Entrevistas

Auður Ava Ólafsdóttir: «A lo largo de la historia muchas mujeres han tenido que renunciar a su anhelo de crear»

La igualdad de oportunidades también depende del cuándo y del dónde. Consciente de ello, Auður Ava Ólafsdóttir ha elegido la Islandia de los sesenta como escenario de su séptima novela, «La escritora», una obra de prosa clínica y horizontal en la que una veinteañera se lía la manta a la cabeza para dedicarse a la literatura en una sociedad profundamente machista donde las opciones laborales para las mujeres quedaban reducidas a los fogones y el mostrador. Fiel a su costumbre, la autora cabalga de nuevo a lomos de la heterodoxia, arremetiendo contra el mito del artista masculino, el conservadurismo y el aislamiento sociocultural, durante tanto tiempo insalvable, de su país de origen.

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La islandesa Au\u00f0ur Ava \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir abre con esta cita de Nietzsche su s\u00e9ptima novela, \u00abLa escritora\u00bb, una oda a la pasi\u00f3n por la pluma. Hablamos con ella.","meta_keywords":"Revista Lengua Entrevista Au\u00f0ur Ava \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir","short_content":"<p>La igualdad de oportunidades tambi\u00e9n depende del cu\u00e1ndo y del d\u00f3nde. Consciente de ello, Au\u00f0ur Ava \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir ha elegido la Islandia de los sesenta como escenario de su s\u00e9ptima novela, \u00abLa escritora\u00bb, una obra de prosa cl\u00ednica y horizontal en la que una veintea\u00f1era se l\u00eda la manta a la cabeza para dedicarse a la literatura en una sociedad profundamente machista\u00a0donde\u00a0las opciones laborales para las mujeres quedaban reducidas a los fogones y el mostrador. 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Profesora de Historia del Arte y directora del Museo de la Universidad de Islandia, su incursi\u00f3n en el mundo editorial fue tard\u00eda: <strong>public\u00f3 su primera novela, <em>Terreno elevado<\/em>, ya cumplidos los cuarenta a\u00f1os.<\/strong> Lo bueno se hace esperar, y desde entonces ha sumado a su producci\u00f3n literaria un libro de poemas, una obra de teatro y seis novelas m\u00e1s que le han reportado hasta una decena de premios internacionales, y cuyos t\u00edtulos \u2014<strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/6144-la-mujer-es-una-isla-9788420403199\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La mujer es una isla<\/a><\/em><\/span><em> <\/em>(2011),\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14062-la-excepcion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La excepci\u00f3n<\/a><\/em><\/span><em>\u00a0<\/em>(2014) u\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14501-hotel-silencio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Hotel silencio<\/a><\/em><\/span> (2019), <\/strong>todos publicados en Alfaguara\u2014 evocan una singularidad autoconsciente y, probable peaje de ella, una cotidianeidad marcada por la incomunicaci\u00f3n y la distancia. 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\">\u00abUno de los puntos de partida de esta novela fue el hecho de que, en la Islandia de los sesenta, si una mujer quer\u00eda ser escritora estaba sola\u00bb, cuenta \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir, la otra escritora, con una mirada que destila mayor calidez que la que ha atribuido a su personaje. \u00abMi abuela materna era granjera y le encantaba escribir, pero nunca tuvo la ocasi\u00f3n de hacerlo. Y mi abuela paterna ten\u00eda un gran talento para la m\u00fasica, pero fue su primo quien se convirti\u00f3 en un famoso compositor. <strong>Cuando pienso en esa generaci\u00f3n, me planteo en qu\u00e9 se habr\u00edan convertido si hubieran tenido las oportunidades que yo tuve o las que tenemos hoy.<\/strong> Su entorno era muy cerrado y patriarcal, tanto en el terreno pol\u00edtico como en el literario. Escribir segu\u00eda siendo cosa de hombres e incluso los poetas valoraban m\u00e1s el aspecto f\u00edsico de una mujer que lo que ten\u00eda que decir. A lo largo de la novela hombres de toda clase y condici\u00f3n tratan de disuadir a Heckla de su empe\u00f1o por ser escritora, ofreci\u00e9ndole alternativas como convertirse en Miss Islandia. <strong>La Historia del Arte no ha sido muy diferente: cuando un artista masculino se fijaba en una mujer lo hac\u00eda como musa, como fuente de inspiraci\u00f3n.