Entrevistas

Fernanda Melchor y su viaje al «Páradais»: «Escribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista»

Con «Temporada de huracanes» (LRH, 2017), la mexicana Fernanda Melchor se confirmó como una de las escritoras mexicanas más relevantes del momento, en su país y en el mundo. Ahora, con la publicación de «Páradais», ahonda su apuesta: no abandona el punto de vista de los hombres, se sumerge en las atrocidades de las que son capaces, y cruza las zonas altas y bajas de la sociedad en apenas 160 páginas filosas y brutales. En esta entrevista explica por qué.

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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-comment-reference: GJ_1; mso-comment-date: 20210127T1005;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\">Es casi innecesario <\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"es\\\">decir que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/3506-fernanda-melchor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fernanda Melchor<\/a><\/span> (Boca del R\u00edo, 1982) es de Veracruz. Desde su libro de cr\u00f3nicas,<i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/4597-aqui-no-es-miami\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Aqu\u00ed no es Miami<\/a><\/span><\/i>, hasta sus novelas, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Falsa liebre<\/i>\u00a0y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/4442-temporada-de-huracanes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada de huracanes <\/i>(Literatura Random House, 2017)<\/a>, <\/span>su estado natal respira entre las p\u00e1ginas en forma de clima, colores, creencias y alientos. En su m\u00e1s reciente novela, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/234332-paradais\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/a><\/em><\/span><i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">\u00a0<\/i>(<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/11353-literatura-random-house\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Literatura Random House<\/a><\/span>, 2021)<i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">, <\/i>Veracruz vuelve a ser el escenario de una historia de violencia machista y estructural. Otra parte de su biograf\u00eda, su carrera de periodista, se transparenta en las cr\u00f3nicas de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Aqu\u00ed no es Miami, <\/i>en<strong> esa forma oblicua de hacer una revisi\u00f3n social que se inclina hacia un periodismo literario,<\/strong> m\u00e1s preocupado por los personajes que por los datos. Hay un largo camino recorrido entre la \u00e9poca en que Melchor se encargaba de las comunicaciones de su <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">alma mater, <\/i>la Universidad Veracruzana, y la escritora de relevancia internacional en que se ha convertido. Sin embargo, conversar con Fernanda fue una experiencia c\u00e1lida y cercana. Quiz\u00e1 tenga que ver con esta voluntad de cuestionar el mundo que nos rodea, pero con los pies bien puestos en la tierra, sin ideas preconcebidas de los que tiene que ser una escritora, sin el \u00abbuenismo\u00bb que ella misma menciona como una de las exigencias actuales a los creadores. Sus ideas y opiniones son multidimensionales: nada es tan absoluto como las redes sociales quieren, y la indagaci\u00f3n de las pasiones humanas requiere poner a un lado, aunque sea por un momento, <strong>la correcci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica que se ha erigido como una verdad absoluta.<\/strong> Fernanda va constantemente de la historia personal a la obra y de regreso, as\u00ed como sus cr\u00f3nicas se transfiguran en ocasiones en ensayos personales y sus novelas, en la m\u00e1s agria cr\u00edtica.<\/span><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: comment-list;\\\"><div style=\\\"mso-element: comment;\\\"><div id=\\\"_com_1\\\" class=\\\"msocomtxt\\\" language=\\\"JavaScript\\\"><!-- [if 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Despu\u00e9s de que su segunda novela se expandiera por el mundo en m\u00faltiples traducciones, ganara el<span style=\\\"mso-spacerun: yes;\\\">\u00a0 <\/span><strong>Premio Internacional de Literatura 2019,<\/strong> adem\u00e1s de que fuera nominada para el <strong>Premio Man Booker International 2020,<\/strong> la autora <a style=\\\"mso-comment-reference: GJ_1; mso-comment-date: 20210127T1014;\\\">emprende la empresa arriesgada, por parad\u00f3jico que suene,<span style=\\\"font-size: 10.6667px;\\\">\u00a0<\/span><\/a><\/span><span lang=\\\"es\\\">de volver con una novela que ya desde su brevedad se declara distinta a su predecesora. En un zarpazo de 150 cuartillas, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/i> narra la tensa relaci\u00f3n entre Polo, jardinero y achichincle en el conjunto residencial P\u00e1radais que, entre el calor hervoroso y las hojas de un manglar, traba una dudosa relaci\u00f3n con uno de los inquilinos, Franco Andrade, adolescente obeso y obseso. Cuando este repite la letan\u00eda eterna de que va a darse a su vecina, la se\u00f1ora Mariana, ya sea por las buenas o por las malas, lo que parece simple palabrer\u00eda se vuelve un coqueteo con el crimen y una posible salida para Polo, quien est\u00e1 harto de la vida de privaciones que le toc\u00f3 en suerte.<span style=\\\"mso-spacerun: 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La apuesta de radiografiar la consciencia de sus personajes se repite de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/234332-paradais\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/a><\/em><\/span>, donde los lectores nos vemos abatidos ante la invitaci\u00f3n a habitar en la conciencia de Polo, que nos lleva a recorrer su vida, obras y, especialmente, deseos y resentimientos. <strong>Es a partir de sus ojos que esta novela tiende el camino de una historia brutal.<\/strong> Melchor apuesta de nuevo por un trabajo sobre el lenguaje que tiene el filo de un cuchillo de palo, que lima y lima sobre la realidad hasta que abre caminos nuevos para entenderla. