Entrevistas

Guillermo Arriaga o cómo narrar la crueldad

«El único dilema moral profundo es si le hago o no le hago daño al otro». El escritor mexicano refleja las luchas entre la ciencia y la teología a finales del siglo XVIII en «Extrañas» (Alfaguara), una salvaje novela de iniciación por la que desfilan toda una corte de «monstruos humanos», aventuras y sentimientos exacerbados. Cambia la época, se plantean nuevos desafíos técnicos, pero estamos delante del Arriaga de siempre, un ciclón narrativo.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/109222-guillermo-arriaga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Guillermo Arriaga<\/a><\/span>\u00a0(M\u00e9xico, Ciudad de M\u00e9xico, 1958) baja al vest\u00edbulo del hotel de Barcelona con los ojos hinchados. El <em>jet lag<\/em> y el insomnio habr\u00edan destrozado a cualquiera, pero estamos ante una fuerza de la naturaleza. Un hombre que ha sobrevivido a palizas callejeras brutales, a un accidente de coche que le dej\u00f3 afectada la capacidad de memorizar el rostro de las personas, a nueve d\u00edas sin dormir que lo llevaron a desmayarse y amanecer con la cara ensangrentada al haberse golpeado contra la pica del lavabo... Estas experiencias vitales extremas parad\u00f3jicamente han moldeado a un ser afable y atento, humilde y generoso, y precisamente son estas dos facetas, la ferocidad y la ternura, lo que han definido su obra, atenta a explorar c\u00f3mo conviven dentro de nosotros lo m\u00e1s tenebroso y lo m\u00e1s luminoso.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/actualidad\/el-premio-alfaguara-en-palabras-de-un-premio-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ganador del Premio Alfaguara en 2020<\/a><\/span> por <em>Salvar el fuego,<\/em> guionista de pel\u00edculas como<em> Amores perros, 21 gramos, Babel<\/em> o <em>Los tres entierros de Melquiades Estrada, <\/em>y director de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film521659.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">The Burning Plain<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> acaba de publicar <em>Extra\u00f1as,<\/em> su primera novela hist\u00f3rica, ambientada en la Inglaterra de 1781 y que retrata los albores de la medicina y la farmacolog\u00eda modernas a trav\u00e9s de las peripecias de un noble, William Burton, que sacrifica riquezas y ociosidad en favor de los desaf\u00edos de la ciencia y la curaci\u00f3n del pr\u00f3jimo.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 una novela hist\u00f3rica? \u00bfQu\u00e9 buscabas con este giro en tus coordenadas de ficci\u00f3n?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> \u00bfQui\u00e9n lo sabe? No trabajo con el raciocinio. No trabajo con el consciente. No trabajo desde la voluntad. Siento que alguien me dicta las novelas, que salen del pozo profundo del inconsciente, el cual determina c\u00f3mo se van a comportar los personajes, a veces hacen cosas que yo ni siquiera sospech\u00e9. Yo no puedo decir \u00abvoy a escribir una obra maestra\u00bb, o \u00abvoy a escribir un libro que sea comercial y venda miles y miles y miles de ejemplares\u00bb. No. En Hollywood oyes mucho: \u00abClaro. Lo escribi\u00f3 para ganarse el Oscar\u00bb. \u00bfC\u00f3mo se hace eso? Si yo pudiera escribir para ganarme el Nobel, la verdad es que lo har\u00eda\u2026 La mayor parte de mis historias se han almacenado dentro de m\u00ed durante d\u00e9cadas. <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/6651-libro-el-salvaje-9788420419640\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Salvaje<\/a><\/em>, por ejemplo, lo quer\u00eda escribir desde que ten\u00eda 14 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\u00bfCu\u00e1l fue al menos la chispa?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Los seres que dan t\u00edtulo a la novela. No les voy a hacer un <em>spoiler,<\/em> pero son seres cuya conformaci\u00f3n f\u00edsica s\u00f3lo se da cada trescientos a\u00f1os. No son seres m\u00edsticos, ni m\u00e1gicos, ni seres de luz. La mayor parte de quienes nacen con estas caracter\u00edsticas mueren j\u00f3venes. Se da la circunstancia de que en estos momentos vive uno de ellos. Pueden entra en internet despu\u00e9s de leer el libro para comprobarlo. Otra inspiraci\u00f3n nace de haber tenido amigos diferentes y por esto no me refiero a amigos gais o trans, que tambi\u00e9n los tengo, sino a personas que sufren una deformaci\u00f3n f\u00edsica, padecen una alg\u00fan tipo de limitaci\u00f3n intelectual o nacieron con un problema gen\u00e9tico. Ya film\u00e9 documentales para abrir a la sociedad la realidad de estos seres y<em>\u00a0<\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/315391-libro-extranas-9788420474861\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Extra\u00f1as<\/a><\/em><\/span> fue una manera de proseguir por la misma senda.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Se intuye un gran trabajo de documentaci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica detr\u00e1s del libro, sobre todo en el \u00e1rea de la medicina y la farmacolog\u00eda del siglo XVIII.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Tampoco soy un investigador tan concienzudo, tengo amigos escritores que se pasan seis a\u00f1os estudiando un tema para que les salga perfecto. Yo no. Por eso mi libro dice \u00abbasado en hechos hist\u00f3ricos y reales, los cuales jam\u00e1s sucedieron\u00bb. S\u00ed es cierto que tengo una maestr\u00eda en Historia y que desde siempre me ha interesado la medicina y he tenido acceso a ella, por ejemplo, acudiendo de oyente a la carrera de Veterinaria.