<\/strong> Nunca la consideraban un ente creativo, como eran ellos; su papel se limitaba a apoyarles y motivarles en su propia labor creadora. De hecho, el mito del hombre-artista sigue muy arraigado; prueba de ello es el sinn\u00famero de <em>biopics<\/em> que Hollywood les dedica. Se han escrito cientos de libros celebrando a tal o cual escritor, y en ellos la mujer siempre es un elemento cuya belleza la convierte en un peligro. Lleg\u00f3 un momento en que decid\u00ed que ya era hora de escribir un libro sobre una escritora con talento, desmontando el mito bohemio que se asocia a esta profesi\u00f3n, esos grupos generacionales que beben y escriben en bares y caf\u00e9s. <strong>Su novio, que le regala libros de recetas y ni siquiera sabe que ella escribe, le dice que vivir como un poeta exige mucho tiempo.<\/strong> Pero al contrario que \u00e9l, Heckla no necesita tiempo para convertirse en poeta; solo lo necesita para escribir, y tiene menos del que le gustar\u00eda porque para mantenerse necesita trabajar en aquellas profesiones (limpiadora, dependienta o, en su caso, camarera) en las que s\u00ed hab\u00eda sitio para las mujeres. 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El primero, un marinero gay que detesta su trabajo, sufrir\u00e1 en sus carnes el rechazo de una sociedad retr\u00f3grada para quienes los pacifistas, los comunistas \u2014la acci\u00f3n se sit\u00faa en plena Guerra Fr\u00eda\u2014 y los homosexuales son escoria y en la que no hay lugar para la debilidad ni la diferencia. \u00abJon sue\u00f1a con dejar un trabajo en el mar que le pone literalmente enfermo y ser dise\u00f1ador de vestuario en un teatro. <strong>En los sesenta, los islandeses que no ten\u00edan la orientaci\u00f3n sexual \\\"correcta\\\" abandonaron su pa\u00eds, muchos con destino a Copenhague. Como Jon dice en la novela, \\\"ah\u00ed hay m\u00e1s como yo\\\".<\/strong> Hoy en d\u00eda sigue existiendo mucho talento desperdiciado, y la homofobia est\u00e1 en aumento en muchos pa\u00edses. Parece que las conquistas en materia de derechos humanos nunca son definitivas; antes de que te des cuenta puedes estar de vuelta a la casilla cero\u00bb, comenta \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir. <\/span><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">Issa, por su parte, es una joven madre que siente p\u00e1nico ante la posibilidad de tener m\u00e1s hijos. \u00abLas mujeres no ten\u00edan m\u00e1s opci\u00f3n que ser amas de casa y era muy com\u00fan que tuvieran hasta seis hijos. Criarlos llevaba much\u00edsimo tiempo y era una tarea de la mujer. <strong>Issa siente que ha perdido sus alas, que son un s\u00edmbolo de la libertad y la creaci\u00f3n.<\/strong> Quiere a sus hijos, pero se siente sola. A lo largo de la historia muchas mujeres han tenido que renunciar a su anhelo de crear, y para las que pudieron hacerlo, su cuerpo es un tema central en su obra. Para la generaci\u00f3n que fue joven en los sesent el cuerpo era algo muy problem\u00e1tico, especialmente por el riesgo de embarazo. 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tantas veces,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lastesis-lina-maruane\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el patriarcado<\/a><\/span> que refleja la novela es solo una de las caras de un conservadurismo que, hasta cierto punto, emana de su ausencia de puentes con el resto del mundo: el aislamiento geogr\u00e1fico trae consigo un aislamiento cultural y un rechazo al progreso ex\u00f3geno que lleva a los habitantes de esa isla a encerrarse en s\u00ed mismos y a mirar su propio ombligo. Heckla lee a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/18867-james-joyce-coleccion-endebate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">James Joyce<\/a> <\/span>(y tambi\u00e9n a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/las-inseparables-simone-de-beauvoir\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Simone de Beauvoir<\/a><\/span> y a Sylvia Plath, todos ellos en libros que su amigo marinero le trae de sus viajes al extranjero) con un diccionario, ya