Entrevistas

Élmer Mendoza: «La novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social»

Para Élmer Mendoza, considerado uno de los autores mexicanos más relevantes de los últimos años, escribir sobre la violencia del narco es un puente para hablar de lo que sucede en el día a día. En esta conversación con Mónica Maristain, Mendoza habla extensamente sobre novela negra, sus procesos de escritura y su carrera literaria.

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calor inmenso en Culiac\u00e1n. Es el mediod\u00eda. Camino por las calles sin sombrero. Resguard\u00e1ndome de un sol imposible. <strong>Voy al encuentro de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7219-elmer-mendoza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00c9lmer Mendoza<\/a><\/span> para hablar de <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/ciencia-ficcion-juvenil\/5340-la-cuarta-pregunta\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La cuarta pregunta<\/a><\/em><\/span><\/strong>, una novela juvenil en la que regresa El Capi Garay, un personaje joven, lleno de humor, que obliga al escritor a ingresar en mundos extra\u00f1os, raros y diversos. Pronto el escritor cumplir\u00e1 setenta a\u00f1os.<\/p><p><strong>Es antes de la pandemia.<\/strong><\/p><p>Est\u00e1 en un lugar que dice defender por la herencia y el legado y\u00a0<strong>acaba de ganar el Premio Nacional Letras de Sinaloa<\/strong>, otro galard\u00f3n m\u00e1s en una larga y elogiada carrera en la que ha escrito, entre otros t\u00edtulos,\u00a0<em>El amante de Janis Joplin<\/em>, <em>Efecto Tequila<\/em>, <em>Balas de plata<\/em>, <em>Nombre de perro<\/em> y <em>La prueba del \u00e1cido<\/em>.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Es la primera vez que entrevistar\u00e9 a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7219-elmer-mendoza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00c9lmer<\/a><\/span> en su ciudad, Culiac\u00e1n<\/strong>. Me recibir\u00e1 en el Colegio de Sinaloa, que Mendoza preside, en una casa que tiene \u00e1rboles en el patio, donde el aire acondicionado hace ruido, donde todos lo miran con mucha admiraci\u00f3n y donde la siesta \u2014a pesar de que es mediod\u00eda\u2014 se asoma por los entreveros de un lugar tranquilo y amable. Es dif\u00edcil decir\u00a0<b>\u00absi quieres conocer a un autor tienes que entrevistarlo en su lugar de origen\u00bb<\/b>, pero al mismo tiempo digo que es un privilegio visitar esta ciudad tan ordenada f\u00edsicamente y tan desordenada en esas costumbres del narcotr\u00e1fico y los militares.<\/p><p><strong>\u00abA menudo escucho balaceras cerca de mi casa. Pero \u00bfqu\u00e9 le voy a hacer? Este es mi lugar\u00bb,<\/strong> dice ahora \u00c9lmer Mendoza, cuando recuerdo esa visita a la ciudad en la que naci\u00f3 el 6 de diciembre de 1949. \u00abCuliac\u00e1n era una ciudad que ten\u00eda una vida provinciana, que sal\u00eda por las tardes con sus mecedoras, hab\u00eda pocos autos, jugu\u00e9 b\u00e9isbol en las calles, la ciudad era de todos, de compartirla. Ten\u00edamos dos r\u00edos naturales e \u00edbamos a nadar all\u00ed, hasta que alguien se ahogaba. Yo logr\u00e9 sacar a dos chicos y uno de ellos me lo encontr\u00e9 una vez, me abraz\u00f3 mucho,<strong> porque le hab\u00eda salvado la vida<\/strong>. Los domingos la camin\u00e1bamos por la calle Obreg\u00f3n, la principal y le dec\u00edamos\u00a0\\\"el obregronazo\\\". 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"k9lyk6j\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEs el juego eterno de un novelista intentar hacer las cosas bien, y es el juego eterno porque no termina. En cada obra que intento parto con la misma idea y tengo una novela que mucha gente dice que es la mejor que he escrito y cuando me paro, abro cualquier p\u00e1gina de ella y me pregunto: \\\"\u00bfQu\u00e9 hice aqu\u00ed que no puedo hacer ahora?\\\"\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9qu5z39\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong><br \/>AUNQUE ELLA ENTR\u00d3 POR LA VENTANA DEL BA\u00d1O<br \/><br \/><\/strong><\/p><p>\u00ab<strong>La literatura de violencia es cada vez m\u00e1s propositiva<\/strong>. No es solo un recuento \u00e9pico de la depredaci\u00f3n humana; se sustenta en una est\u00e9tica que se va definiendo en base a una voluntad de estilo y un territorio ling\u00fc\u00edstico concreto. Si logramos crear obras maestras, ser\u00e1 un g\u00e9nero literario\u00bb, hab\u00eda dicho hace a\u00f1os el escritor de la \u00abnarcoliteratura\u00bb, \u00c9lmer Mendoza. Han pasado muchos cad\u00e1veres bajo la sangre que corre por las venas de M\u00e9xico.<strong>\u00a0Ahora no vamos a discutir si tiene sentido hablar de ese g\u00e9nero<\/strong> o a debatir si hay m\u00e1s narco o m\u00e1s literatura entre los escritores que tratan de correr sin tenis ni condici\u00f3n f\u00edsica la gran carrera que gana la realidad.<\/p><p>Lo que s\u00ed es cierto es que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7219-elmer-mendoza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00c9lmer Mendoza<\/a><\/span><strong>\u00a0parece salido de una corriente pop<\/strong>, que esa violencia y esa sangre se licuan para hablar de una cierta esperanza, y parece decidirse por una est\u00e9tica absolutamente particular, por un lenguaje que a estas alturas ya le es propio y entretener as\u00ed a los miles de lectores que le son fieles desde hace mucho tiempo.<\/p><p>Quiero decir: <strong>no es rockero, es popero.<\/strong> Para los amantes de la m\u00fasica esta comparaci\u00f3n se har\u00e1 f\u00e1cil. No testimonia un impulso letal y destructivo como el que establec\u00eda The Clash en Londres, sino que nos hace bailar y cantar con una rola de Paul McCartney (nunca de John), cuando entran las fans a la casa, sin pedir permiso.