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Me gustar\u00eda empezar hablando de ovnis, porque siempre me parece lo m\u00e1s adecuado para iniciar cualquier conve<\/span><\/b><strong><span lang=\\\"es\\\">rsaci\u00f3n. En \u00abLuces en el cielo\u00bb<\/span><span lang=\\\"es\\\">, la primera cr\u00f3nica de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/4597-aqui-no-es-miami\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Aqu\u00ed no es Miami<\/a><\/span><\/em>, dices que tu incapacidad para creer en cosas viene de tu breve incursi\u00f3n y r\u00e1pida desilusi\u00f3n de la ufolog\u00eda. \u00bfEsa incredulidad afecta tu escritura, los temas que abordas y c\u00f3mo los abordas?<\/span><\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Me considero muy racionalista. Sol\u00eda verlo como una gran virtud y ahora ya no s\u00e9 si es tan bueno. Creo que lo m\u00e1s espiritual que hago es la pr\u00e1ctica de la escritura, es un ejercicio que tiene que ver menos con lo racional. Parecer\u00eda que es lo contrario, m\u00e1s relacionado con lo intelectual, pero para m\u00ed la escritura es un ejercicio incluso de fe. Desde la adolescencia dej\u00e9 de creer en la religi\u00f3n, en las cosas del m\u00e1s all\u00e1, m\u00e1s espirituales. Sin embargo, siempre me gust\u00f3 mucho leer las historias de cosas que se contaban sobre hechos sobrenaturales. Tiene que ver con una postura que me ayud\u00f3 a volverme escritora, periodista de entrada, este escepticismo de mirar las cosas y querer ver m\u00e1s all\u00e1, ver \u00aba trav\u00e9s de\u00bb. Estudi\u00e9 un semestre de sociolog\u00eda y me pareci\u00f3 muy fr\u00edo. El periodismo me permiti\u00f3 hacer preguntas y estar constantemente indagando desde una perspectiva m\u00e1s humana, y en las novelas puedo explorarlo con m\u00e1s profundidad.<\/p><p><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Aun a pesar de este escepticismo, tanto en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada<\/i> como en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/i> existe la presencia de elementos ominosos y de creencias populares m\u00e1s que de una religi\u00f3n institucional. Por ejemplo, est\u00e1 el elemento en com\u00fan de las casas abandonadas y la brujer\u00eda.<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> A\u00f1ado elementos a mis novelas que les den atm\u00f3sfera, sabor, textura a la historia, sin pensar de d\u00f3nde viene eso. Descubrir que las casas eran un factor com\u00fan me sorprendi\u00f3. En mis tres novelas hay una mujer embarazada y una casa abandonada. Una podr\u00eda establecer mil y una teor\u00edas, y hacer psicologismo, pero es cierto que estas tres novelas las escrib\u00ed entre los veintiocho y los treinta y ocho. Considero que en lo personal he tenido una transformaci\u00f3n de la idea de la maternidad, por ejemplo, que tuve que confrontar. La casa abandonada tambi\u00e9n tiene que ver con la maternidad, y el cuerpo, con el cuerpo como una habitaci\u00f3n de la mujer. Siento que era una cosa que me estaba tratando de decir a m\u00ed misma. Tampoco me interesa tanto analizarlo, creo que los s\u00edmbolos de la novela son importantes, aunque a veces no es \u00fatil trazar una genealog\u00eda. Sobre la religiosidad, est\u00e1 muy impregnada de lo popular, de estas creencias de Veracruz. Para m\u00ed tiene que ver con esta forma de querer estar dentro, pero siempre observar con distancia, como en el caso de los personajes masculinos.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"-20\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o0hhk5x\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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que me gusta hacer con mis novelas es hacer sentir cosas, es una especie de vac\u00edo que est\u00e1 detr\u00e1s de las palabras que evocan las palabras, pero no lo se\u00f1ala. Ese vac\u00edo no es pol\u00edticamente correcto. Para m\u00ed es imposible no escribir acerca de eso.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"whesibr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Hablando de eso, en tu obra es muy notoria la exploraci\u00f3n sobre la masculinidad. En un tema en el que muchas veces se privilegia una narradora femenina, t\u00fa optas mayormente por hacerlo a trav\u00e9s de personajes masculinos, por ejemplo, en el caso de <i>P\u00e1radais<\/i> con Polo.<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> En la \u00e9poca en que termin\u00e9 <i>Falsa liebre<\/i> se empezaba a escuchar sobre <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1377-alison-bechdel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el test de Bechdel<\/a><\/span>, en el que se mide la importancia de los personajes femeninos a trav\u00e9s de los di\u00e1logos que tienen, y me di cuenta de que <i>Falsa liebre<\/i> no pasaba ese test y que todos los personajes femeninos ten\u00edan una relaci\u00f3n con los personajes hombres. Pero no me pareci\u00f3 que tuviera sentido cambiarlo porque la historia que quer\u00eda narrar era as\u00ed. Me dije que en la siguiente novela tendr\u00eda que trabajar los personajes femeninos, que ellas fueran las detonadoras, que tuvieran m\u00e1s profundidad. Para m\u00ed el narrador de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/4442-temporada-de-huracanes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Temporada de huracanes<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0es una mujer, son voces de mujeres las que est\u00e1n hablando, incluso cuando est\u00e1n dentro de la cabeza de batos. Ese narrador siempre me lo he imaginado como la voz de una demonia, de una diabla, como la monstrua de <i>Big Mouth. <\/i>Cuando empec\u00e9 a pensar\u00a0en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/234332-paradais\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/a><\/em><\/span>, mientras terminaba <i>Temporada de huracanes,<\/i> desde el principio siempre pens\u00e9\u00a0que la historia ten\u00eda que ser contada desde el punto de vista de los muchachos que van a hacer algo horrible. En <i>Temporada<\/i> me concentr\u00e9 mucho en la gente que es capaz de hacer cosas horribles, pero ahora me