que, como con tantos autores, su obra no hab\u00eda sido publicada en Islandia. Como tampoco lo fue en prensa (la protagonista da buena cuenta de ello) ni una sola palabra del discurso de Martin Luther King al recoger su Premio Nobel de la Paz. \u00abLa Islandia de los sesenta era herm\u00e9tica. Solo se publicaba a autores locales o escandinavos; todos estos pa\u00edses son especialmente pr\u00f3digos en escritores. No hab\u00eda turistas, entre otras cosas porque solo hab\u00eda dos vuelos transoce\u00e1nicos operativos; salvo la tripulaci\u00f3n de los buques de mercanc\u00edas, nadie entraba ni sal\u00eda de la isla. <strong>En el resto del mundo, la vida, la pol\u00edtica y el cambio estaban en plena ebullici\u00f3n. Para el mundo 1963 es el a\u00f1o en que fue asesinado JFK, pero para los islandeses es aquel en el que una erupci\u00f3n volc\u00e1nica dio lugar a una nueva isla al sur\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p>Paradigma del aislamiento cultural, en el contexto de la novela Islandia contaba con 200.000 habitantes cuya lengua oficial no se habla en ning\u00fan otro lugar del mundo, y adonde las \u00fanicas obras que llegaban del extranjero \u2014casi siempre de otros pa\u00edses n\u00f3rdicos\u2014 se publicaban en dan\u00e9s, el otro idioma oficial de la isla. \u00abMi hero\u00edna y yo tenemos en com\u00fan que ambas escribimos en una lengua que casi nadie entiende. Pero yo he tenido la suerte de que mi obra ha sido traducida a 33 idiomas. Me interesaba reflejar los efectos colaterales que las lenguas minoritarias suponen para sus hablantes; en el caso de Heckla, a d\u00f3nde puede huir alguien que escribe en un idioma ignoto que no se traduce. La patria de un escritor es su idioma. <strong>Un escritor vive en su idioma. Y si ese idioma es minoritario, ese escritor no existe para el resto del mundo.<\/strong> Hoy en d\u00eda se hablan unos 7.000 idiomas distintos en todo el mundo, pero se estima que dentro de diez a\u00f1os el 40 % de ellos habr\u00e1n desaparecido, y con cada uno de ellos, una cultura y una forma de pensar\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tdhp9lz\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab(...) cuando un artista masculino se fijaba en una mujer lo hac\u00eda como musa, como fuente de inspiraci\u00f3n. Nunca la consideraban un ente creativo, como eran ellos; su papel se limitaba a apoyarles y motivarles en su propia labor creadora. De hecho, el mito del hombre-artista sigue muy arraigado; prueba de ello es el sinn\u00famero de <em>biopics<\/em> que Hollywood les dedica\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g77qprk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Junto a la geogr\u00e1fica y la cultural, el aislamiento tiene en esta novela una tercera vertiente: la emocional. Frente al involuntario (de Issa y de Jon) est\u00e1 el elegido, encarnado en la distante Heckla. Narrada en primera persona, una elecci\u00f3n que casi siempre responde a la voluntad de ahondar en los pensamientos y sentimientos de quien habla, la prosa de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/227790-la-escritora\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La escritora<\/a><\/em><\/span> es fr\u00eda, casi cl\u00ednica, limit\u00e1ndose a reproducir di\u00e1logos o describir conductas y acotando con elipsis aquellos que sugieren dar paso a una emotividad que nunca se manifiesta. <strong>La protagonista se revela as\u00ed al lector a trav\u00e9s de aquello que elige contar, de lo que considera digno de menci\u00f3n, dejando que el lector ate cabos utilizando su intuici\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/strong>\u00abAl dejar un espacio vac\u00edo entre las palabras permites que el lector se transforme en un cocreador. Es \u00e9l quien tiene que aportar el significado que falta. Es el mayor o menor alcance de esa falta de explicitud lo que determina que un texto est\u00e9 m\u00e1s cerca de la poes\u00eda o de la prosa. En <em>La escritora<\/em>, todo lo que he decidido poner en el texto tiene un sentido en su relaci\u00f3n con la protagonista. La descripci\u00f3n del ambiente y de otras personas siempre est\u00e1 filtrada por su mente; es su visi\u00f3n. Ella es algo distante, quiz\u00e1 en parte por su confianza en s\u00ed misma: cree en lo que hace y en su val\u00eda como escritora. <strong>En ese sentido, tiene un alma masculina y subvierte el rol de la mujer en el arte: ya no es la musa, la inspiraci\u00f3n de los hombres, sino la artista, la inspirada.