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xxj7a75\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abNo trabajo con el raciocinio. No trabajo con el consciente. No trabajo desde la voluntad. Siento que alguien me dicta las novelas, que salen del pozo profundo del inconsciente, el cual determina c\u00f3mo se van a comportar los personajes, a veces hacen cosas que yo ni siquiera sospech\u00e9\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bnga0z7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfDe d\u00f3nde surge William Burton?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Un amigo me cont\u00f3 horrorizado que hab\u00eda visitado una granja en la que a unas personas con discapacidad las ten\u00edan desnudas y amarradas entre los animales. Me parti\u00f3 el coraz\u00f3n, como a cualquiera persona que tenga una m\u00ednima sensibilidad, y traspas\u00e9 esas emociones a Burton, un adolescente noble que va a heredar miles de hect\u00e1reas en el coraz\u00f3n de Inglaterra y que descubre las condiciones infrahumanas en las que viven unos individuos a los que califican de \u00abengendros\u00bb. A partir de ah\u00ed, cambia su visi\u00f3n del mundo, renuncia a las comodidades de su clase, es repudiado por la familia y se embarca en un periplo por la ciencia y por la medicina de cara a ayudar a los necesitados.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: El conflicto entre ciencia y teolog\u00eda est\u00e1 en el coraz\u00f3n del libro. Sorprende descubrir el desprecio tan generalizado hacia la medicina por aquel entonces. Un desprecio, por otro lado, no superado, a tenor de todos los tratamientos alternativos y los remedios nacidos de la superstici\u00f3n que siguen existiendo.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Yo no soy creyente. Crec\u00ed en un ambiente laico, pero siempre respetar\u00e9 a quien crea y tender\u00e9 a entender sus razones. En el siglo XVIII la visi\u00f3n era: \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 vas a curar a un moribundo si ya fue decisi\u00f3n de Dios que se muera? Supon\u00eda un sacrilegio porque estabas yendo en contra de la voluntad de Dios. Los primeros cient\u00edficos argumentaban: \u00abAl contrario, Dios puso frente a m\u00ed misterios que tengo que desentra\u00f1ar. Lo profundamente religioso es ayudar a los dem\u00e1s, Dios me mand\u00f3 al moribundo para sanarlo\u00bb. A lo que el bando opuesto replicaba: \u00abEs una arrogancia total que quieras actuar como Dios, salvando vidas\u00bb. Y los m\u00e9dicos a su vez contraatacaban: \u00abNo, act\u00fao como un ser humano, a imagen y semejanza de nuestro Se\u00f1or, que velaba por los enfermos\u00bb. En definitiva, ambos bandos se encomendaban a Dios. Y lo que refleja William Burton es que por aquel entonces los m\u00e9dicos eran unos aventureros desquiciados. Eran gente a la que le gustaba experimentar y arriesgar, hac\u00edan muchas cosas, y ese esp\u00edritu es el que quer\u00eda meter en la novela.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"px96dxg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abYo no puedo decir \\\"voy a escribir una obra maestra\\\", o \\\"voy a escribir un libro que sea comercial y venda miles y miles y miles de ejemplares\\\". No. En Hollywood oyes mucho: \\\"Claro. Lo escribi\u00f3 para ganarse el Oscar\\\". \u00bfC\u00f3mo se hace eso? Si yo pudiera escribir para ganarme el Nobel, la verdad es que lo har\u00eda...\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fx79zju\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Un reto t\u00e9cnico may\u00fasculo fue no emplear vocabulario m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de 1790 y ajustarse a la puntuaci\u00f3n del momento hist\u00f3rico.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Mi intenci\u00f3n era que el lector se sintiera dentro de una novela del siglo XVIII por eso cre\u00e9 una puntuaci\u00f3n distinta, una cadencia distinta -no contempor\u00e1nea-: no usar adverbios acabados en mente, ni el \u00abque\u00bb, ni el \u00abporque\u00bb ni el \u00abaunque\u00bb... Fue una labor tit\u00e1nica y a veces desesperante, ten\u00eda que ir revisando los t\u00e9rminos en la secci\u00f3n Diccionario en clave de la RAE para averiguar si eran de uso en la \u00e9poca, y en caso de que no, buscar las alternativas m\u00e1s precisas o directamente reconstruir las frases. Pido un poco de paciencia al lector pues puede suponer un reto entrar en el juego, pero pronto se coge el truco, y lo bueno de la falta de cap\u00edtulos es que mucha gente se me ha acercado para decirme que se les han hecho las tres de la madrugada y segu\u00edan con el libro aferrado a las manos ya que no hab\u00eda indicadores de d\u00f3nde parar.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Te has declarado un autor anti met\u00f3dico.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Hay escritores muy profesionales que saben lo que va pasar a cada momento, rellenan p\u00f3sit, tienen el final clar\u00edsimo, etc\u00e9tera. Yo no tengo la menor idea de nada. Escribo y escribo y escribo y escribo y escribo, y cuando termino, voy reescribiendo desde el principio, y voy cortando, cortando y cortando y cortando. A <em>Extra\u00f1as<\/em> s\u00f3lo le quit\u00e9 264 p\u00e1ginas.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Tambi\u00e9n sostienes que lo m\u00e1s importante de una novela es el punto de vista que vas a adoptar.