interesaba abordar a esas personas que son c\u00f3mplices y esquivan toda responsabilidad, como es el caso de Polo, que parecer\u00eda que es un testigo que de entrada le est\u00e1 echando la culpa de todo a Franco Andrade. Me interesaba explorar lo que Hannah Arendt llama \u00abla banalidad del mal\u00bb. Aquellas personas que pareciera que solo hacen lo que les ordenan tambi\u00e9n tienen una forma de maldad. Me interesaba mucho explorar este otro lado y la irresponsabilidad y la cobard\u00eda. Por un momento s\u00ed dije: \u201cAy, otra vez voy a escribir de batos\u201d, pero si lo pienso demasiado ya no me sale, hay una especie de impulso y de \u00edmpetu que hay que seguir. Pienso que tal vez escribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista. Lo que me interesa de contar historias de batos es tratar de entenderlos. Ya sabes: crecer en un pa\u00eds como M\u00e9xico en el que desde que era ni\u00f1a me gritaban cosas horribles cuando iba a las tortillas. A lo mejor es como una forma de entender por qu\u00e9 los hombres son as\u00ed.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Y en este caso elegiste a Polo en el centro...<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> De entrada yo siempre pens\u00e9 que <em>P\u00e1radais<\/em> ten\u00eda que ser una novela corta, porque lo que pasa es demasiado brutal. No quer\u00eda caer en este porno de la violencia, en un regodeo de ello. En <em>Temporada<\/em> me avoqu\u00e9 mucho a explorar esta vida sexual oculta, el lado que ten\u00eda que ver con las fantas\u00edas de hombres y mujeres, y la verdad es que en muchos momentos le imprim\u00ed much\u00edsima energ\u00eda a esta vida interior. Con esta novela no quer\u00eda hacer esto, quer\u00eda hacer una denuncia. Quer\u00eda que el tono fuera distinto. En <em>Temporada<\/em>, por muy horrible que sean las cosas que las personas hacen, hay una vulnerabilidad en los personajes que produce empat\u00eda. Ahora no. Quer\u00eda mostrarlos m\u00e1s crudamente, bajo una luz m\u00e1s aguda, de lo f\u00e1rsico, de lo \u00e1cido. Para crear un narrador como el de\u00a0<em>P\u00e1radais<\/em> se necesita crear mucha distancia entre este y los personajes. Es un narrador que ve desde arriba, el cuate que aparentemente no tiene que ver con lo que pas\u00f3, el que no mata a la vaca, sino que le agarr\u00f3 la pata. Me interesaba exclusivamente lo que pasaba en la mente de esta persona que se est\u00e1 generando todo un discurso para tratar de convencerse a s\u00ed mismo de que no tiene la culpa de algo horrible de lo que por supuesto que s\u00ed tiene la culpa.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yn06txb\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abPor un momento dije: \\\"Ay, otra vez voy a escribir de batos\\\", pero si lo pienso demasiado ya no me sale, hay una especie de impulso y de \u00edmpetu que hay que seguir. Pienso que tal vez escribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Ahora con lo que dices de que <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">P\u00e1radais <\/i>parte de hacer una especie de denuncia, los dos personajes principales son bastante antip\u00e1ticos y sin embargo no es que te expulsen de la historia. Por el contrario, son antip\u00e1ticos, pero t\u00fa quieres seguir leyendo lo que les pasa. Tiene que ver quiz\u00e1s con la brevedad.<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong>\u00a0Esa era justo la intenci\u00f3n. Siempre pens\u00e9 que ten\u00eda que ser una novela breve e intensa, hay toda una investigaci\u00f3n de las formas cortas que quiero seguir explorando desde la ficci\u00f3n. Me cost\u00f3 mucho trabajo encontrar lo que quer\u00eda contar.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Por un lado tenemos a Polo, un personaje marginal, y luego tenemos a Franco, que es superprivilegiado.<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Ten\u00eda la intenci\u00f3n de hacer este como d\u00fao din\u00e1mico que por supuesto fuera muy contrastante, pero con puntos en com\u00fan. M\u00e1s all\u00e1 del estrato social del que provienen, creo que ambos personajes son marginales dentro de sus ambientes. Polo, por alguna extra\u00f1a raz\u00f3n, es el \u00fanico en su pueblo que no quiere ser narco. Cuando fantasea con la idea lo hace porque es lo \u00fanico que tiene a mano. Es algo desesperado. Y Franco tambi\u00e9n, a pesar de que viene de un medio m\u00e1s privilegiado, es un marginal de esta sociedad. No solo por su aspecto f\u00edsico, sino por su perversi\u00f3n y su situaci\u00f3n familiar. Hace tiempo que quer\u00eda tocar este otro Veracruz, tomando un poco la met\u00e1fora de mi libro de cr\u00f3nicas, que s\u00ed quiere ser Miami, que s\u00ed se cree Miami. Este crecimiento descontrolado, desequilibrado de fraccionamientos de lujo, en zonas que eran reservas naturales o peque\u00f1os pueblos de pescadores. Un fen\u00f3meno que no solo se da en Veracruz, sino en todo el mundo. Quer\u00eda hablar de las cosas que tambi\u00e9n conoc\u00ed. <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada <\/i>habla de la pobreza rural, pero yo no me cri\u00e9 en un medio rural, sino en una zona urbana de clase media. En distintas ocasiones he tenido oportunidad de conocer el mundo que retrata <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">P\u00e1radais<\/i>, y de estar un poco en medio, sin pertenecer totalmente a \u00e9l pero sin ser del todo ajena. Ten\u00eda ganas de hablar de eso, y sobre todo del choque de dos visiones, como sucede con Polo y Franco. Sus diferencias, semejanzas, alianza y constantes traiciones que se hacen el uno al otro.