<\/strong> Lo que le gusta de su novio \u2014a quien siempre se refiere como \u00abel poeta\u00bb, jam\u00e1s por su nombre\u2014 es su cuerpo, y as\u00ed se lo dice cuando \u00e9l le pregunta. Se siente atra\u00edda por \u00e9l, pero no quiere convertirse en una ama de casa. Tambi\u00e9n la conocemos por c\u00f3mo la ven Issa y Jon, por c\u00f3mo los cuida, logrando as\u00ed tener un retrato m\u00e1s completo de una mujer m\u00e1s bien cerrada\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"45\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ctk7soy\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa patria de un escritor es su idioma. Un escritor vive en su idioma. Y si ese idioma es minoritario, ese escritor no existe para el resto del mundo. Hoy en d\u00eda se hablan unos 7.000 idiomas distintos en todo el mundo, pero se estima que dentro de diez a\u00f1os el 40 % de ellos habr\u00e1n desaparecido, y con cada uno de ellos, una cultura y una forma de pensar\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"y5bgm70\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Como en tantas obras literarias, en<em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/227790-la-escritora\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/227790-la-escritora\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La escritora<\/a><\/span><\/em> la naturaleza desempe\u00f1a un papel fundamental. Frente al\u00a0arrebatamiento con que los poetas del romanticismo se refer\u00edan a un fen\u00f3meno abrumador, celestial,<strong> la porosa orograf\u00eda y las inclemencias clim\u00e1ticas de la isla son descritas con todo detalle asumiendo un papel inh\u00f3spito, desagradable, opresor, devorador,<\/strong> en consonancia con los sentimientos de los personajes. Rese\u00f1able es, por otro lado, que la correlaci\u00f3n entre las condiciones geogr\u00e1ficas de los pa\u00edses n\u00f3rdicos y sus elevadas tasas de suicidio frente a las de la Europa mediterr\u00e1nea ha sido documentada en m\u00e1s de una ocasi\u00f3n. \u00abS\u00ed, y son m\u00e1s altas en primavera\u00bb, corrobora \u00d3lafsd\u00f3ttir. \u00abDe hecho, hace poco una autora de Groenlandia escrib\u00eda que lo peligroso no es la oscuridad, sino la luz. La naturaleza de mi pa\u00eds es melanc\u00f3lica y fr\u00eda, con una gran actividad volc\u00e1nica. Si lo comparas con la frondosidad de Espa\u00f1a, esta ser\u00eda una mujer con un abrigo de piel e Islandia ser\u00eda un reci\u00e9n nacido desnudo. El clima y la naturaleza son una aleaci\u00f3n peligrosa\u00bb.<\/p><p>En el centro de esos escenarios (el geogr\u00e1fico y el social) se sit\u00faa la vocaci\u00f3n creativa, que seg\u00fan afirma la autora es el eje vertebral de la historia. \u00abSe trata de una novela sobre la necesidad de escribir y sobre la b\u00fasqueda de la belleza en la vida cotidiana mediante la incorporaci\u00f3n de peque\u00f1os alicientes que convierten la rutina en algo de mayor calado.<strong> Ser escritor es organizar el caos, darle un significado. Todos conocemos a personas creativas que hacen de cada d\u00eda una aventura, que encuentran la belleza en todas partes y a partir de ella construyen algo m\u00e1s grande\u00bb.<\/strong> Por ejemplo, una envidiable trayectoria literaria, la satisfacci\u00f3n de transmitir un legado cultural a los m\u00e1s j\u00f3venes y el arrojo de seguir nadando a contracorriente.<\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-jonas-jonasson-una-dulce-venganza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jonas Jonasson: \u00abMe preocupa el desarrollo de las redes sociales; la sociedad democr\u00e1tica tradicional no las lleva muy bien\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/pilar-quintana-los-abismos-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pilar Quintana: en la espesura del deseo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo est\u00e1 guardado en la memoria de Edna O'Brien<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"uk52a1k\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

