Entrevistas

¿Es fea España?

¿Qué tiene que ver el caos urbano con la democracia? ¿Hasta qué punto un territorio define la forma en que vivimos y las injusticias que padecemos? ¿Cuántas catástrofes puede evitar un paisaje bello? Andrés Rubio, periodista y autor de «España fea» (Debate), cruce brillante de crónica periodística, libro de viajes y ensayo político sobre las barbaridades cometidas en el patrimonio español desde el final de la dictadura de Franco hasta la actualidad, responde las cinco preguntas de LENGUA sobre la voracidad de la construcción en el país, a la que no duda en calificar como «una catástrofe cultural sin precedentes» provocada por generaciones de políticos incultos y constructores enamorados del cemento.

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Aguilar: \u00bfEs Espa\u00f1a fea o es que la hemos afeado?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9s Rubio:<\/strong> Espa\u00f1a ha sido maravillosa por su variedad de climas y relieves, pobre pero sexy, como dijo un ex alcalde de Berl\u00edn sobre su ciudad. Para adaptarse a esa geograf\u00eda espa\u00f1ola, los maestros alba\u00f1iles y los artesanos an\u00f3nimos crearon en los pueblos distintos tipos de edificaciones de una variedad y una armon\u00eda extraordinarias. Las ciudades tambi\u00e9n reflejaron esa rica tradici\u00f3n en sus n\u00facleos hist\u00f3ricos y en los ensanches decimon\u00f3nicos. Pero ya a principios del siglo XX se comenzaron a destruir, desmantelar y exportar elementos significativos del patrimonio, algo que se exacerb\u00f3 en el franquismo. Cuando a finales de los a\u00f1os cincuenta se produjo el <em>big bang<\/em> de la construcci\u00f3n a nivel global, el r\u00e9gimen, retr\u00f3grado e inculto, fue incapaz de manejar este hecho determinante. Si antes de la guerra civil Francia y Alemania eran los focos culturales de los que se nutr\u00edan los espa\u00f1oles, en el franquismo ese foco se volvi\u00f3 hacia Estados Unidos. Y el modelo americano de planificaci\u00f3n urbana desregulado y favorecedor de la corrupci\u00f3n (liderado por las corporaciones privadas y por los estados, y no por el gobierno central de Washington), se aplic\u00f3 en Espa\u00f1a con resultados especialmente negativos. As\u00ed se vio, por ejemplo, en el proceso de deterioro sistem\u00e1tico de la costa para la creaci\u00f3n de la industria tur\u00edstica. Lo traum\u00e1tico fue que en democracia esta deriva no solo no se detuvo sino que se aceler\u00f3, sobre todo porque la Constituci\u00f3n de 1978 fij\u00f3 las competencias de urbanismo en las comunidades aut\u00f3nomas, que comenzaron a actuar a base de normas que parec\u00edan ser concebidas principalmente para ser infringidas. Hasta llegar a la deplorable situaci\u00f3n territorial actual de poder fraudulento 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Aguilar: En el libro recorres numerosos ejemplos de destrozos urban\u00edsticos y paisaj\u00edsticos. \u00bfHay un hilo conductor entre todos ellos o son muy distintos?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9s Rubio:<\/strong> El hilo conductor es siempre la especulaci\u00f3n ca\u00f3tica, la corrupci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica y la incultura. Y ni siquiera se salvan enclaves estupendos e incontestables como San Sebasti\u00e1n, que no es ya tan bonita como la pintan porque si escarbas un poco te encuentras con numerosas sorpresas relacionadas con la sobreexplotaci\u00f3n (y no s\u00f3lo con los <em>pintxos<\/em>). Estuve all\u00ed para presentar el libro y unos amigos me dijeron que mirara hacia la playa de La Concha desde el puerto viejo, donde, por cierto, se ha colocado una fea barandilla impropia de la atm\u00f3sfera marinera del lugar. A lo lejos, donde antes hab\u00eda villas ajardinadas