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Has elegido hasta ahora hablar del margen, una elecci\u00f3n arriesgada en estos tiempos, desde la pregunta de qu\u00e9 puedes narrar t\u00fa, o quien sea, partiendo del lugar del que partes\u2026<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Es algo que he pensado mucho, sobre todo desde que me han traducido. Entrar a un mercado como el gringo es empezar a pensar un mont\u00f3n de cosas que tienen que ver con la correcci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica. Estaba aterrada de que se me considerara mis\u00f3gina u homof\u00f3bica por lo que la voz de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada<\/i> est\u00e1 constantemente afirmando. Tuve la suerte de tener una gran traductora que pudo traducir el lado B de la finalidad del narrador, que es mostrar cu\u00e1nto hemos naturalizado este lenguaje. Siempre es una cosa muy delicada que tiene que ver con el punto de vista. Es dif\u00edcil, pero al mismo tiempo tampoco me puedo someter. Hay cosas que me es importante mostrar. Lo que me gusta hacer con mis novelas es hacer sentir cosas, es una especie de vac\u00edo que est\u00e1 detr\u00e1s de las palabras que evocan las palabras, pero no lo se\u00f1ala. Ese vac\u00edo no es pol\u00edticamente correcto. 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style=\\\"mso-comment-reference: GJ_1; mso-comment-date: 20210127T1058;\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Es un poco lo que ha afirmado recientemente Ariana Harwicz.<\/span><\/b><\/a><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> S\u00ed, estoy totalmente de acuerdo con lo que ella dice acerca de la censura.<\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: Lo pol\u00edticamente correcto, por m\u00e1s que tiene un lado necesario, tiene otro que puede ser limitante a la hora de escribir. <o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Siento que tiene que ver con esa especie de \u00abbuenismo\u00bb que ahora se nos exige a los autores. Aunque creo que siempre ha sucedido, nuestra realidad hist\u00f3rica hace que los autores sean personajes de s\u00ed mismos. Hay personas que quieren ser queridas, admiradas, no solo escribir, y eso a veces te orilla a unirte a ciertas causas. No digo que las personas que lo hacen sean necesariamente fr\u00edas y calculadoras. Seguro que hay un inter\u00e9s genuino. Pero es como si por un lado estuviera el personaje en que se nos convierte y, por otro, la persona verdadera que escribe. Yo a veces me aburro mucho de este personaje en el que me tengo que convertir para hablar una y otra vez sobre libros. Eso pas\u00f3 hace tiempo en Twitter, cuando algunas personas dijeron que yo hab\u00eda ca\u00eddo de su pedestal y yo me pregunt\u00e9 por qu\u00e9 me ten\u00edan en un pedestal en primer lugar. Es muy f\u00e1cil creerte que eres ese personaje. Esta performance que constantemente tenemos que hacer en redes sociales nos va convirtiendo en gente deseosa de agradar, de recibir afectos.\u00a0<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><p><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: \u00bfSientes que todo este clima que se relaciona con las redes sociales es algo que te importe a la hora de escribir?<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Me sal\u00ed de redes sociales. Creo que eso es algo que nos pasa a todos. Todos estamos hartos de repente de ese personajito con el que estamos constantemente en escena. Ya no me gustaba la persona en la que me hab\u00eda convertido. Esa es la parte mala, pero pienso tambi\u00e9n al inicio de mi carrera, cuando gracias a Facebook mucha gente sab\u00eda que era escritora y mucha gente le\u00eda mis cr\u00f3nicas. Entiendo c\u00f3mo para un joven escritor o una joven escritora las redes son indispensables. Desgraciadamente, la industria se ha aprovechado de ello. Yo s\u00ed recomendar\u00eda que aprovecharan todo lo que se pueda esa red, pero que tambi\u00e9n se dieran una escapada de vez en cuando, porque se refleja en la obra.<\/span>\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: \u00bfC\u00f3mo afect\u00f3 a la escritura de este libro el momento en el que est\u00e1s?<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Fue dif\u00edcil la escritura del libro como tal porque ten\u00eda que vaciarme de todas estas opiniones y ruido en varios idiomas que gener\u00f3 <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada<\/i> para poder escribir lo que quer\u00eda escribir ahora y luchar contra todos estos pensamientos, miedos, ansiedades, de repetirme que de nuevo estoy escribiendo de los mismos temas. Me agobiaba mucho pensar no en t\u00e9rminos de lo que quer\u00eda escribir, sino de qu\u00e9 es lo que deber\u00eda estar escribiendo. Fue agotador. Con <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Temporada<\/i> yo me tard\u00e9 el tiempo que quise, nadie estaba esper\u00e1ndola. Pude echar toda la carne al asador porque no hab\u00eda expectativa. En el caso de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">P\u00e1radais <\/i>ya ten\u00eda un contrato para escribirla. Siento que con esta novela termin\u00f3 un ciclo. Quiero disfrutar lo que va a venir, estoy muy contenta de c\u00f3mo qued\u00f3 la novela y la sensaci\u00f3n que me qued\u00f3 en el paladar me gusta. <o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><p><b style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><em>Lengua<\/em>: \u00bfQu\u00e9 viene?<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;\\\"><span lang=\\\"es\\\"><strong>Fernanda Melchor:<\/strong> Ya estoy pensando en lo que sigue este primer semestre, un ensayo largo de los pliegues entre la ficci\u00f3n y el periodismo, pregunt\u00e1ndome acerca de lo que hago, un par de pr\u00f3logos y quiero empezar a pensar en lo que escribir\u00e9 cuando est\u00e9 en Berl\u00edn. No me quiero apresurar. Como dec\u00eda, se cerr\u00f3 una especie de ciclo de ciertas preocupaciones que me agobiaban mucho. Ahora me preocupan otras cosas, tal vez m\u00e1s formales que tem\u00e1ticas, aunque para m\u00ed todo es formal.<\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1857jdj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_spacer\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"10\"},\"space_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":50},\"space_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":50},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"spacer\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2byvj2e\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"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10 minutos