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Un libro son unas gafas que te permiten observar la realidad de una manera determinada. Hay quienes creen que ser un buen escritor es escribir bien. Pero como zanj\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6182-jose-ortega-y-gasset\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ortega y Gasset<\/a><\/span>, ser un gran escritor es tener un mundo que expresar, porque correcci\u00f3n gramatical y sint\u00e1ctica la puede tener cualquiera. Escribir es siempre adoptar un punto de vista, es elegir qui\u00e9n va a contar la historia, qu\u00e9 gafas nos ponemos para mirar al mundo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wdupspq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Toda novela que se precie se sostiene en dilemas morales, pero estos son un aspecto que has explorado muy a fondo en tus novelas, la misma <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/315391-libro-extranas-9788420474861\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Extra\u00f1as<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0tiene a varios personajes encar\u00e1ndolos. \u00bfQu\u00e9 dir\u00edas que te atraen m\u00e1s de ellos y de qu\u00e9 manera personal los trabajas?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> El \u00fanico dilema moral profundo es si le hago o no le hago da\u00f1o al otro. Todo el resto, como si tengo o no sexo antes del matrimonio, no tiene nada que ver con la moral. Dado que <em>Extra\u00f1as<\/em> se centra en la labor de los m\u00e9dicos, la gran pregunta que deben hacerse es: \u00bfeste procedimiento va a provocar alg\u00fan da\u00f1o o no?<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: En tus novelas hay una voluntad de estilo muy marcada, la prosa es rica, la atenci\u00f3n al detalle exquisita. \u00bfPero la forma siempre sigue a la funci\u00f3n, que ser\u00eda la fuerza narrativa, o buscas por sistema un equilibrio?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Mi obligaci\u00f3n es contar historias lo mejor posible. \u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 mensaje quieres dar?\u00bb, me preguntan los periodistas. Ninguno. Yo no soy qui\u00e9n para dar mensajes ni lecciones morales. Y para contar esa historia no puedo permitir que la forma interfiera de ninguna manera. Respeto a los escritores que dicen que su escritura es como entrar en un jard\u00edn japon\u00e9s, un lugar en el que detenerte a observar la belleza de las plantas, sin pretender llegar a ning\u00fan lado. Perfecto. Lo m\u00edo es una selva en la que perderse, que no sabes ad\u00f3nde te conduce. Dejo la delicadeza para los otros, yo quiero que mis novelas remuevan, que impacten, que conmuevan, que los lectores puedan olerlas y saborearlas. Respeto la literatura de evasi\u00f3n, pero a nivel personal quiero escribir novelas que te metan en la realidad porque si te evades de ella no puedes enfrentarla. Me gustan las novelas que te llevan a estar con el mundo y no en el mundo.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: La literatura pues como un acto de resistencia.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> \u00a1Claro! Cuando mi hijo ten\u00eda 12 a\u00f1os, me invitaron a su escuela para incitar a los ni\u00f1os a la lectura. Lo primero que hice fue pedirles a los maestros que salieran del aula, luego reun\u00ed a los chavales y les dije: \u00abTodo lo que se hable aqu\u00ed es secreto. Les voy a recomendar unos libros que est\u00e1 prohibido leer, que no se enteren los pap\u00e1s ni los profesores porque se meter\u00e1n en un l\u00edo. \u00bfSaben para qu\u00e9 sirve leer? Cada vez que leen, encuentran algo de ustedes que no sab\u00edan que exist\u00eda. Y contra m\u00e1s sepan de ustedes, menos se van a convertir en esos padres que van de mal humor a su trabajo y regresan de mal humor a casa, y eso porque no tuvieron el conocimiento de s\u00ed mismos para decidir sobre su destino. Ustedes no quieren ser personas amargadas y para ello tienen que saber qui\u00e9nes son, el primer paso para poder transformar su entorno. Y si transforman su entorno, se transforman ustedes mismos y van a ser felices. Por eso tienen que leer\u00bb. Como eran libros secretos y prohibidos, seguro que los ten\u00edan debajo de las camas y los devoraban a la menor ocasi\u00f3n. O al menos eso espero. A nivel personal, ruego que el Papa Francisco proh\u00edba mis novelas alg\u00fan d\u00eda para convertirme en un<em> bestseller<\/em> global.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yu69itw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abRespeto a los escritores que dicen que su escritura es como entrar en un jard\u00edn japon\u00e9s, un lugar en el que detenerte a observar la belleza de las plantas, sin pretender llegar a ning\u00fan lado. Perfecto. Lo m\u00edo es una selva en la que perderse, que no sabes ad\u00f3nde te conduce\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"b2rdeng\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Si tuvieras que escoger un solo rasgo de tu car\u00e1cter como el m\u00e1s determinante que te impulsara a escribir, \u00bfcu\u00e1l ser\u00eda?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> La pasi\u00f3n. Yo no soy obsesivo, soy apasionado, soy adicto a escribir. Cualquier momento que tengo libre debo hacerlo, en los caf\u00e9s, en los taxis, donde sea. Tengo una personalidad adictiva, y como no fumo ni me drogo, escribo. Adem\u00e1s, poseo una disciplina bestial y rigor. Escribo porque me gusta estar en los mundos que creo y no veo el momento de regresar a ellos.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: M\u00e1s all\u00e1 de personajes y escenarios que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.instagram.com\/reel\/Cp0kFxxo7Ty\/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">remiten a M\u00e9xico<\/a><\/span>, \u00bfqu\u00e9 elementos convierten tus libros en muy mexicanos, factores quiz\u00e1 de temperamento o car\u00e1cter que podr\u00edan pasar desapercibidos al lector espa\u00f1ol?