bordeando el monumento natural que es esa playa \u00fanica, ahora todo empieza a ser cemento: est\u00e1 desapareciendo el verde de la playa de La Concha. El proceso cementificador donostiarra ha llegado tambi\u00e9n al cerro de San Bartolom\u00e9, en pleno centro, donde la arquitectura basura campa a sus anchas en edificios residenciales construidos recientemente. La tradici\u00f3n de buena arquitectura de la ciudad se pierde en este y en otros barrios nuevos, donde no se ha tenido en cuenta como se debiera a las figuras de la arquitectura ni a los artistas en la configuraci\u00f3n del espacio p\u00fablico. Asimismo, acaba de ser destruido el interior de un cine de m\u00e1s de cien a\u00f1os, el Bellas Artes, un viejo cinemat\u00f3grafo de los que quedan muy pocos en Europa, y eso que la ciudad cuenta con un importante festival internacional de cine. La conclusi\u00f3n de todo esto es que si esta infame conspiraci\u00f3n ocurre en San Sebasti\u00e1n, una ciudad culta, refinada y admirada por todos, \u00bfqu\u00e9 no ocurrir\u00e1 en otros lugares espa\u00f1oles? Es preciso se\u00f1alar que el alcalde pertenece al Partido Nacionalista Vasco y que gobierna con el apoyo del Partido Socialista de Euskadi. As\u00ed queda claro que el complot contra el territorio y el bien p\u00fablico se ha activado en Espa\u00f1a desde todos los partidos pol\u00edticos. 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Cr\u00e9dito: Andr\u00e9s 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Aguilar: Mencionas que en pa\u00edses vecinos hay instituciones que se dedican a proteger la riqueza del entorno. Si pudieras traer una a Espa\u00f1a, \u00bfcu\u00e1l ser\u00eda?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9s Rubio:<\/strong> Habr\u00eda que traer no una, sino varias instituciones de Francia, por ser el pa\u00eds que con m\u00e1s decisi\u00f3n y mejores medios se ha enfrentado al proceso casi ingobernable de la expansi\u00f3n constructiva global. Por ejemplo, habr\u00eda que crear en Espa\u00f1a un Conservatorio del Litoral, que desde 1975 compra terrenos de la costa francesa para preservarlos ecol\u00f3gicamente. Esta instituci\u00f3n p\u00fablica fue fundada por el presidente conservador Val\u00e9ry Giscard d\u2019Estaing, al que cuando le preguntaron qu\u00e9 iba a hacer el Estado con esos terrenos recuperados de las garras de los promotores, dijo: \u00abNaturalmente, nada\u00bb. Tambi\u00e9n se deber\u00eda crear en Espa\u00f1a un Cuerpo de Arquitectos y Urbanistas del Estado a imagen del franc\u00e9s, con altos funcionarios independientes e incorruptibles, cuya misi\u00f3n en Francia es \u00abhacer coherente el respeto por el patrimonio y el planeamiento del territorio\u00bb. Asimismo, el Ministerio de Cultura deber\u00eda tener entre sus principios b\u00e1sicos la promoci\u00f3n y la difusi\u00f3n de la arquitectura, tal como sucede en Francia, donde la calidad arquitect\u00f3nica recae en el Estado como \u00abacto de cultura\u00bb. Por \u00faltimo, el Estado espa\u00f1ol deber\u00eda ofrecer asistencia profesional gratuita a aquellos ciudadanos sin suficientes recursos para sus proyectos, algo que ocurre en Francia. Para lograr todo esto se necesitar\u00eda un consenso pol\u00edtico que en Espa\u00f1a parece muy lejos de poder alcanzarse, teniendo en cuenta que lo que marca la pauta es \u00abel permanente conflicto Estado-regiones\u00bb, una expresi\u00f3n tomada del profesor italiano Salvatore Settis, quien ha escrito que el federalismo m\u00f3rbido disgregador provoca en Italia \u00abla esquizofrenia del Estado\u00bb, algo aplicable tambi\u00e9n al modelo espa\u00f1ol. Quiz\u00e1 el modelo descentralizado alem\u00e1n, con los Lander, estados caracterizados por su transparencia y un intercambio continuo t\u00e9cnico-cient\u00edfico, podr\u00eda