<\/p><p>Pienso esto por supuesto despu\u00e9s de haber le\u00eddo la nueva novela de \u00c9lmer Mendoza, otra aventura de ese detective tan cercano y tan poco eficiente como es El Zurdo Mendieta, donde esta vez se las ver\u00e1 feo con el delincuente Sebasti\u00e1n Salcido, aceptar\u00e1 la ayuda de Samantha Vald\u00e9s y le cumplir\u00e1 los deseos a un viejo ricach\u00f3n que so\u00f1aba con volver a ver a una mujer que se parec\u00eda a Milla Jovovich.<\/p><p>\u00abCuando lleg\u00f3 a su casa, ventanas reparadas y muy bien barrida, lo primero que hizo fue poner el ced\u00e9 que le hab\u00eda regalado el Ch\u00f3per y encontrar la n\u00famero trece:<em> She Came In Through the Bathroom Window.<\/em> \u00d3rale, se escuchaba tremenda\u00bb, dice El Zurdo Mendieta, mientras en esta pandemia un tanto absurda y siempre letal, valoro cada d\u00eda m\u00e1s la vida, ese \u00fanico tesoro que tenemos cada uno.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/uy\/tematicas\/253008-ella-entro-por-la-ventana-del-bano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ella entr\u00f3 por la ventana del ba\u00f1o<\/a><\/em><\/span>, de \u00c9lmer Mendoza, resulta ser otra novela, mas no solo para pasar un buen rato una tarde de domingo, sino tambi\u00e9n para aprender de una vez y para siempre que \u00abhay noches en que los hombres duros s\u00ed bailan\u00bb. <strong>Como esas canciones pop que se renuevan cada d\u00e9cada y que nos acompa\u00f1an toda la existencia.<\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7q3oacr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abYo creo que hay una pregunta en la novela negra y que ahora se ha ampliado. Y esa pregunta es \u00ab\u00bfPor qu\u00e9?\u00bb, como lo concibe Claudia Pi\u00f1eiro, es como una amplitud, hay un aspecto social que es lo que da la extensi\u00f3n en la sem\u00e1ntica. La novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fnxr59c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Escribir tanto es su oficio<\/strong>. Su tiempo est\u00e1 organizado. Lo empieza a la ma\u00f1ana, tipo 5:00 o 6:00 AM. Siempre trabaja por ratos. Se dedica mayormente a la historia que cuenta.<strong> No tiene fecha de entrega. Va avanzando y cuida mucho los textos.\u00a0<\/strong>Lee poemas, ensayos, narrativa, aunque esta \u00faltima la ve con un mayor sentido profesional.<\/p><p>Frente a la disyuntiva de leer a los escritores por la identidad, \u00c9lmer Mendoza dice: \u00abYo leo libros\u00bb. <strong>No se fija en los autores por sus caracter\u00edsticas.\u00a0<\/strong>Piensa, eso s\u00ed, qu\u00e9 buena la lucha de las mujeres. \u00abEstoy acostumbrado a las mujeres. A lo largo de todos mis a\u00f1os siempre he trabajado con mujeres. <strong>No es posible que todav\u00eda est\u00e9n peleando por sus derechos<\/strong>\u00bb, dice en entrevista con LENGUA: \u00ab<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">En mi literatura est\u00e1n las mujeres, porque aqu\u00ed estamos todos<\/span>.<\/a>\u00a0<strong>Los ni\u00f1os no aparecen, porque se me hace dif\u00edcil escribir con ellos<\/strong><b>\u00bb<\/b>.<\/p><p>\u00c9l y Leonor son muy amigos de la escritora argentina Claudia Pi\u00f1eiro, quien dice, entre otras cosas, que han cambiado las preguntas para determinar una novela negra. Ya no buscamos al asesino, sino \u00ab<strong>preguntar lo que pas\u00f3, por qu\u00e9 lleg\u00f3 a eso<\/strong>, qu\u00e9 resortes no saltaron, la novela negra corre sus l\u00edmites para incorporar estos tipos de cr\u00edmenes\u00bb, afirmaba.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abYo creo que hay una pregunta en la novela negra y que ahora se ha ampliado. Y esa pregunta es \\\"<strong>\u00bfPor qu\u00e9?<\/strong>\\\", como lo concibe Claudia Pi\u00f1eiro, es como una amplitud, hay un aspecto social que es lo que da la extensi\u00f3n en la sem\u00e1ntica. La novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social\u00bb, dice \u00c9lmer. \u00abEn muchos momentos empata con la realidad que viven todos los seres humanos. Han cambiado las definiciones y las preguntas para la novela negra. En el caso de El Zurdo Mendieta, tiene que ser un personaje parecido al real, pero que tenga un universo de problemas, de debilidades y de dos o tres fortalezas, que lo pone en la vida real\u00bb, agrega.<\/p><p><strong>No sabemos a estas alturas si \u00c9lmer Mendoza ha escrito una obra maestra del g\u00e9nero.<\/strong> Pero lo que s\u00ed es cierto es que sus novelas ya no saben a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/414-william-faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Faulkner<\/a><\/span> o a\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/4371-habia-mucha-neblina-o-humo-o-no-se-que\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Rulfo<\/span>,<\/a> saben a \u00e9l mismo.\u00a0<\/p><p>La menci\u00f3n de su traje para recibir el doctorado <em>honoris causa<\/em> de la Universidad de Sinaloa se mezcla para preguntar c\u00f3mo ha salido Checo P\u00e9rez en el Grand Prix de Portugal. <strong>Esta tarde ver\u00e1 el Am\u00e9rica-Pumas, no sabemos si comer\u00e1 machaca.<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/Luis-Jorge-Boone-Toda-la-soledad-del-centro-de-la-Tierra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Luis Jorge Boone y la gran pregunta de la literatura mexicana del siglo XXI<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/revista-lengua\/los-7-pecados-literarios\/juan-villoro-los-7-pecados-literarios\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Villoro en el confesionario: de D'Artagnan a <em>Pedro P\u00e1ramo<\/em><\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/raquel-tibol-frida-kahlo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Raquel Tibol, la mujer que nunca pudo hacer una biograf\u00eda de Frida 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Mendoza"],"comments":"0"}
12 minutos