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> No tengo ni idea, aunque obviamente algo de su cultura debe filtrarse en mis libros. Es un pa\u00eds descarnado, que tiene las emociones muy a flor de piel. Me han pasado muchas cosas, veo a escritores neoyorquinos que se levantan, cogen el metro, trabajan, vuelven a su casa y a partir de este no pasarles nada construyen una novela, un minimalismo, un <em>chiquitismo<\/em> de la vida cotidiana. Lo justifican diciendo que no pasa nada pero pasa todo, yo creo que a m\u00ed realmente s\u00ed que me han pasado cosas. Pertenezco a una tradici\u00f3n narrativa en la que s\u00ed que se cuentan cosas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: Se define antes como cazador que como escritor:\u00a0<\/strong><b>\u00ab<\/b><strong>Todo mi trabajo es sobre la caza y todos mis personajes se comportan como cazadores<\/strong><b>\u00bb<\/b><strong>, ha afirmado.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Empec\u00e9 muy joven a cazar con arco y flecha pese a no pertenecer a una familia de cazadores, no s\u00e9 de d\u00f3nde vino. \u00bfD\u00f3nde ibas a cazar viviendo en Ciudad de M\u00e9xico? Si no has cazado nunca, has perdido la posibilidad de participar de un rito profundo, de obtener un entendimiento de la Naturaleza que no te lo da ninguna otra cosa. Lo \u00faltimo que me interesa es matar, cazar es una forma de vincularme con verdades que de otra manera no se me revelar\u00edan. Si yo no tuviera acceso a eso no podr\u00eda escribir o por lo menos no de la forma en que lo hago. Para empezar, entiendes que eres parte del mundo. Vivimos en un mundo muy alineado, \u00bfde d\u00f3nde procede este caf\u00e9 que te est\u00e1s tomando? \u00bfY la madera con la que se ha fabricado la mesa de tu casa? \u00bfC\u00f3mo hicieron tu m\u00f3vil? Yo del animal s\u00e9 d\u00f3nde duerme, cu\u00e1ndo se reproduce, qu\u00e9 come y bebe, cu\u00e1ntas cr\u00edas tiene. Yo cazo y me como el animal y cierro un c\u00edrculo, no me alieno. Siento que pertenezco al mundo, me conecto con partes de m\u00ed que desconoc\u00eda, tomo conciencia de que la sociedad se ha levantado sobre un trono de sangre porque yo he visto la sangre. Jam\u00e1s dejo comida en la mesa, ese animal sufri\u00f3 y has de aprovecharlo todo, no puede ir a la basura, es sacr\u00edlego. Cazar te hace m\u00e1s humilde y respetuoso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s9sdm8s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abYo no soy obsesivo, soy apasionado, soy adicto a escribir. Cualquier momento que tengo libre debo hacerlo, en los caf\u00e9s, en los taxis, donde sea. Tengo una personalidad adictiva, y como no fumo ni me drogo, escribo\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"89dwugp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>LENGUA: Has trabajado dos lenguajes tan distintos como el de la literatura y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/search.php?stype=director&sn&stext=Guillermo%20Arriaga\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el cine<\/a><\/span>. \u00bfQu\u00e9 te da el uno que el otro no puede? \u00bfQu\u00e9 recursos expresivos de cada uno te estimulan m\u00e1s?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Para m\u00ed todo es literatura, nunca se le pregunta a un dramaturgo si est\u00e1 haciendo o no literatura. El cine tiene hermos\u00edsimas ventajas:\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film769597.htmlhttps:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film769597.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Amores perros<\/a><\/em><\/span> meti\u00f3 a 250.000 personas en las salas de cine de M\u00e9xico el primer fin de semana; hacer lo mismo con un libro es complicado, pero \u00e9ste implica otro tipo de relaci\u00f3n con el creador, otro ritmo, otras sensaciones. Sin embargo, ambos est\u00e1n hermanados con el hecho de generar un dialogo entre el creador y el receptor.<\/p><p><strong>LENGUA: \u00bfTienes alguna suerte de c\u00f3digo deontol\u00f3gico en el tratamiento de la violencia f\u00edsica y psicol\u00f3gica? \u00bfLa exposici\u00f3n de la crudeza tiene sus l\u00edmites?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Guillermo Arriaga:<\/strong> Cada uno de nosotros contiene a una fiera o a un monstruo dispuesto a salir bajo circunstancias hist\u00f3ricas o personales concretas. Igual que cada sociedad tiene un punto de quiebre. Nunca me pondr\u00e9 cortapisas, ser\u00eda horrible la autocensura, decirse \u00abno voy a lastimar al lector, pobrecito\u00bb. Vivimos en una sociedad demasiado protectora, una sociedad espantosamente moralista y censuradora, sobre todo por parte de las clases medias y altas; las bajas est\u00e1n en otro discurso y en otro mundo, hay muchos temas que se mantienen cerrados y pocos matices.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1fo6bos\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza vuelve a \u00abLa Casta\u00f1eda\u00bb: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/jorge-comensal-por-nona-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Comensal por Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: el escarabajo astr\u00f3nomo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/pierre-lemaitre-novelista-el-ancho-mundo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pierre Lemaitre contra el tiempo: apuntes del novelista que quiere llegar a ser<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/keum-suk-gendry-kim-la-espera-hierba\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Keum Suk Gendry-Kim: cuando el horror llama a la puerta<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deborah-levy-por-nuria-labari-la-escritora-que-rompio-el-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Deborah Levy por Nuria Labari: la escritora que rompi\u00f3 el 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15 minutos
Guillermo Arriaga. Crédito: Rubén Márquez.