Crédito: Lisbeth Salas.

Por AURA GARCÍA JUNCO



Es casi innecesario decir que Fernanda Melchor (Boca del Río, 1982) es de Veracruz. Desde su libro de crónicas, Aquí no es Miami, hasta sus novelas, Falsa liebre y Temporada de huracanes (Literatura Random House, 2017), su estado natal respira entre las páginas en forma de clima, colores, creencias y alientos. En su más reciente novela, Páradais (Literatura Random House, 2021), Veracruz vuelve a ser el escenario de una historia de violencia machista y estructural. Otra parte de su biografía, su carrera de periodista, se transparenta en las crónicas de Aquí no es Miami, en esa forma oblicua de hacer una revisión social que se inclina hacia un periodismo literario, más preocupado por los personajes que por los datos. Hay un largo camino recorrido entre la época en que Melchor se encargaba de las comunicaciones de su alma mater, la Universidad Veracruzana, y la escritora de relevancia internacional en que se ha convertido. Sin embargo, conversar con Fernanda fue una experiencia cálida y cercana. Quizá tenga que ver con esta voluntad de cuestionar el mundo que nos rodea, pero con los pies bien puestos en la tierra, sin ideas preconcebidas de los que tiene que ser una escritora, sin el «buenismo» que ella misma menciona como una de las exigencias actuales a los creadores. Sus ideas y opiniones son multidimensionales: nada es tan absoluto como las redes sociales quieren, y la indagación de las pasiones humanas requiere poner a un lado, aunque sea por un momento, la corrección política que se ha erigido como una verdad absoluta. Fernanda va constantemente de la historia personal a la obra y de regreso, así como sus crónicas se transfiguran en ocasiones en ensayos personales y sus novelas, en la más agria crítica.

«Es muy fácil creerte que eres ese personaje virtual. Esta performance que constantemente tenemos que hacer en redes sociales nos va convirtiendo en gente deseosa de agradar, de recibir afectos.»