Crédito: Einar Falur.

Por CARMEN COCINA

Auður Ava Ólafsdóttir (Reikiavik, 1958) es, según sus propias palabras, una mujer afortunada. Profesora de Historia del Arte y directora del Museo de la Universidad de Islandia, su incursión en el mundo editorial fue tardía: publicó su primera novela, Terreno elevado, ya cumplidos los cuarenta años. Lo bueno se hace esperar, y desde entonces ha sumado a su producción literaria un libro de poemas, una obra de teatro y seis novelas más que le han reportado hasta una decena de premios internacionales, y cuyos títulos —La mujer es una isla (2011), La excepción (2014) u Hotel silencio (2019), todos publicados en Alfaguara— evocan una singularidad autoconsciente y, probable peaje de ella, una cotidianeidad marcada por la incomunicación y la distancia. Una constante que retoma con brío en La escritora (2021), una novela fría y clínica en la que la heterodoxia de la protagonista se ve compensada por una determinación que, en un contexto social especialmente adverso, la llevará a perseguir su sueño de dedicarse a la literatura desde la disciplina y el método. En ese camino, Heckla deberá encadenar distintos trabajos que le procuren el sustento que necesita para escribir y torear continuos acercamientos sexuales (el del panadero al que pide trabajo, el del hombre entrado en años que se sienta a su lado en el tren, los de los clientes que se sientan a tomar un café) en una sociedad profundamente conservadora donde las mujeres quedan relegadas al tocador y la cocina. 

«Uno de los puntos de partida de esta novela fue el hecho de que, en la Islandia de los sesenta, si una mujer quería ser escritora estaba sola», cuenta Ólafsdóttir, la otra escritora, con una mirada que destila mayor calidez que la que ha atribuido a su personaje. «Mi abuela materna era granjera y le encantaba escribir, pero nunca tuvo la ocasión de hacerlo. Y mi abuela paterna tenía un gran talento para la música, pero fue su primo quien se convirtió en un famoso compositor. Cuando pienso en esa generación, me planteo en qué se habrían convertido si hubieran tenido las oportunidades que yo tuve o las que tenemos hoy. Su entorno era muy cerrado y patriarcal, tanto en el terreno político como en el literario. Escribir seguía siendo cosa de hombres e incluso los poetas valoraban más el aspecto físico de una mujer que lo que tenía que decir. A lo largo de la novela hombres de toda clase y condición tratan de disuadir a Heckla de su empeño por ser escritora, ofreciéndole alternativas como convertirse en Miss Islandia. La Historia del Arte no ha sido muy diferente: cuando un artista masculino se fijaba en una mujer lo hacía como musa, como fuente de inspiración. Nunca la consideraban un ente creativo, como eran ellos; su papel se limitaba a apoyarles y motivarles en su propia labor creadora. De hecho, el mito del hombre-artista sigue muy arraigado; prueba de ello es el sinnúmero de biopics que Hollywood les dedica. Se han escrito cientos de libros celebrando a tal o cual escritor, y en ellos la mujer siempre es un elemento cuya belleza la convierte en un peligro. Llegó un momento en que decidí que ya era hora de escribir un libro sobre una escritora con talento, desmontando el mito bohemio que se asocia a esta profesión, esos grupos generacionales que beben y escriben en bares y cafés. Su novio, que le regala libros de recetas y ni siquiera sabe que ella escribe, le dice que vivir como un poeta exige mucho tiempo. Pero al contrario que él, Heckla no necesita tiempo para convertirse en poeta; solo lo necesita para escribir, y tiene menos del que le gustaría porque para mantenerse necesita trabajar en aquellas profesiones (limpiadora, dependienta o, en su caso, camarera) en las que sí había sitio para las mujeres. Mi libro no es solo la historia de una escritora, sino la de tres personas jóvenes, creativas y sensibles para los que no existe lugar en la sociedad en la que viven, y de todo el talento, tanto femenino como masculino, que esas constricciones sociales cercenaron y que nunca llegaremos a conocer».