Guillermo Arriaga. Crédito: Rubén Márquez.

Guillermo Arriaga (México, Ciudad de México, 1958) baja al vestíbulo del hotel de Barcelona con los ojos hinchados. El jet lag y el insomnio habrían destrozado a cualquiera, pero estamos ante una fuerza de la naturaleza. Un hombre que ha sobrevivido a palizas callejeras brutales, a un accidente de coche que le dejó afectada la capacidad de memorizar el rostro de las personas, a nueve días sin dormir que lo llevaron a desmayarse y amanecer con la cara ensangrentada al haberse golpeado contra la pica del lavabo... Estas experiencias vitales extremas paradójicamente han moldeado a un ser afable y atento, humilde y generoso, y precisamente son estas dos facetas, la ferocidad y la ternura, lo que han definido su obra, atenta a explorar cómo conviven dentro de nosotros lo más tenebroso y lo más luminoso. Ganador del Premio Alfaguara en 2020 por Salvar el fuego, guionista de películas como Amores perros, 21 gramos, Babel o Los tres entierros de Melquiades Estrada, y director de The Burning Plain, acaba de publicar Extrañas, su primera novela histórica, ambientada en la Inglaterra de 1781 y que retrata los albores de la medicina y la farmacología modernas a través de las peripecias de un noble, William Burton, que sacrifica riquezas y ociosidad en favor de los desafíos de la ciencia y la curación del prójimo.

LENGUA: ¿Por qué una novela histórica? ¿Qué buscabas con este giro en tus coordenadas de ficción? 

Guillermo Arriaga: ¿Quién lo sabe? No trabajo con el raciocinio. No trabajo con el consciente. No trabajo desde la voluntad. Siento que alguien me dicta las novelas, que salen del pozo profundo del inconsciente, el cual determina cómo se van a comportar los personajes, a veces hacen cosas que yo ni siquiera sospeché. Yo no puedo decir «voy a escribir una obra maestra», o «voy a escribir un libro que sea comercial y venda miles y miles y miles de ejemplares». No. En Hollywood oyes mucho: «Claro. Lo escribió para ganarse el Oscar». ¿Cómo se hace eso? Si yo pudiera escribir para ganarme el Nobel, la verdad es que lo haría… La mayor parte de mis historias se han almacenado dentro de mí durante décadas. El Salvaje, por ejemplo, lo quería escribir desde que tenía 14 años.

