Entrevistas

La muerte de Abimael Guzmán por Roncagliolo: «El Estado peruano le tiene más miedo a un muerto que a cualquier persona viva»

La muerte de Abimael Guzmán no solo ha removido el violento pasado en que hundió a Perú como líder de Sendero Luminoso, sino que puso al país ante una tensión y un debate político inesperado que parecía impensable hace poco tiempo —en el que hasta el Congreso debió resolver qué hacer con el cuerpo—. Santiago Roncagliolo, autor de «La cuarta espada», la gran biografía sobre el movimiento guerrillero y su líder, y Premio Alfaguara 2006 con «Abril rojo», habla con su editor, Miguel Aguilar, para echar luz sobre un hecho y una figura que vuelve a conmover a Perú y reverbera en toda América Latina.

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Cr\u00e9dito: H\u00e9ctor Mata \/ Getty 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Aguilar: En medio de una considerable crisis pol\u00edtica, \u00bfla muerte de Abimael Guzm\u00e1n supone algo para el Per\u00fa o era una r\u00e9mora de un pasado ya remoto?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4398-santiago-roncagliolo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Santiago Roncagliolo<\/a><\/span>:<\/strong> Creo que hace un a\u00f1o no habr\u00eda sido un hecho tan sensible. Pero Guzm\u00e1n ha fallecido justo cuando, por primera vez en la historia, hay un gobierno con ministros simpatizantes de Sendero Luminoso. De modo que su muerte se convierte en una prueba para un gobierno, que debe modular sus reacciones, ante una oposici\u00f3n ansiosa de verlo meter la pata. Se ha votado qu\u00e9 hacer con el cad\u00e1ver en el gabinete ministerial y luego en el congreso. Incluso se ha aprobado una ley con nombre propio para desaparecer el cuerpo, emitiendo el extra\u00f1o mensaje de que el Estado peruano le tiene m\u00e1s miedo a un muerto que a cualquier persona viva.<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: \u00bfQu\u00e9 es Abimael Guzm\u00e1n y Sendero Luminoso para los j\u00f3venes peruanos?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Santiago Roncagliolo:<\/strong> No creo que tanto como parecer\u00eda por el nivel de ruido pol\u00edtico. M\u00e1s de la mitad de la poblaci\u00f3n ya no tiene recuerdos directos de Sendero Luminoso. Pero esa guerra interna, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/George-Orwell-Homenaje-a-Cataluna\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la guerra civil espa\u00f1ola<\/a><\/span>, determin\u00f3 los conflictos esenciales de la pol\u00edtica de las siguientes d\u00e9cadas. Contra esa izquierda, tan extrema que consideraba a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuba un estado burgu\u00e9s<\/a><\/span>, la reacci\u00f3n fueron tres d\u00e9cadas de liberalismo sin matices. En consecuencia, cuando la pandemia desnud\u00f3 los l\u00edmites de la cobertura del Estado, la mitad de la poblaci\u00f3n estuvo dispuesta por primera vez a votar por un partido cuyos miembros reivindicaban algunas banderas de Sendero. No es que la poblaci\u00f3n sea marxista. Es que vive mal. 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ha aprobado una ley con nombre propio para desaparecer el cuerpo, emitiendo el extra\u00f1o mensaje de que el Estado peruano le tiene m\u00e1s miedo a un muerto que a cualquier persona viva\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"58\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ayqqv20\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: Sendero Luminoso es quiz\u00e1 la manifestaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s radical de un fen\u00f3meno regional, los grupos guerrilleros\/terroristas latinoamericanos. \u00bfCu\u00e1nto se debi\u00f3 a la personalidad de Guzm\u00e1n y a la especificidad de Per\u00fa y cu\u00e1nto a causas transversales?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Santiago Roncagliolo:<\/strong> Guzm\u00e1n entendi\u00f3 que la estrategia del Che Guevara no funcionar\u00eda en la geograf\u00eda peruana. De hecho, el Che cay\u00f3 en Bolivia, cerca del Per\u00fa. Los ej\u00e9rcitos guerrilleros uniformados y armados como el suyo eran muy vulnerables en los cerros secos del sur andino y carec\u00edan de arraigo popular entre los campesinos. As\u00ed que Guzm\u00e1n opt\u00f3 por la estrategia de la revoluci\u00f3n china: confundirse con la poblaci\u00f3n civil y evitar la compra de armas. Eso hizo que los militares disparasen contra la poblaci\u00f3n civil, y que la poblaci\u00f3n se arrojase en brazos de Sendero. A la vez, la falta de armas obligaba a sus huestes a matar cuerpo a cuerpo, con cuchillos o piedras, volvi\u00e9ndolos incre\u00edblemente crueles. Pero lo m\u00e1s particular de Guzm\u00e1n y los principales dirigentes es que eran maestros. Formaban profesores en la facultad de educaci\u00f3n, y luego los enviaban a toda la zona m\u00e1s pobre del pa\u00eds. Para cuando comenzaron la lucha armada, hab\u00edan adoctrinado desde la cuna a toda una generaci\u00f3n, que<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">estaba dispuesta a todo por su revoluci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pjlyjex\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abContra esa izquierda, tan extrema que consideraba a Cuba un estado burgu\u00e9s, la reacci\u00f3n fueron tres d\u00e9cadas de liberalismo sin matices. En consecuencia, cuando\u00a0 la pandemia desnud\u00f3 los l\u00edmites de la cobertura del Estado, la mitad de la poblaci\u00f3n estuvo dispuesta por primera vez a votar por un partido cuyos miembros reivindicaban algunas banderas de Sendero. No es que la poblaci\u00f3n sea marxista. Es que vive mal\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"58\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5zzo4y5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: Si tuvieras que escribir ahora <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/11355-la-cuarta-espada-9788483067383\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La cuarta espada<\/a><\/em><\/span>, \u00bfser\u00eda un libro muy distinto?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Santiago Roncagliolo:<\/strong> No. Aunque quiz\u00e1 ser\u00eda m\u00e1s dif\u00edcil investigarlo y publicarlo. Cuando trabaj\u00e9 en \u00e9l se hab\u00eda publicado el informe de una comisi\u00f3n de investigaci\u00f3n del estado para estudiar la violencia del pasado. La opini\u00f3n p\u00fablica ten\u00eda ganas de conocer la historia. Hoy, el Per\u00fa est\u00e1 mucho m\u00e1s polarizado. Todos los pa\u00edses lo est\u00e1n. Y los discursos extremos complican la b\u00fasqueda de una historia que desaf\u00ede los panfletos. Los radicales no quieren la verdad, sino la propaganda.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Miguel Aguilar: \u00bfCabe imaginar una figura como Guzm\u00e1n en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la Latinoam\u00e9rica actual<\/a><\/span>?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Santiago Roncagliolo:<\/strong> Lo dudo, porque en la Am\u00e9rica Latina de hoy, casi todos han ido al colegio. Esa es la gran diferencia. La idea de comunidad y naci\u00f3n se forja ah\u00ed. Si el Estado no la ofrece, alguien m\u00e1s lo har\u00e1. Guzm\u00e1n demostr\u00f3 que la educaci\u00f3n puede convertirse en un arma letal.<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/jorge-ramos-nicolas-maduro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Ramos con Nicol\u00e1s Maduro: \u00abEl cami\u00f3n de basura no fue un montaje\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El \u00faltimo socialismo: \u00bfvali\u00f3 la pena?<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuba: entre la Patria y la 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8 minutos