Entre todos los ecos que ha provocado, resulta difícil no partir de Temporada de huracanes  para hablar de Páradais. Después de que su segunda novela se expandiera por el mundo en múltiples traducciones, ganara el  Premio Internacional de Literatura 2019, además de que fuera nominada para el Premio Man Booker International 2020, la autora emprende la empresa arriesgada, por paradójico que suene, de volver con una novela que ya desde su brevedad se declara distinta a su predecesora. En un zarpazo de 150 cuartillas, Páradais narra la tensa relación entre Polo, jardinero y achichincle en el conjunto residencial Páradais que, entre el calor hervoroso y las hojas de un manglar, traba una dudosa relación con uno de los inquilinos, Franco Andrade, adolescente obeso y obseso. Cuando este repite la letanía eterna de que va a darse a su vecina, la señora Mariana, ya sea por las buenas o por las malas, lo que parece simple palabrería se vuelve un coqueteo con el crimen y una posible salida para Polo, quien está harto de la vida de privaciones que le tocó en suerte. 

«Habrá quien diga que mis novelas son profundamente sociológicas», dice Melchor, pero su interés está más bien puesto en el acercamiento humano y empático que le vino del  periodismo y se reafirmó ya en sus novelas previas. La apuesta de radiografiar la consciencia de sus personajes se repite de Páradais, donde los lectores nos vemos abatidos ante la invitación a habitar en la conciencia de Polo, que nos lleva a recorrer su vida, obras y, especialmente, deseos y resentimientos. Es a partir de sus ojos que esta novela tiende el camino de una historia brutal. Melchor apuesta de nuevo por un trabajo sobre el lenguaje que tiene el filo de un cuchillo de palo, que lima y lima sobre la realidad hasta que abre caminos nuevos para entenderla. Entre esta minucia en el cómo se dicen las cosas, queda claro por qué la autora afirma que para ella nada es solo fondo, la forma siempre es una preocupación constante.

Camino del paraíso

Lengua: Me gustaría empezar hablando de ovnis, porque siempre me parece lo más adecuado para iniciar cualquier conversación. En «Luces en el cielo», la primera crónica de Aquí no es Miami, dices que tu incapacidad para creer en cosas viene de tu breve incursión y rápida desilusión de la ufología. ¿Esa incredulidad afecta tu escritura, los temas que abordas y cómo los abordas?

Fernanda Melchor: Me considero muy racionalista. Solía verlo como una gran virtud y ahora ya no sé si es tan bueno. Creo que lo más espiritual que hago es la práctica de la escritura, es un ejercicio que tiene que ver menos con lo racional. Parecería que es lo contrario, más relacionado con lo intelectual, pero para mí la escritura es un ejercicio incluso de fe. Desde la adolescencia dejé de creer en la religión, en las cosas del más allá, más espirituales. Sin embargo, siempre me gustó mucho leer las historias de cosas que se contaban sobre hechos sobrenaturales. Tiene que ver con una postura que me ayudó a volverme escritora, periodista de entrada, este escepticismo de mirar las cosas y querer ver más allá, ver «a través de». Estudié un semestre de sociología y me pareció muy frío. El periodismo me permitió hacer preguntas y estar constantemente indagando desde una perspectiva más humana, y en las novelas puedo explorarlo con más profundidad.

Lengua: Aun a pesar de este escepticismo, tanto en Temporada como en Páradais existe la presencia de elementos ominosos y de creencias populares más que de una religión institucional. Por ejemplo, está el elemento en común de las casas abandonadas y la brujería.

Fernanda Melchor: Añado elementos a mis novelas que les den atmósfera, sabor, textura a la historia, sin pensar de dónde viene eso. Descubrir que las casas eran un factor común me sorprendió. En mis tres novelas hay una mujer embarazada y una casa abandonada. Una podría establecer mil y una teorías, y hacer psicologismo, pero es cierto que estas tres novelas las escribí entre los veintiocho y los treinta y ocho. Considero que en lo personal he tenido una transformación de la idea de la maternidad, por ejemplo, que tuve que confrontar. La casa abandonada también tiene que ver con la maternidad, y el cuerpo, con el cuerpo como una habitación de la mujer. Siento que era una cosa que me estaba tratando de decir a mí misma. Tampoco me interesa tanto analizarlo, creo que los símbolos de la novela son importantes, aunque a veces no es útil trazar una genealogía. Sobre la religiosidad, está muy impregnada de lo popular, de estas creencias de Veracruz. Para mí tiene que ver con esta forma de querer estar dentro, pero siempre observar con distancia, como en el caso de los personajes masculinos.

«Lo que me gusta hacer con mis novelas es hacer sentir cosas, es una especie de vacío que está detrás de las palabras que evocan las palabras, pero no lo señala. Ese vacío no es políticamente correcto. Para mí es imposible no escribir acerca de eso.»

Lengua: Hablando de eso, en tu obra es muy notoria la exploración sobre la masculinidad. En un tema en el que muchas veces se privilegia una narradora femenina, tú optas mayormente por hacerlo a través de personajes masculinos, por ejemplo, en el caso de Páradais con Polo.