LENGUA: ¿Cuál fue al menos la chispa?

Guillermo Arriaga: Los seres que dan título a la novela. No les voy a hacer un spoiler, pero son seres cuya conformación física sólo se da cada trescientos años. No son seres místicos, ni mágicos, ni seres de luz. La mayor parte de quienes nacen con estas características mueren jóvenes. Se da la circunstancia de que en estos momentos vive uno de ellos. Pueden entra en internet después de leer el libro para comprobarlo. Otra inspiración nace de haber tenido amigos diferentes y por esto no me refiero a amigos gais o trans, que también los tengo, sino a personas que sufren una deformación física, padecen una algún tipo de limitación intelectual o nacieron con un problema genético. Ya filmé documentales para abrir a la sociedad la realidad de estos seres y Extrañas fue una manera de proseguir por la misma senda.

LENGUA: Se intuye un gran trabajo de documentación histórica detrás del libro, sobre todo en el área de la medicina y la farmacología del siglo XVIII.

Guillermo Arriaga: Tampoco soy un investigador tan concienzudo, tengo amigos escritores que se pasan seis años estudiando un tema para que les salga perfecto. Yo no. Por eso mi libro dice «basado en hechos históricos y reales, los cuales jamás sucedieron». Sí es cierto que tengo una maestría en Historia y que desde siempre me ha interesado la medicina y he tenido acceso a ella, por ejemplo, acudiendo de oyente a la carrera de Veterinaria.

«No trabajo con el raciocinio. No trabajo con el consciente. No trabajo desde la voluntad. Siento que alguien me dicta las novelas, que salen del pozo profundo del inconsciente, el cual determina cómo se van a comportar los personajes, a veces hacen cosas que yo ni siquiera sospeché».

LENGUA: ¿De dónde surge William Burton? 

Guillermo Arriaga: Un amigo me contó horrorizado que había visitado una granja en la que a unas personas con discapacidad las tenían desnudas y amarradas entre los animales. Me partió el corazón, como a cualquiera persona que tenga una mínima sensibilidad, y traspasé esas emociones a Burton, un adolescente noble que va a heredar miles de hectáreas en el corazón de Inglaterra y que descubre las condiciones infrahumanas en las que viven unos individuos a los que califican de «engendros». A partir de ahí, cambia su visión del mundo, renuncia a las comodidades de su clase, es repudiado por la familia y se embarca en un periplo por la ciencia y por la medicina de cara a ayudar a los necesitados. 

LENGUA: El conflicto entre ciencia y teología está en el corazón del libro. Sorprende descubrir el desprecio tan generalizado hacia la medicina por aquel entonces. Un desprecio, por otro lado, no superado, a tenor de todos los tratamientos alternativos y los remedios nacidos de la superstición que siguen existiendo.

Guillermo Arriaga: Yo no soy creyente. Crecí en un ambiente laico, pero siempre respetaré a quien crea y tenderé a entender sus razones. En el siglo XVIII la visión era: ¿por qué vas a curar a un moribundo si ya fue decisión de Dios que se muera? Suponía un sacrilegio porque estabas yendo en contra de la voluntad de Dios. Los primeros científicos argumentaban: «Al contrario, Dios puso frente a mí misterios que tengo que desentrañar. Lo profundamente religioso es ayudar a los demás, Dios me mandó al moribundo para sanarlo». A lo que el bando opuesto replicaba: «Es una arrogancia total que quieras actuar como Dios, salvando vidas». Y los médicos a su vez contraatacaban: «No, actúo como un ser humano, a imagen y semejanza de nuestro Señor, que velaba por los enfermos». En definitiva, ambos bandos se encomendaban a Dios. Y lo que refleja William Burton es que por aquel entonces los médicos eran unos aventureros desquiciados. Eran gente a la que le gustaba experimentar y arriesgar, hacían muchas cosas, y ese espíritu es el que quería meter en la novela.

«Yo no puedo decir "voy a escribir una obra maestra", o "voy a escribir un libro que sea comercial y venda miles y miles y miles de ejemplares". No. En Hollywood oyes mucho: "Claro. Lo escribió para ganarse el Oscar". ¿Cómo se hace eso? Si yo pudiera escribir para ganarme el Nobel, la verdad es que lo haría...».

LENGUA: Un reto técnico mayúsculo fue no emplear vocabulario más allá de 1790 y ajustarse a la puntuación del momento histórico.