Élmer Mendoza. Crédito: Janeth Gomez.

Un calor inmenso en Culiacán. Es el mediodía. Camino por las calles sin sombrero. Resguardándome de un sol imposible. Voy al encuentro de Élmer Mendoza para hablar de La cuarta pregunta, una novela juvenil en la que regresa El Capi Garay, un personaje joven, lleno de humor, que obliga al escritor a ingresar en mundos extraños, raros y diversos. Pronto el escritor cumplirá setenta años.

Es antes de la pandemia.

Está en un lugar que dice defender por la herencia y el legado y acaba de ganar el Premio Nacional Letras de Sinaloa, otro galardón más en una larga y elogiada carrera en la que ha escrito, entre otros títulos, El amante de Janis Joplin, Efecto Tequila, Balas de plata, Nombre de perro y La prueba del ácido

Es la primera vez que entrevistaré a Élmer en su ciudad, Culiacán. Me recibirá en el Colegio de Sinaloa, que Mendoza preside, en una casa que tiene árboles en el patio, donde el aire acondicionado hace ruido, donde todos lo miran con mucha admiración y donde la siesta —a pesar de que es mediodía— se asoma por los entreveros de un lugar tranquilo y amable. Es difícil decir «si quieres conocer a un autor tienes que entrevistarlo en su lugar de origen», pero al mismo tiempo digo que es un privilegio visitar esta ciudad tan ordenada físicamente y tan desordenada en esas costumbres del narcotráfico y los militares.