servir de inspiraci\u00f3n a Espa\u00f1a\u00a0e Italia, pero ya hay voces de arquitectos independientes que piden tambi\u00e9n en Alemania la creaci\u00f3n de un Ministerio de Construcci\u00f3n que fusione y coordine todas las pol\u00edticas con el fin de enfrentarse a la terrible amenaza del cambio clim\u00e1tico. La soluci\u00f3n parece muy dif\u00edcil, pero el planteamiento inicial deber\u00eda ser, desde la b\u00fasqueda de consensos, la elaboraci\u00f3n de un plan estrat\u00e9gico del Estado en materia de planeamiento territorial. En Barcelona, la arquitecta Itziar Gonz\u00e1lez Vir\u00f3s lleva a\u00f1os pidiendo que no se construya ninguna obra nueva y que la industria de la construcci\u00f3n se convierta en la industria de la deconstrucci\u00f3n, d\u00e1ndole el protagonismo a la rehabilitaci\u00f3n, el desmantelamiento y el reciclaje. Y el colectivo madrile\u00f1o n\u2019UNDO (<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>deshacer<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u00bb<\/span>, en ingl\u00e9s) aboga porque se detenga la industria de la construcci\u00f3n (\u00abNo hacer, rehacer, deshacer\u00bb es su lema). Ojal\u00e1 la soluci\u00f3n llegue de una acci\u00f3n al m\u00e1ximo nivel de la Uni\u00f3n Europea.<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: \u00bfC\u00f3mo repartir\u00edas las culpas entre pol\u00edticos, arquitectos, constructores y ciudadanos?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9s Rubio:<\/strong> Principalmente la responsabilidad es de la pol\u00edtica espa\u00f1ola y sus \u00e9lites incultas, cuyos integrantes proceden en general de los campos del derecho y la econom\u00eda. Ning\u00fan presidente de gobierno en la Espa\u00f1a democr\u00e1tica ha sentido curiosidad por lo que Henri Lefevbre defini\u00f3 ya en los a\u00f1os setenta como\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>la ciencia del fen\u00f3meno urbano<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #4d5156; font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;\\\">\u00bb<\/span>, todo lo contrario que en Francia, donde hasta un presidente como el conservador Nicolas Sarkozy, pese a su tenebrosa imagen, lider\u00f3 la vertebraci\u00f3n del futuro del Gran Par\u00eds con un concurso de ideas de quince estudios de arquitectura internacionales. Una ciencia, la del fen\u00f3meno urbano, que se ha demostrado como eje fundamental de la contemporaneidad porque de ella depende la justicia espacial, esa que seg\u00fan el ge\u00f3grafo Edward Soja implica que cualquier ciudadano tiene derecho a vivir en un entorno de calidad con independencia de su riqueza. Por lo dem\u00e1s, en Espa\u00f1a, los promotores y constructores, de no haber sido alentados por la pol\u00edtica y c\u00f3mplices de ella, no habr\u00edan participado en la conjura contra el territorio al terrible nivel alcanzado. Los arquitectos, por su parte, fueron tomados como rehenes, marginados en el proceso en vez de prestigiados en su condici\u00f3n de servidores p\u00fablicos, expulsados de un debate que ni siquiera se ha producido desde las instancias del poder, salvo excepciones de alcaldes de ciudades como Barcelona o Santiago de Compostela, por poner dos ejemplos significativos. Por \u00faltimo, est\u00e1n los ciudadanos, que han permanecido impasibles, aletargados, lo mismo que los intelectuales y los medios de comunicaci\u00f3n. La excepci\u00f3n han sido los grupos ecologistas y las peque\u00f1as asociaciones, que no han tenido la debida relevancia dentro del caos de la construcci\u00f3n mala, corrupta, pretenciosa e incompetente tan caracter\u00edstica de la Espa\u00f1a de las \u00faltimas d\u00e9cadas.<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: \u00bfQu\u00e9 incluir\u00edas en un hipot\u00e9tico libro futuro \u00abEspa\u00f1a guapa\u00bb?