Guillermo Arriaga: Mi intención era que el lector se sintiera dentro de una novela del siglo XVIII por eso creé una puntuación distinta, una cadencia distinta -no contemporánea-: no usar adverbios acabados en mente, ni el «que», ni el «porque» ni el «aunque»... Fue una labor titánica y a veces desesperante, tenía que ir revisando los términos en la sección Diccionario en clave de la RAE para averiguar si eran de uso en la época, y en caso de que no, buscar las alternativas más precisas o directamente reconstruir las frases. Pido un poco de paciencia al lector pues puede suponer un reto entrar en el juego, pero pronto se coge el truco, y lo bueno de la falta de capítulos es que mucha gente se me ha acercado para decirme que se les han hecho las tres de la madrugada y seguían con el libro aferrado a las manos ya que no había indicadores de dónde parar.

LENGUA: Te has declarado un autor anti metódico.

Guillermo Arriaga: Hay escritores muy profesionales que saben lo que va pasar a cada momento, rellenan pósit, tienen el final clarísimo, etcétera. Yo no tengo la menor idea de nada. Escribo y escribo y escribo y escribo y escribo, y cuando termino, voy reescribiendo desde el principio, y voy cortando, cortando y cortando y cortando. A Extrañas sólo le quité 264 páginas. 

LENGUA: También sostienes que lo más importante de una novela es el punto de vista que vas a adoptar.

Guillermo Arriaga: Un libro son unas gafas que te permiten observar la realidad de una manera determinada. Hay quienes creen que ser un buen escritor es escribir bien. Pero como zanjó Ortega y Gasset, ser un gran escritor es tener un mundo que expresar, porque corrección gramatical y sintáctica la puede tener cualquiera. Escribir es siempre adoptar un punto de vista, es elegir quién va a contar la historia, qué gafas nos ponemos para mirar al mundo.

Guillermo Arriaga. Crédito: Ana Paula Álvarez.

Guillermo Arriaga. Crédito: Ana Paula Álvarez.

LENGUA: Toda novela que se precie se sostiene en dilemas morales, pero estos son un aspecto que has explorado muy a fondo en tus novelas, la misma Extrañas tiene a varios personajes encarándolos. ¿Qué dirías que te atraen más de ellos y de qué manera personal los trabajas? 

Guillermo Arriaga: El único dilema moral profundo es si le hago o no le hago daño al otro. Todo el resto, como si tengo o no sexo antes del matrimonio, no tiene nada que ver con la moral. Dado que Extrañas se centra en la labor de los médicos, la gran pregunta que deben hacerse es: ¿este procedimiento va a provocar algún daño o no?

LENGUA: En tus novelas hay una voluntad de estilo muy marcada, la prosa es rica, la atención al detalle exquisita. ¿Pero la forma siempre sigue a la función, que sería la fuerza narrativa, o buscas por sistema un equilibrio?

Guillermo Arriaga: Mi obligación es contar historias lo mejor posible. «¿Qué mensaje quieres dar?», me preguntan los periodistas. Ninguno. Yo no soy quién para dar mensajes ni lecciones morales. Y para contar esa historia no puedo permitir que la forma interfiera de ninguna manera. Respeto a los escritores que dicen que su escritura es como entrar en un jardín japonés, un lugar en el que detenerte a observar la belleza de las plantas, sin pretender llegar a ningún lado. Perfecto. Lo mío es una selva en la que perderse, que no sabes adónde te conduce. Dejo la delicadeza para los otros, yo quiero que mis novelas remuevan, que impacten, que conmuevan, que los lectores puedan olerlas y saborearlas. Respeto la literatura de evasión, pero a nivel personal quiero escribir novelas que te metan en la realidad porque si te evades de ella no puedes enfrentarla. Me gustan las novelas que te llevan a estar con el mundo y no en el mundo.

LENGUA: La literatura pues como un acto de resistencia.

Guillermo Arriaga: ¡Claro! Cuando mi hijo tenía 12 años, me invitaron a su escuela para incitar a los niños a la lectura. Lo primero que hice fue pedirles a los maestros que salieran del aula, luego reuní a los chavales y les dije: «Todo lo que se hable aquí es secreto. Les voy a recomendar unos libros que está prohibido leer, que no se enteren los papás ni los profesores porque se meterán en un lío. ¿Saben para qué sirve leer? Cada vez que leen, encuentran algo de ustedes que no sabían que existía. Y contra más sepan de ustedes, menos se van a convertir en esos padres que van de mal humor a su trabajo y regresan de mal humor a casa, y eso porque no tuvieron el conocimiento de sí mismos para decidir sobre su destino. Ustedes no quieren ser personas amargadas y para ello tienen que saber quiénes son, el primer paso para poder transformar su entorno. Y si transforman su entorno, se transforman ustedes mismos y van a ser felices. Por eso tienen que leer». Como eran libros secretos y prohibidos, seguro que los tenían debajo de las camas y los devoraban a la menor ocasión. O al menos eso espero. A nivel personal, ruego que el Papa Francisco prohíba mis novelas algún día para convertirme en un bestseller global.