Esos amigos son Jon e Issa, a quienes Heckla conoce desde la adolescencia, y el impacto que su entorno provoca en ellos revela la variedad y el alcance de su agotadora incidencia. El primero, un marinero gay que detesta su trabajo, sufrirá en sus carnes el rechazo de una sociedad retrógrada para quienes los pacifistas, los comunistas —la acción se sitúa en plena Guerra Fría— y los homosexuales son escoria y en la que no hay lugar para la debilidad ni la diferencia. «Jon sueña con dejar un trabajo en el mar que le pone literalmente enfermo y ser diseñador de vestuario en un teatro. En los sesenta, los islandeses que no tenían la orientación sexual "correcta" abandonaron su país, muchos con destino a Copenhague. Como Jon dice en la novela, "ahí hay más como yo". Hoy en día sigue existiendo mucho talento desperdiciado, y la homofobia está en aumento en muchos países. Parece que las conquistas en materia de derechos humanos nunca son definitivas; antes de que te des cuenta puedes estar de vuelta a la casilla cero», comenta Ólafsdóttir.

Issa, por su parte, es una joven madre que siente pánico ante la posibilidad de tener más hijos. «Las mujeres no tenían más opción que ser amas de casa y era muy común que tuvieran hasta seis hijos. Criarlos llevaba muchísimo tiempo y era una tarea de la mujer. Issa siente que ha perdido sus alas, que son un símbolo de la libertad y la creación. Quiere a sus hijos, pero se siente sola. A lo largo de la historia muchas mujeres han tenido que renunciar a su anhelo de crear, y para las que pudieron hacerlo, su cuerpo es un tema central en su obra. Para la generación que fue joven en los sesent el cuerpo era algo muy problemático, especialmente por el riesgo de embarazo. En sus autobiografías, escritores como Sartre o Nabokov dicen que su don para la escritura es innato y describen cómo se convirtieron en genios. Las escritoras de su época, por el contrario, solían empezar a escribir en la pubertad y el protagonista de su obra es el cuerpo, no el intelecto».

Crédito: Getty Images.

Como tantas veces, el patriarcado que refleja la novela es solo una de las caras de un conservadurismo que, hasta cierto punto, emana de su ausencia de puentes con el resto del mundo: el aislamiento geográfico trae consigo un aislamiento cultural y un rechazo al progreso exógeno que lleva a los habitantes de esa isla a encerrarse en sí mismos y a mirar su propio ombligo. Heckla lee a James Joyce (y también a Simone de Beauvoir y a Sylvia Plath, todos ellos en libros que su amigo marinero le trae de sus viajes al extranjero) con un diccionario, ya que, como con tantos autores, su obra no había sido publicada en Islandia. Como tampoco lo fue en prensa (la protagonista da buena cuenta de ello) ni una sola palabra del discurso de Martin Luther King al recoger su Premio Nobel de la Paz. «La Islandia de los sesenta era hermética. Solo se publicaba a autores locales o escandinavos; todos estos países son especialmente pródigos en escritores. No había turistas, entre otras cosas porque solo había dos vuelos transoceánicos operativos; salvo la tripulación de los buques de mercancías, nadie entraba ni salía de la isla. En el resto del mundo, la vida, la política y el cambio estaban en plena ebullición. Para el mundo 1963 es el año en que fue asesinado JFK, pero para los islandeses es aquel en el que una erupción volcánica dio lugar a una nueva isla al sur».

Paradigma del aislamiento cultural, en el contexto de la novela Islandia contaba con 200.000 habitantes cuya lengua oficial no se habla en ningún otro lugar del mundo, y adonde las únicas obras que llegaban del extranjero —casi siempre de otros países nórdicos— se publicaban en danés, el otro idioma oficial de la isla. «Mi heroína y yo tenemos en común que ambas escribimos en una lengua que casi nadie entiende. Pero yo he tenido la suerte de que mi obra ha sido traducida a 33 idiomas. Me interesaba reflejar los efectos colaterales que las lenguas minoritarias suponen para sus hablantes; en el caso de Heckla, a dónde puede huir alguien que escribe en un idioma ignoto que no se traduce. La patria de un escritor es su idioma. Un escritor vive en su idioma. Y si ese idioma es minoritario, ese escritor no existe para el resto del mundo. Hoy en día se hablan unos 7.000 idiomas distintos en todo el mundo, pero se estima que dentro de diez años el 40 % de ellos habrán desaparecido, y con cada uno de ellos, una cultura y una forma de pensar».