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Andr\u00e9s Rubio:<\/strong> Las extensiones inabarcables de la Espa\u00f1a vaciada, que ojal\u00e1 se conviertan en reserva natural de Europa en una sociedad descarbonizada e interespecie y en un novedoso laboratorio de pr\u00e1cticas medioambientales. Barcelona como modelo urbano para toda Espa\u00f1a, con la figura de Oriol Bohigas como referente desde sus posiciones socialdem\u00f3cratas, el arquitecto que a partir de 1980 determin\u00f3 gracias a su criterio, su decisi\u00f3n y su bagaje intelectual el futuro de la ciudad con sus acciones preparatorias para los Juegos Ol\u00edmpicos de 1992 al frente del \u00e1rea de urbanismo y arquitectura. El casco hist\u00f3rico de Girona, que alberga la universidad. El Camino de Caballos de Menorca, recuperado por los habitantes de la isla frente a las pretensiones de Jaume Matas, el que fue ministro de Medio Ambiente de Jos\u00e9 Mar\u00eda Aznar, que se propon\u00eda hacer paseos mar\u00edtimos y encementar especulativamente muchos de los espacios naturales, ahora preservados gracias al decisivo activismo de los habitantes que se enfrentaron a estos pol\u00edticos y les ganaron la batalla. Lo que queda de Lanzarote seg\u00fan lo concibi\u00f3 el artista C\u00e9sar Manrique, una isla que tras la muerte de este defensor de la arquitectura vern\u00e1cula se vio sumida en un pozo sin fondo de corrupci\u00f3n por parte de los caciques locales reconvertidos en \u00abconstrugobernantes\u00bb. Todas las construcciones de arquitectos como V\u00edctor L\u00f3pez Cotelo, con sus extraordinarios trabajos de rehabilitaci\u00f3n en Santiago de Compostela, y de otros muchos profesionales que, pese a haber sido expulsados de la primera fila del poder, han conseguido realizar obras en muchos casos destacables. Madrid R\u00edo y Matadero, dos de las intervenciones m\u00e1s afortunadas en la capital en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os. El centro sociocultural de Santiago Cirugeda en la marginal Ca\u00f1ada Real de Madrid, ejemplo de arquitectura conectada con lo social y lo comunitario a un nivel admirable. Los pueblos de Albarrac\u00edn y Vejer de la Frontera, con sus mod\u00e9licas actuaciones de preservaci\u00f3n. Benidorm y su densidad ecol\u00f3gica de rascacielos alineados con vistas a la playa, frente al modelo de negatividad de La Manga del Mar Menor y de todos los focos de segundas residencias expandidas en forma de mancha de aceite antiecol\u00f3gica. Los parques nacionales y cada una de las reservas naturales, que deber\u00edan incrementarse al m\u00e1ximo. Cualquier acci\u00f3n de demolici\u00f3n en la costa para recuperarla medioambientalmente, como la que derrib\u00f3 las 450 construcciones del antiguo Club Med en el cabo de Creus... Hay much\u00edsimos casos rescatables y admirables para la \u00abEspa\u00f1a guapa\u00bb, pero sin un plan estrat\u00e9gico del Estado la impresi\u00f3n general seguir\u00e1 siendo muy negativa. Porque si nadie los frena, los cementificadores que est\u00e1n ahora mismo destruyendo la playa de La Concha de San Sebasti\u00e1n y tantos otros lugares culminar\u00e1n su macabra labor y quedar\u00e1n impunes.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2vw4ah9\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sergio-del-molino-contra-la-espana-vacia\\\">Viaje desde la Espa\u00f1a vac\u00eda hasta su contra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/juan-cruz-ruiz-ciudadano-polanco\\\">La \u00faltima defensa de Jes\u00fas Polanco<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/javier-cercas-paradojas-pandemia\\\">Javier Cercas: paradojas de la pandemia<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xpzob72\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