«A menudo escucho balaceras cerca de mi casa. Pero ¿qué le voy a hacer? Este es mi lugar», dice ahora Élmer Mendoza, cuando recuerdo esa visita a la ciudad en la que nació el 6 de diciembre de 1949. «Culiacán era una ciudad que tenía una vida provinciana, que salía por las tardes con sus mecedoras, había pocos autos, jugué béisbol en las calles, la ciudad era de todos, de compartirla. Teníamos dos ríos naturales e íbamos a nadar allí, hasta que alguien se ahogaba. Yo logré sacar a dos chicos y uno de ellos me lo encontré una vez, me abrazó mucho, porque le había salvado la vida. Los domingos la caminábamos por la calle Obregón, la principal y le decíamos "el obregronazo". Desde un templo que se llama La Lomita, hasta el centro», evoca.

Crimen y pasión

«También recuerdo un espíritu de confianza. Creo que al menos para mí, quizá por la edad, los cambios se fueron dando. Desde el folclore, donde vimos bailar a nuestros padres y que nos enseñaban de niños a bailar, de pronto apareció el rock. El baile cambió. Eran bailes auténticamente atléticos que nunca los pude hacer. A partir de ahí vino una invasión de la música en inglés. Comienza a formar parte de nuestra cultura. Recuerdo una marcha por los descuentos en el cine, y como no quisieron hacerlos quemaron los cines. Fui cuando ya los habían quemado; los estudiantes saqueaban dulces, yo era niño. Te confieso que nunca me gustaron las marchas, tal vez tenga que ver con eso. Yo rechazo las marchas», agrega este hombre que se muere por las delicias de la machaca, que su mujer, Leonor Quijada, directora general de la Sociedad Artística Sinaloense, sabe hacer 99 de las cien recetas que hay para este platillo.

«Soy un escritor al que le ha ido bien. He logrado hacer una obra pertinente, cuido muchísimo mis textos, trabajo todos los días, mis novelas tienen 250 páginas y las repaso y las repaso… a lo largo de estos años he desarrollado mecanismos de relación con mis textos, con principios muy sencillos pero firmes, que consigo tomarlos con mucha seriedad. Cada novela la escribo como si fuera la primera. Consigo disfrutar de la sorpresa, el logro de crear una atmósfera completa; las novelas que hago tienen muchos caminos, varias opciones, el manejo del delito dentro de la ficción tiene varios caminos, pero intento tomar el más adecuado, porque pienso que en algún momento alguien la va a leer y se va a emocionar. Es el juego eterno de un novelista intentar hacer las cosas bien, y es el juego eterno porque no termina. En cada obra que intento parto con la misma idea y tengo una novela que mucha gente dice que es la mejor que he escrito y cuando me paro, abro cualquier página de ella y me pregunto: "¿Qué hice aquí que no puedo hacer ahora?"», admite el autor de El amante de Janis Joplin, una novela del 2003 que llevaría sin duda a una isla desierta.

«La novela que me ha costado más, que fue una pequeña locura, la única novela que la entregué y la regresé, y trabajé seis meses más en ella, fue Efecto Tequila», dijo entonces, aquella vez que lo fui a entrevistar a Culiacán, con el sol a pleno y la admiración por una ciudad que tiene mucho más encanto de lo que se dice en los periódicos.

«Es el juego eterno de un novelista intentar hacer las cosas bien, y es el juego eterno porque no termina. En cada obra que intento parto con la misma idea y tengo una novela que mucha gente dice que es la mejor que he escrito y cuando me paro, abro cualquier página de ella y me pregunto: "¿Qué hice aquí que no puedo hacer ahora?"». 


AUNQUE ELLA ENTRÓ POR LA VENTANA DEL BAÑO

«La literatura de violencia es cada vez más propositiva. No es solo un recuento épico de la depredación humana; se sustenta en una estética que se va definiendo en base a una voluntad de estilo y un territorio lingüístico concreto. Si logramos crear obras maestras, será un género literario», había dicho hace años el escritor de la «narcoliteratura», Élmer Mendoza. Han pasado muchos cadáveres bajo la sangre que corre por las venas de México. Ahora no vamos a discutir si tiene sentido hablar de ese género o a debatir si hay más narco o más literatura entre los escritores que tratan de correr sin tenis ni condición física la gran carrera que gana la realidad.