«Respeto a los escritores que dicen que su escritura es como entrar en un jardín japonés, un lugar en el que detenerte a observar la belleza de las plantas, sin pretender llegar a ningún lado. Perfecto. Lo mío es una selva en la que perderse, que no sabes adónde te conduce».

LENGUA: Si tuvieras que escoger un solo rasgo de tu carácter como el más determinante que te impulsara a escribir, ¿cuál sería?

Guillermo Arriaga: La pasión. Yo no soy obsesivo, soy apasionado, soy adicto a escribir. Cualquier momento que tengo libre debo hacerlo, en los cafés, en los taxis, donde sea. Tengo una personalidad adictiva, y como no fumo ni me drogo, escribo. Además, poseo una disciplina bestial y rigor. Escribo porque me gusta estar en los mundos que creo y no veo el momento de regresar a ellos. 

LENGUA: Más allá de personajes y escenarios que remiten a México, ¿qué elementos convierten tus libros en muy mexicanos, factores quizá de temperamento o carácter que podrían pasar desapercibidos al lector español?

Guillermo Arriaga: No tengo ni idea, aunque obviamente algo de su cultura debe filtrarse en mis libros. Es un país descarnado, que tiene las emociones muy a flor de piel. Me han pasado muchas cosas, veo a escritores neoyorquinos que se levantan, cogen el metro, trabajan, vuelven a su casa y a partir de este no pasarles nada construyen una novela, un minimalismo, un chiquitismo de la vida cotidiana. Lo justifican diciendo que no pasa nada pero pasa todo, yo creo que a mí realmente sí que me han pasado cosas. Pertenezco a una tradición narrativa en la que sí que se cuentan cosas.  

LENGUA: Se define antes como cazador que como escritor: «Todo mi trabajo es sobre la caza y todos mis personajes se comportan como cazadores», ha afirmado.

Guillermo Arriaga: Empecé muy joven a cazar con arco y flecha pese a no pertenecer a una familia de cazadores, no sé de dónde vino. ¿Dónde ibas a cazar viviendo en Ciudad de México? Si no has cazado nunca, has perdido la posibilidad de participar de un rito profundo, de obtener un entendimiento de la Naturaleza que no te lo da ninguna otra cosa. Lo último que me interesa es matar, cazar es una forma de vincularme con verdades que de otra manera no se me revelarían. Si yo no tuviera acceso a eso no podría escribir o por lo menos no de la forma en que lo hago. Para empezar, entiendes que eres parte del mundo. Vivimos en un mundo muy alineado, ¿de dónde procede este café que te estás tomando? ¿Y la madera con la que se ha fabricado la mesa de tu casa? ¿Cómo hicieron tu móvil? Yo del animal sé dónde duerme, cuándo se reproduce, qué come y bebe, cuántas crías tiene. Yo cazo y me como el animal y cierro un círculo, no me alieno. Siento que pertenezco al mundo, me conecto con partes de mí que desconocía, tomo conciencia de que la sociedad se ha levantado sobre un trono de sangre porque yo he visto la sangre. Jamás dejo comida en la mesa, ese animal sufrió y has de aprovecharlo todo, no puede ir a la basura, es sacrílego. Cazar te hace más humilde y respetuoso.

«Yo no soy obsesivo, soy apasionado, soy adicto a escribir. Cualquier momento que tengo libre debo hacerlo, en los cafés, en los taxis, donde sea. Tengo una personalidad adictiva, y como no fumo ni me drogo, escribo».

LENGUA: Has trabajado dos lenguajes tan distintos como el de la literatura y el cine. ¿Qué te da el uno que el otro no puede? ¿Qué recursos expresivos de cada uno te estimulan más?

Guillermo Arriaga: Para mí todo es literatura, nunca se le pregunta a un dramaturgo si está haciendo o no literatura. El cine tiene hermosísimas ventajas: Amores perros metió a 250.000 personas en las salas de cine de México el primer fin de semana; hacer lo mismo con un libro es complicado, pero éste implica otro tipo de relación con el creador, otro ritmo, otras sensaciones. Sin embargo, ambos están hermanados con el hecho de generar un dialogo entre el creador y el receptor.

LENGUA: ¿Tienes alguna suerte de código deontológico en el tratamiento de la violencia física y psicológica? ¿La exposición de la crudeza tiene sus límites?

Guillermo Arriaga: Cada uno de nosotros contiene a una fiera o a un monstruo dispuesto a salir bajo circunstancias históricas o personales concretas. Igual que cada sociedad tiene un punto de quiebre. Nunca me pondré cortapisas, sería horrible la autocensura, decirse «no voy a lastimar al lector, pobrecito». Vivimos en una sociedad demasiado protectora, una sociedad espantosamente moralista y censuradora, sobre todo por parte de las clases medias y altas; las bajas están en otro discurso y en otro mundo, hay muchos temas que se mantienen cerrados y pocos matices.

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