 El Algarrobico, en la costa de Almería. Crédito: Ben Roberts.

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Es España fea o es que la hemos afeado?

Andrés Rubio: España ha sido maravillosa por su variedad de climas y relieves, pobre pero sexy, como dijo un ex alcalde de Berlín sobre su ciudad. Para adaptarse a esa geografía española, los maestros albañiles y los artesanos anónimos crearon en los pueblos distintos tipos de edificaciones de una variedad y una armonía extraordinarias. Las ciudades también reflejaron esa rica tradición en sus núcleos históricos y en los ensanches decimonónicos. Pero ya a principios del siglo XX se comenzaron a destruir, desmantelar y exportar elementos significativos del patrimonio, algo que se exacerbó en el franquismo. Cuando a finales de los años cincuenta se produjo el big bang de la construcción a nivel global, el régimen, retrógrado e inculto, fue incapaz de manejar este hecho determinante. Si antes de la guerra civil Francia y Alemania eran los focos culturales de los que se nutrían los españoles, en el franquismo ese foco se volvió hacia Estados Unidos. Y el modelo americano de planificación urbana desregulado y favorecedor de la corrupción (liderado por las corporaciones privadas y por los estados, y no por el gobierno central de Washington), se aplicó en España con resultados especialmente negativos. Así se vio, por ejemplo, en el proceso de deterioro sistemático de la costa para la creación de la industria turística. Lo traumático fue que en democracia esta deriva no solo no se detuvo sino que se aceleró, sobre todo porque la Constitución de 1978 fijó las competencias de urbanismo en las comunidades autónomas, que comenzaron a actuar a base de normas que parecían ser concebidas principalmente para ser infringidas. Hasta llegar a la deplorable situación territorial actual de poder fraudulento atomizado. 

Miguel Aguilar: En el libro recorres numerosos ejemplos de destrozos urbanísticos y paisajísticos. ¿Hay un hilo conductor entre todos ellos o son muy distintos?

Andrés Rubio: El hilo conductor es siempre la especulación caótica, la corrupción política y la incultura. Y ni siquiera se salvan enclaves estupendos e incontestables como San Sebastián, que no es ya tan bonita como la pintan porque si escarbas un poco te encuentras con numerosas sorpresas relacionadas con la sobreexplotación (y no sólo con los pintxos). Estuve allí para presentar el libro y unos amigos me dijeron que mirara hacia la playa de La Concha desde el puerto viejo, donde, por cierto, se ha colocado una fea barandilla impropia de la atmósfera marinera del lugar. A lo lejos, donde antes había villas ajardinadas bordeando el monumento natural que es esa playa única, ahora todo empieza a ser cemento: está desapareciendo el verde de la playa de La Concha. El proceso cementificador donostiarra ha llegado también al cerro de San Bartolomé, en pleno centro, donde la arquitectura basura campa a sus anchas en edificios residenciales construidos recientemente. La tradición de buena arquitectura de la ciudad se pierde en este y en otros barrios nuevos, donde no se ha tenido en cuenta como se debiera a las figuras de la arquitectura ni a los artistas en la configuración del espacio público. Asimismo, acaba de ser destruido el interior de un cine de más de cien años, el Bellas Artes, un viejo cinematógrafo de los que quedan muy pocos en Europa, y eso que la ciudad cuenta con un importante festival internacional de cine. La conclusión de todo esto es que si esta infame conspiración ocurre en San Sebastián, una ciudad culta, refinada y admirada por todos, ¿qué no ocurrirá en otros lugares españoles? Es preciso señalar que el alcalde pertenece al Partido Nacionalista Vasco y que gobierna con el apoyo del Partido Socialista de Euskadi. Así queda claro que el complot contra el territorio y el bien público se ha activado en España desde todos los partidos políticos. Sobre todo desde las filas de la derecha, en especial el Partido Popular, pero también desde los nacionalismos conservadores y la izquierda. 