Fernanda Melchor: En la época en que terminé Falsa liebre se empezaba a escuchar sobre el test de Bechdel, en el que se mide la importancia de los personajes femeninos a través de los diálogos que tienen, y me di cuenta de que Falsa liebre no pasaba ese test y que todos los personajes femeninos tenían una relación con los personajes hombres. Pero no me pareció que tuviera sentido cambiarlo porque la historia que quería narrar era así. Me dije que en la siguiente novela tendría que trabajar los personajes femeninos, que ellas fueran las detonadoras, que tuvieran más profundidad. Para mí el narrador de Temporada de huracanes es una mujer, son voces de mujeres las que están hablando, incluso cuando están dentro de la cabeza de batos. Ese narrador siempre me lo he imaginado como la voz de una demonia, de una diabla, como la monstrua de Big Mouth. Cuando empecé a pensar en Páradais, mientras terminaba Temporada de huracanes, desde el principio siempre pensé que la historia tenía que ser contada desde el punto de vista de los muchachos que van a hacer algo horrible. En Temporada me concentré mucho en la gente que es capaz de hacer cosas horribles, pero ahora me interesaba abordar a esas personas que son cómplices y esquivan toda responsabilidad, como es el caso de Polo, que parecería que es un testigo que de entrada le está echando la culpa de todo a Franco Andrade. Me interesaba explorar lo que Hannah Arendt llama «la banalidad del mal». Aquellas personas que pareciera que solo hacen lo que les ordenan también tienen una forma de maldad. Me interesaba mucho explorar este otro lado y la irresponsabilidad y la cobardía. Por un momento sí dije: “Ay, otra vez voy a escribir de batos”, pero si lo pienso demasiado ya no me sale, hay una especie de impulso y de ímpetu que hay que seguir. Pienso que tal vez escribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista. Lo que me interesa de contar historias de batos es tratar de entenderlos. Ya sabes: crecer en un país como México en el que desde que era niña me gritaban cosas horribles cuando iba a las tortillas. A lo mejor es como una forma de entender por qué los hombres son así.

Lengua: Y en este caso elegiste a Polo en el centro...

Fernanda Melchor: De entrada yo siempre pensé que Páradais tenía que ser una novela corta, porque lo que pasa es demasiado brutal. No quería caer en este porno de la violencia, en un regodeo de ello. En Temporada me avoqué mucho a explorar esta vida sexual oculta, el lado que tenía que ver con las fantasías de hombres y mujeres, y la verdad es que en muchos momentos le imprimí muchísima energía a esta vida interior. Con esta novela no quería hacer esto, quería hacer una denuncia. Quería que el tono fuera distinto. En Temporada, por muy horrible que sean las cosas que las personas hacen, hay una vulnerabilidad en los personajes que produce empatía. Ahora no. Quería mostrarlos más crudamente, bajo una luz más aguda, de lo fársico, de lo ácido. Para crear un narrador como el de Páradais se necesita crear mucha distancia entre este y los personajes. Es un narrador que ve desde arriba, el cuate que aparentemente no tiene que ver con lo que pasó, el que no mata a la vaca, sino que le agarró la pata. Me interesaba exclusivamente lo que pasaba en la mente de esta persona que se está generando todo un discurso para tratar de convencerse a sí mismo de que no tiene la culpa de algo horrible de lo que por supuesto que sí tiene la culpa.

«Por un momento dije: "Ay, otra vez voy a escribir de batos", pero si lo pienso demasiado ya no me sale, hay una especie de impulso y de ímpetu que hay que seguir. Pienso que tal vez escribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista.»

Lengua: Ahora con lo que dices de que Páradais parte de hacer una especie de denuncia, los dos personajes principales son bastante antipáticos y sin embargo no es que te expulsen de la historia. Por el contrario, son antipáticos, pero tú quieres seguir leyendo lo que les pasa. Tiene que ver quizás con la brevedad.

Fernanda Melchor: Esa era justo la intención. Siempre pensé que tenía que ser una novela breve e intensa, hay toda una investigación de las formas cortas que quiero seguir explorando desde la ficción. Me costó mucho trabajo encontrar lo que quería contar.

Lengua: Por un lado tenemos a Polo, un personaje marginal, y luego tenemos a Franco, que es superprivilegiado.

Fernanda Melchor: Tenía la intención de hacer este como dúo dinámico que por supuesto fuera muy contrastante, pero con puntos en común. Más allá del estrato social del que provienen, creo que ambos personajes son marginales dentro de sus ambientes. Polo, por alguna extraña razón, es el único en su pueblo que no quiere ser narco. Cuando fantasea con la idea lo hace porque es lo único que tiene a mano. Es algo desesperado. Y Franco también, a pesar de que viene de un medio más privilegiado, es un marginal de esta sociedad. No solo por su aspecto físico, sino por su perversión y su situación familiar. Hace tiempo que quería tocar este otro Veracruz, tomando un poco la metáfora de mi libro de crónicas, que sí quiere ser Miami, que sí se cree Miami. Este crecimiento descontrolado, desequilibrado de fraccionamientos de lujo, en zonas que eran reservas naturales o pequeños pueblos de pescadores. Un fenómeno que no solo se da en Veracruz, sino en todo el mundo. Quería hablar de las cosas que también conocí. Temporada habla de la pobreza rural, pero yo no me crié en un medio rural, sino en una zona urbana de clase media. En distintas ocasiones he tenido oportunidad de conocer el mundo que retrata Páradais, y de estar un poco en medio, sin pertenecer totalmente a él pero sin ser del todo ajena. Tenía ganas de hablar de eso, y sobre todo del choque de dos visiones, como sucede con Polo y Franco. Sus diferencias, semejanzas, alianza y constantes traiciones que se hacen el uno al otro.

