en cómo la revolución sexual y la guerra de Vietnam lo habrían condicionado todo. Quizá entonces el momento histórico, tan turbulento y abrumador, habría dejado en un segundo plano la experiencia interna de mis personajes, que me interesa más analizar.

Amor Towles en Madrid en septiembre de 2022. Crédito: Asís G. Ayerbe.

En sus dos novelas anteriores los personajes se movían e la esfera del privilegio, mientras que ahora son más buscavidas o supervivientes. De todos modos, si hay un mensaje que las une a todas es que el dinero nunca es la respuesta, sus libros tienen un macado componente anti materialista.  

Amor Towles: Hay varios motivos que lo explican. Uno sería tan burdo como que el dinero ha definido las acciones humanas desde hace más de mil años, un elemento de continuidad en la historia de Occidente. Y en segundo lugar porque el dinero, junto al lenguaje, constituye un elemento revelador del estrato social al que pertenecemos, algo que determina nuestra vida, códigos morales, expectativas, limitaciones, beneficios… Me atrae mucho observar cómo nos comportamos en cada estrato y las consecuencias de saltar de uno a otro.   

La autopista Lincoln se cose con multitud de historias pero su aspiración parece ser estar a la altura o llegar a formar parte del libro Compendio de héroes, aventureros y otros viajeros intrépidos del profesor Abacus Abrnathe que reverencia Billy, el niño de la historia.    

Amor Towles: La novela bebe de muchas tradiciones narrativas pero la más significativa es la del viaje del héroe y la experiencia transformadora que tiene durante el trayecto, una corriente que abarca clásicos como La Odisea, La Ilíada, Don Quijote de La Mancha, Los cuentos de Canterbury, Moby Dick… Por otro lado, se centra en gran medida en cómo es la vida a los 18 años, en ese momento en que empiezas a ser autónomo en términos de lo que piensas, opinas, consideras ético o no… precisamente un momento también de reevaluar las historias que te han ido transmitiendo por los medios más variopintos: la Biblia, las películas, tus padres, los libros…

Uno de los mayores encantos de sus libros es el tono de sus narradores, que acostumbra a ser cercano, divertido, cómplice… Genera una suerte de intimidad con el lector que provoca que con frecuencia se sienta como un niño al que le cuentan una fábula antes de acostarse. 

Amor Towles: Me alegro que lo digas porque es completamente deliberado. La cercanía me parece fundamental pues desde muy joven me ha interesado el modo en que el lenguaje nos da acceso a la vida interior de otra persona. Por eso me gusta mostrar cómo un mismo acontecimiento es interpretado y descrito de un modo diferente por más de uno de los protagonistas ya que ello nos permite entrar en ellos tanto como en el hecho. Tenemos un dos por uno: energía narrativa y pase Vip a la psicología y las emociones de los relatores. 

¿Recorrió lo que queda de la autopista Lincoln al modo de trabajo de campo?

Amor Towles: Sí, pero sólo después de completar el primer borrador, igual que sólo pernocté en el Metropol Hotel de Moscú tras tener el primer borrador de mi novela anterior. Sigo este método porque antes de enfrentarme a la realidad quiero trabajar exclusivamente con la imaginación. Luego quizá realice algunos ajustes, añadiendo detalles o expandiendo significativamente un área que se me revela más llena de posibilidades. En el caso de La autopista Lincoln también acudí a la hemeroteca del The New York Times para averiguar qué ocurrió durante los diez días de 1954 en los que transcurre la acción. Ahí descubrí alucinado que en cuarenta ciudades estadunidenses tuvo lugar un simulacro coordinado de ataque nuclear y no pude resistir la tentación de reproducir la fotografía de un Times Square desierto.

Amor Towles en Madrid en septiembre de 2022. Crédito: Asís G. Ayerbe.

Parece sentir fascinación por los magos, los artistas circenses y los timadores. ¿Cree que se explica en parte porque los ve como reflejos del novelista? 

Amor Towles: Me fascina la gente capaz de engañar, ya sea a través de estafas o trucos de magia, y puede que efectivamente sean tipos que provengan de la misma tradición de los contadores de historias. Siento una conexión especial con las fábulas y las historias fantásticas, de aquí, por ejemplo, mi amor por el realismo mágico de Gabriel García Márquez o los libros de Italo Calvino. 

La Autopista Lincoln se contagia del movimiento del viaje en carretera de los protagonistas y de las numerosas aventuras descritas en el libro de Billy, es decir, hay un dinamismo y una electricidad muy buscadas. Al mismo tiempo, la prosa es elegante y presta mucha atención al detalle. ¿Cree que los aspectos formales de una novela son los que en última instancia la hacen memorable?  