La icónica playa de La Tejita, en Tenerife, y el esqueleto de un hotel de lujo levantado en 2020 durante la pandemia. Crédito: Andrés Rubio.

Miguel Aguilar: Mencionas que en países vecinos hay instituciones que se dedican a proteger la riqueza del entorno. Si pudieras traer una a España, ¿cuál sería?

Andrés Rubio: Habría que traer no una, sino varias instituciones de Francia, por ser el país que con más decisión y mejores medios se ha enfrentado al proceso casi ingobernable de la expansión constructiva global. Por ejemplo, habría que crear en España un Conservatorio del Litoral, que desde 1975 compra terrenos de la costa francesa para preservarlos ecológicamente. Esta institución pública fue fundada por el presidente conservador Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, al que cuando le preguntaron qué iba a hacer el Estado con esos terrenos recuperados de las garras de los promotores, dijo: «Naturalmente, nada». También se debería crear en España un Cuerpo de Arquitectos y Urbanistas del Estado a imagen del francés, con altos funcionarios independientes e incorruptibles, cuya misión en Francia es «hacer coherente el respeto por el patrimonio y el planeamiento del territorio». Asimismo, el Ministerio de Cultura debería tener entre sus principios básicos la promoción y la difusión de la arquitectura, tal como sucede en Francia, donde la calidad arquitectónica recae en el Estado como «acto de cultura». Por último, el Estado español debería ofrecer asistencia profesional gratuita a aquellos ciudadanos sin suficientes recursos para sus proyectos, algo que ocurre en Francia. Para lograr todo esto se necesitaría un consenso político que en España parece muy lejos de poder alcanzarse, teniendo en cuenta que lo que marca la pauta es «el permanente conflicto Estado-regiones», una expresión tomada del profesor italiano Salvatore Settis, quien ha escrito que el federalismo mórbido disgregador provoca en Italia «la esquizofrenia del Estado», algo aplicable también al modelo español. Quizá el modelo descentralizado alemán, con los Lander, estados caracterizados por su transparencia y un intercambio continuo técnico-científico, podría servir de inspiración a España e Italia, pero ya hay voces de arquitectos independientes que piden también en Alemania la creación de un Ministerio de Construcción que fusione y coordine todas las políticas con el fin de enfrentarse a la terrible amenaza del cambio climático. La solución parece muy difícil, pero el planteamiento inicial debería ser, desde la búsqueda de consensos, la elaboración de un plan estratégico del Estado en materia de planeamiento territorial. En Barcelona, la arquitecta Itziar González Virós lleva años pidiendo que no se construya ninguna obra nueva y que la industria de la construcción se convierta en la industria de la deconstrucción, dándole el protagonismo a la rehabilitación, el desmantelamiento y el reciclaje. Y el colectivo madrileño n’UNDO («deshacer», en inglés) aboga porque se detenga la industria de la construcción («No hacer, rehacer, deshacer» es su lema). Ojalá la solución llegue de una acción al máximo nivel de la Unión Europea.

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Cómo repartirías las culpas entre políticos, arquitectos, constructores y ciudadanos?