Lengua: Has elegido hasta ahora hablar del margen, una elección arriesgada en estos tiempos, desde la pregunta de qué puedes narrar tú, o quien sea, partiendo del lugar del que partes…

Fernanda Melchor: Es algo que he pensado mucho, sobre todo desde que me han traducido. Entrar a un mercado como el gringo es empezar a pensar un montón de cosas que tienen que ver con la corrección política. Estaba aterrada de que se me considerara misógina u homofóbica por lo que la voz de Temporada está constantemente afirmando. Tuve la suerte de tener una gran traductora que pudo traducir el lado B de la finalidad del narrador, que es mostrar cuánto hemos naturalizado este lenguaje. Siempre es una cosa muy delicada que tiene que ver con el punto de vista. Es difícil, pero al mismo tiempo tampoco me puedo someter. Hay cosas que me es importante mostrar. Lo que me gusta hacer con mis novelas es hacer sentir cosas, es una especie de vacío que está detrás de las palabras que evocan las palabras, pero no lo señala. Ese vacío no es políticamente correcto. Para mí es imposible no escribir acerca de eso. 

«Siempre pensé que tenía que ser una novela breve e intensa, hay toda una investigación de las formas cortas que quiero seguir explorando desde la ficción.»

Lengua: Es un poco lo que ha afirmado recientemente Ariana Harwicz.

Fernanda Melchor: Sí, estoy totalmente de acuerdo con lo que ella dice acerca de la censura.

Lengua: Lo políticamente correcto, por más que tiene un lado necesario, tiene otro que puede ser limitante a la hora de escribir.

Fernanda Melchor: Siento que tiene que ver con esa especie de «buenismo» que ahora se nos exige a los autores. Aunque creo que siempre ha sucedido, nuestra realidad histórica hace que los autores sean personajes de sí mismos. Hay personas que quieren ser queridas, admiradas, no solo escribir, y eso a veces te orilla a unirte a ciertas causas. No digo que las personas que lo hacen sean necesariamente frías y calculadoras. Seguro que hay un interés genuino. Pero es como si por un lado estuviera el personaje en que se nos convierte y, por otro, la persona verdadera que escribe. Yo a veces me aburro mucho de este personaje en el que me tengo que convertir para hablar una y otra vez sobre libros. Eso pasó hace tiempo en Twitter, cuando algunas personas dijeron que yo había caído de su pedestal y yo me pregunté por qué me tenían en un pedestal en primer lugar. Es muy fácil creerte que eres ese personaje. Esta performance que constantemente tenemos que hacer en redes sociales nos va convirtiendo en gente deseosa de agradar, de recibir afectos. 

Lengua: ¿Sientes que todo este clima que se relaciona con las redes sociales es algo que te importe a la hora de escribir?

Fernanda Melchor: Me salí de redes sociales. Creo que eso es algo que nos pasa a todos. Todos estamos hartos de repente de ese personajito con el que estamos constantemente en escena. Ya no me gustaba la persona en la que me había convertido. Esa es la parte mala, pero pienso también al inicio de mi carrera, cuando gracias a Facebook mucha gente sabía que era escritora y mucha gente leía mis crónicas. Entiendo cómo para un joven escritor o una joven escritora las redes son indispensables. Desgraciadamente, la industria se ha aprovechado de ello. Yo sí recomendaría que aprovecharan todo lo que se pueda esa red, pero que también se dieran una escapada de vez en cuando, porque se refleja en la obra. 

Lengua: ¿Cómo afectó a la escritura de este libro el momento en el que estás?

Fernanda Melchor: Fue difícil la escritura del libro como tal porque tenía que vaciarme de todas estas opiniones y ruido en varios idiomas que generó Temporada para poder escribir lo que quería escribir ahora y luchar contra todos estos pensamientos, miedos, ansiedades, de repetirme que de nuevo estoy escribiendo de los mismos temas. Me agobiaba mucho pensar no en términos de lo que quería escribir, sino de qué es lo que debería estar escribiendo. Fue agotador. Con Temporada yo me tardé el tiempo que quise, nadie estaba esperándola. Pude echar toda la carne al asador porque no había expectativa. En el caso de Páradais ya tenía un contrato para escribirla. Siento que con esta novela terminó un ciclo. Quiero disfrutar lo que va a venir, estoy muy contenta de cómo quedó la novela y la sensación que me quedó en el paladar me gusta.

Lengua: ¿Qué viene?

Fernanda Melchor: Ya estoy pensando en lo que sigue este primer semestre, un ensayo largo de los pliegues entre la ficción y el periodismo, preguntándome acerca de lo que hago, un par de prólogos y quiero empezar a pensar en lo que escribiré cuando esté en Berlín. No me quiero apresurar. Como decía, se cerró una especie de ciclo de ciertas preocupaciones que me agobiaban mucho. Ahora me preocupan otras cosas, tal vez más formales que temáticas, aunque para mí todo es formal.

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