«(...) cuando un artista masculino se fijaba en una mujer lo hacía como musa, como fuente de inspiración. Nunca la consideraban un ente creativo, como eran ellos; su papel se limitaba a apoyarles y motivarles en su propia labor creadora. De hecho, el mito del hombre-artista sigue muy arraigado; prueba de ello es el sinnúmero de biopics que Hollywood les dedica». 

Junto a la geográfica y la cultural, el aislamiento tiene en esta novela una tercera vertiente: la emocional. Frente al involuntario (de Issa y de Jon) está el elegido, encarnado en la distante Heckla. Narrada en primera persona, una elección que casi siempre responde a la voluntad de ahondar en los pensamientos y sentimientos de quien habla, la prosa de La escritora es fría, casi clínica, limitándose a reproducir diálogos o describir conductas y acotando con elipsis aquellos que sugieren dar paso a una emotividad que nunca se manifiesta. La protagonista se revela así al lector a través de aquello que elige contar, de lo que considera digno de mención, dejando que el lector ate cabos utilizando su intuición. «Al dejar un espacio vacío entre las palabras permites que el lector se transforme en un cocreador. Es él quien tiene que aportar el significado que falta. Es el mayor o menor alcance de esa falta de explicitud lo que determina que un texto esté más cerca de la poesía o de la prosa. En La escritora, todo lo que he decidido poner en el texto tiene un sentido en su relación con la protagonista. La descripción del ambiente y de otras personas siempre está filtrada por su mente; es su visión. Ella es algo distante, quizá en parte por su confianza en sí misma: cree en lo que hace y en su valía como escritora. En ese sentido, tiene un alma masculina y subvierte el rol de la mujer en el arte: ya no es la musa, la inspiración de los hombres, sino la artista, la inspirada. Lo que le gusta de su novio —a quien siempre se refiere como «el poeta», jamás por su nombre— es su cuerpo, y así se lo dice cuando él le pregunta. Se siente atraída por él, pero no quiere convertirse en una ama de casa. También la conocemos por cómo la ven Issa y Jon, por cómo los cuida, logrando así tener un retrato más completo de una mujer más bien cerrada».

«La patria de un escritor es su idioma. Un escritor vive en su idioma. Y si ese idioma es minoritario, ese escritor no existe para el resto del mundo. Hoy en día se hablan unos 7.000 idiomas distintos en todo el mundo, pero se estima que dentro de diez años el 40 % de ellos habrán desaparecido, y con cada uno de ellos, una cultura y una forma de pensar». 

Como en tantas obras literarias, en La escritora la naturaleza desempeña un papel fundamental. Frente al arrebatamiento con que los poetas del romanticismo se referían a un fenómeno abrumador, celestial, la porosa orografía y las inclemencias climáticas de la isla son descritas con todo detalle asumiendo un papel inhóspito, desagradable, opresor, devorador, en consonancia con los sentimientos de los personajes. Reseñable es, por otro lado, que la correlación entre las condiciones geográficas de los países nórdicos y sus elevadas tasas de suicidio frente a las de la Europa mediterránea ha sido documentada en más de una ocasión. «Sí, y son más altas en primavera», corrobora Ólafsdóttir. «De hecho, hace poco una autora de Groenlandia escribía que lo peligroso no es la oscuridad, sino la luz. La naturaleza de mi país es melancólica y fría, con una gran actividad volcánica. Si lo comparas con la frondosidad de España, esta sería una mujer con un abrigo de piel e Islandia sería un recién nacido desnudo. El clima y la naturaleza son una aleación peligrosa».

En el centro de esos escenarios (el geográfico y el social) se sitúa la vocación creativa, que según afirma la autora es el eje vertebral de la historia. «Se trata de una novela sobre la necesidad de escribir y sobre la búsqueda de la belleza en la vida cotidiana mediante la incorporación de pequeños alicientes que convierten la rutina en algo de mayor calado. Ser escritor es organizar el caos, darle un significado. Todos conocemos a personas creativas que hacen de cada día una aventura, que encuentran la belleza en todas partes y a partir de ella construyen algo más grande». Por ejemplo, una envidiable trayectoria literaria, la satisfacción de transmitir un legado cultural a los más jóvenes y el arrojo de seguir nadando a contracorriente.



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