Lo que sí es cierto es que Élmer Mendoza parece salido de una corriente pop, que esa violencia y esa sangre se licuan para hablar de una cierta esperanza, y parece decidirse por una estética absolutamente particular, por un lenguaje que a estas alturas ya le es propio y entretener así a los miles de lectores que le son fieles desde hace mucho tiempo.

Quiero decir: no es rockero, es popero. Para los amantes de la música esta comparación se hará fácil. No testimonia un impulso letal y destructivo como el que establecía The Clash en Londres, sino que nos hace bailar y cantar con una rola de Paul McCartney (nunca de John), cuando entran las fans a la casa, sin pedir permiso.

Pienso esto por supuesto después de haber leído la nueva novela de Élmer Mendoza, otra aventura de ese detective tan cercano y tan poco eficiente como es El Zurdo Mendieta, donde esta vez se las verá feo con el delincuente Sebastián Salcido, aceptará la ayuda de Samantha Valdés y le cumplirá los deseos a un viejo ricachón que soñaba con volver a ver a una mujer que se parecía a Milla Jovovich.

«Cuando llegó a su casa, ventanas reparadas y muy bien barrida, lo primero que hizo fue poner el cedé que le había regalado el Chóper y encontrar la número trece: She Came In Through the Bathroom Window. Órale, se escuchaba tremenda», dice El Zurdo Mendieta, mientras en esta pandemia un tanto absurda y siempre letal, valoro cada día más la vida, ese único tesoro que tenemos cada uno.

Ella entró por la ventana del baño, de Élmer Mendoza, resulta ser otra novela, mas no solo para pasar un buen rato una tarde de domingo, sino también para aprender de una vez y para siempre que «hay noches en que los hombres duros sí bailan». Como esas canciones pop que se renuevan cada década y que nos acompañan toda la existencia.

«Yo creo que hay una pregunta en la novela negra y que ahora se ha ampliado. Y esa pregunta es «¿Por qué?», como lo concibe Claudia Piñeiro, es como una amplitud, hay un aspecto social que es lo que da la extensión en la semántica. La novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social». 

Escribir tanto es su oficio. Su tiempo está organizado. Lo empieza a la mañana, tipo 5:00 o 6:00 AM. Siempre trabaja por ratos. Se dedica mayormente a la historia que cuenta. No tiene fecha de entrega. Va avanzando y cuida mucho los textos. Lee poemas, ensayos, narrativa, aunque esta última la ve con un mayor sentido profesional.

Frente a la disyuntiva de leer a los escritores por la identidad, Élmer Mendoza dice: «Yo leo libros». No se fija en los autores por sus características. Piensa, eso sí, qué buena la lucha de las mujeres. «Estoy acostumbrado a las mujeres. A lo largo de todos mis años siempre he trabajado con mujeres. No es posible que todavía estén peleando por sus derechos», dice en entrevista con LENGUA: «En mi literatura están las mujeres, porque aquí estamos todos. Los niños no aparecen, porque se me hace difícil escribir con ellos».

Él y Leonor son muy amigos de la escritora argentina Claudia Piñeiro, quien dice, entre otras cosas, que han cambiado las preguntas para determinar una novela negra. Ya no buscamos al asesino, sino «preguntar lo que pasó, por qué llegó a eso, qué resortes no saltaron, la novela negra corre sus límites para incorporar estos tipos de crímenes», afirmaba. 

«Yo creo que hay una pregunta en la novela negra y que ahora se ha ampliado. Y esa pregunta es "¿Por qué?", como lo concibe Claudia Piñeiro, es como una amplitud, hay un aspecto social que es lo que da la extensión en la semántica. La novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social», dice Élmer. «En muchos momentos empata con la realidad que viven todos los seres humanos. Han cambiado las definiciones y las preguntas para la novela negra. En el caso de El Zurdo Mendieta, tiene que ser un personaje parecido al real, pero que tenga un universo de problemas, de debilidades y de dos o tres fortalezas, que lo pone en la vida real», agrega.

No sabemos a estas alturas si Élmer Mendoza ha escrito una obra maestra del género. Pero lo que sí es cierto es que sus novelas ya no saben a Faulkner o a Rulfo, saben a él mismo. 

La mención de su traje para recibir el doctorado honoris causa de la Universidad de Sinaloa se mezcla para preguntar cómo ha salido Checo Pérez en el Grand Prix de Portugal. Esta tarde verá el América-Pumas, no sabemos si comerá machaca.



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