Amor Towles: Una novela incorpora miles de elementos creativos (estructura, diálogos, caracterización, localizaciones, conceptos y emociones, puntos de vista, ilusiones, metáforas, alegorías…). Es muy difícil señalar cuál de ellos acabará convirtiéndola en inolvidable aunque sospecho que la respuesta se esconde en esa idea antes apuntada que es la riqueza de los elementos que se conjugan, que se abra a múltiples dimensiones. Si das con la tecla conseguirás que tu novela sea capaz de entretener y significar algo para personas muy diferentes, lo que se antoja el primer requisito para pasar la prueba del tiempo. Además tengo la intuición que es clave que el lector perciba -aunque sea de un modo inconsciente- que a la hora de armar la historia ha existido un equilibrio entre planificación y cierto espacio para la improvisación que permita la incorporación de la poesía o la anarquía, de algo en definitiva incontrolable que resulte emotivo y profundo.

Sus libros podrían encajar en esa categoría americana de feel good novels, aquellas novelas que levantan el ánimo y dejan un buen sabor de boca en el lector. El lado resbaladizo del asunto es que el riesgo de caer en el sentimentalismo es muy alto. ¿Es algo sobre lo que medita y a lo que intenta poner remedio? 

Amor Towles: En aras de la sinceridad no creo que mis libros hubiesen tenido tanto éxito sin una pizca de sentimentalismo. Uno siempre intenta traer a la superficie la riqueza de la vida y eso incluye lo que hay de bueno y de malo en la gente, las consecuencias positivas y negativas de nuestros actos, las noticias buenas y las malas… y cada novela demanda un tratamiento específico de estos binomios. La idea es que para que la historia sea digna de ser leía siempre hay que equilibrar la celebración del espíritu humano con la oscuridad del momento histórico en particular o de las circunstancias vitales de los protagonistas. Si bien la ternura es un componente esencial de La Autopista Lincoln no debemos olvidar que contiene cuatro muertes, algunas de violentas y trágicas. Dicho esto, reconozco que no tengo inconveniente en subir de forma puntual el grado de calidez de la historia, algo que, por otra parte, diría que también hacían Dickens o Tolstói

«Me fascina la gente capaz de engañar, ya sea a través de estafas o trucos de magia, y puede que sean tipos que provengan de la misma tradición de los contadores de historias».

En un pasaje de Un caballero en Moscú, uno de los personajes intentaba explicar el alma rusa a través de la inclinación de sus gentes hacia la autodestrucción. ¿Diría que su última novela nos permite vislumbrar algunos ingredientes del alma americana? 

Amor Towles: Confío en que sepa ofrecer destellos de la misma. Cada uno de los personajes principales representa una parte muy distinta de esa alma americana tan proteica, dado que cada uno de ellos es producto de educaciones, clases sociales, ambientes… de lo más variados. Para simplificarlo, en el Medio Oeste hay una larga tradición de hospitalidad, se confía en el prójimo y se cumple con el papel del buen vecino, porque durante la durísima expansión al Oeste tu supervivencia podía depender de tener una buena relación con tu vecino. En Nueva York operaba justamente lo opuesto: tu vida podía depender de sospechar de tu vecino, la candidez podía abocarte a acabar apaleado y con una mano delante y otra detrás. 

Un caballero en Moscú será adaptada a la televisión con Ewan McGregor en el papel protagonista y con usted ejerciendo de productor ejecutivo. ¿Cómo encara el salto?   

Amor Towles: Me siento muy afortunado porque las películas y las series pueden traer una nueva hornada de lectores a tus libros. Dado que uno está atado de manos en lo referente a cómo los contarán y representarán en la pantalla, sólo cabe esperar que las adaptaciones amplíen las posibilidades de expansión de la fuente original. 

Sus libros han aparecido en las listas de títulos recomendados por dos presidentes americanos, Bill Clinton y Barack Obama. ¿Semejante honor le ha traído consecuencias inesperadas? 

Amor Towles: ¡No olvides que también me colé en la de Bill Gates! Fue un gran motivo de orgullo. También me ha llegado que a Mick Jagger le encantó Un caballero en Moscú y, entre tú y yo, probablemente la ilusión que me hizo superó a las anteriores.

¿Alguna de esas ideas argumentales que apunta en sus blocs de notas ya ha alzado el vuelo?

Amor Towles: Trabajo en una nueva novela de la que sólo avanzaré que empieza en El Cairo después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y acaba en Nueva York en el año 2000.

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