Andrés Rubio: Principalmente la responsabilidad es de la política española y sus élites incultas, cuyos integrantes proceden en general de los campos del derecho y la economía. Ningún presidente de gobierno en la España democrática ha sentido curiosidad por lo que Henri Lefevbre definió ya en los años setenta como «la ciencia del fenómeno urbano», todo lo contrario que en Francia, donde hasta un presidente como el conservador Nicolas Sarkozy, pese a su tenebrosa imagen, lideró la vertebración del futuro del Gran París con un concurso de ideas de quince estudios de arquitectura internacionales. Una ciencia, la del fenómeno urbano, que se ha demostrado como eje fundamental de la contemporaneidad porque de ella depende la justicia espacial, esa que según el geógrafo Edward Soja implica que cualquier ciudadano tiene derecho a vivir en un entorno de calidad con independencia de su riqueza. Por lo demás, en España, los promotores y constructores, de no haber sido alentados por la política y cómplices de ella, no habrían participado en la conjura contra el territorio al terrible nivel alcanzado. Los arquitectos, por su parte, fueron tomados como rehenes, marginados en el proceso en vez de prestigiados en su condición de servidores públicos, expulsados de un debate que ni siquiera se ha producido desde las instancias del poder, salvo excepciones de alcaldes de ciudades como Barcelona o Santiago de Compostela, por poner dos ejemplos significativos. Por último, están los ciudadanos, que han permanecido impasibles, aletargados, lo mismo que los intelectuales y los medios de comunicación. La excepción han sido los grupos ecologistas y las pequeñas asociaciones, que no han tenido la debida relevancia dentro del caos de la construcción mala, corrupta, pretenciosa e incompetente tan característica de la España de las últimas décadas.

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Qué incluirías en un hipotético libro futuro «España guapa»?

Andrés Rubio: Las extensiones inabarcables de la España vaciada, que ojalá se conviertan en reserva natural de Europa en una sociedad descarbonizada e interespecie y en un novedoso laboratorio de prácticas medioambientales. Barcelona como modelo urbano para toda España, con la figura de Oriol Bohigas como referente desde sus posiciones socialdemócratas, el arquitecto que a partir de 1980 determinó gracias a su criterio, su decisión y su bagaje intelectual el futuro de la ciudad con sus acciones preparatorias para los Juegos Olímpicos de 1992 al frente del área de urbanismo y arquitectura. El casco histórico de Girona, que alberga la universidad. El Camino de Caballos de Menorca, recuperado por los habitantes de la isla frente a las pretensiones de Jaume Matas, el que fue ministro de Medio Ambiente de José María Aznar, que se proponía hacer paseos marítimos y encementar especulativamente muchos de los espacios naturales, ahora preservados gracias al decisivo activismo de los habitantes que se enfrentaron a estos políticos y les ganaron la batalla. Lo que queda de Lanzarote según lo concibió el artista César Manrique, una isla que tras la muerte de este defensor de la arquitectura vernácula se vio sumida en un pozo sin fondo de corrupción por parte de los caciques locales reconvertidos en «construgobernantes». Todas las construcciones de arquitectos como Víctor López Cotelo, con sus extraordinarios trabajos de rehabilitación en Santiago de Compostela, y de otros muchos profesionales que, pese a haber sido expulsados de la primera fila del poder, han conseguido realizar obras en muchos casos destacables. Madrid Río y Matadero, dos de las intervenciones más afortunadas en la capital en los últimos años. El centro sociocultural de Santiago Cirugeda en la marginal Cañada Real de Madrid, ejemplo de arquitectura conectada con lo social y lo comunitario a un nivel admirable. Los pueblos de Albarracín y Vejer de la Frontera, con sus modélicas actuaciones de preservación. Benidorm y su densidad ecológica de rascacielos alineados con vistas a la playa, frente al modelo de negatividad de La Manga del Mar Menor y de todos los focos de segundas residencias expandidas en forma de mancha de aceite antiecológica. Los parques nacionales y cada una de las reservas naturales, que deberían incrementarse al máximo. Cualquier acción de demolición en la costa para recuperarla medioambientalmente, como la que derribó las 450 construcciones del antiguo Club Med en el cabo de Creus... Hay muchísimos casos rescatables y admirables para la «España guapa», pero sin un plan estratégico del Estado la impresión general seguirá siendo muy negativa. Porque si nadie los frena, los cementificadores que están ahora mismo destruyendo la playa de La Concha de San Sebastián y tantos otros lugares culminarán su macabra labor y quedarán impunes.

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