El líder de Sendero Luminoso, Abimael Guzmán, agotó su última apelación el 15 de octubre de 1992 en Lima, luego de que un tribunal militar no revocara su cadena perpetua. Crédito: Héctor Mata / Getty Images.

Miguel Aguilar: En medio de una considerable crisis política, ¿la muerte de Abimael Guzmán supone algo para el Perú o era una rémora de un pasado ya remoto?

Santiago Roncagliolo: Creo que hace un año no habría sido un hecho tan sensible. Pero Guzmán ha fallecido justo cuando, por primera vez en la historia, hay un gobierno con ministros simpatizantes de Sendero Luminoso. De modo que su muerte se convierte en una prueba para un gobierno, que debe modular sus reacciones, ante una oposición ansiosa de verlo meter la pata. Se ha votado qué hacer con el cadáver en el gabinete ministerial y luego en el congreso. Incluso se ha aprobado una ley con nombre propio para desaparecer el cuerpo, emitiendo el extraño mensaje de que el Estado peruano le tiene más miedo a un muerto que a cualquier persona viva.

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Qué es Abimael Guzmán y Sendero Luminoso para los jóvenes peruanos?

Santiago Roncagliolo: No creo que tanto como parecería por el nivel de ruido político. Más de la mitad de la población ya no tiene recuerdos directos de Sendero Luminoso. Pero esa guerra interna, como la guerra civil española, determinó los conflictos esenciales de la política de las siguientes décadas. Contra esa izquierda, tan extrema que consideraba a Cuba un estado burgués, la reacción fueron tres décadas de liberalismo sin matices. En consecuencia, cuando la pandemia desnudó los límites de la cobertura del Estado, la mitad de la población estuvo dispuesta por primera vez a votar por un partido cuyos miembros reivindicaban algunas banderas de Sendero. No es que la población sea marxista. Es que vive mal. Y un partido que se reclama marxista capitaliza ese descontento.

En primera persona

«Se ha aprobado una ley con nombre propio para desaparecer el cuerpo, emitiendo el extraño mensaje de que el Estado peruano le tiene más miedo a un muerto que a cualquier persona viva».

Miguel Aguilar: Sendero Luminoso es quizá la manifestación más radical de un fenómeno regional, los grupos guerrilleros/terroristas latinoamericanos. ¿Cuánto se debió a la personalidad de Guzmán y a la especificidad de Perú y cuánto a causas transversales?

Santiago Roncagliolo: Guzmán entendió que la estrategia del Che Guevara no funcionaría en la geografía peruana. De hecho, el Che cayó en Bolivia, cerca del Perú. Los ejércitos guerrilleros uniformados y armados como el suyo eran muy vulnerables en los cerros secos del sur andino y carecían de arraigo popular entre los campesinos. Así que Guzmán optó por la estrategia de la revolución china: confundirse con la población civil y evitar la compra de armas. Eso hizo que los militares disparasen contra la población civil, y que la población se arrojase en brazos de Sendero. A la vez, la falta de armas obligaba a sus huestes a matar cuerpo a cuerpo, con cuchillos o piedras, volviéndolos increíblemente crueles. Pero lo más particular de Guzmán y los principales dirigentes es que eran maestros. Formaban profesores en la facultad de educación, y luego los enviaban a toda la zona más pobre del país. Para cuando comenzaron la lucha armada, habían adoctrinado desde la cuna a toda una generación, que estaba dispuesta a todo por su revolución.

«Contra esa izquierda, tan extrema que consideraba a Cuba un estado burgués, la reacción fueron tres décadas de liberalismo sin matices. En consecuencia, cuando  la pandemia desnudó los límites de la cobertura del Estado, la mitad de la población estuvo dispuesta por primera vez a votar por un partido cuyos miembros reivindicaban algunas banderas de Sendero. No es que la población sea marxista. Es que vive mal».

Miguel Aguilar: Si tuvieras que escribir ahora La cuarta espada, ¿sería un libro muy distinto?

Santiago Roncagliolo: No. Aunque quizá sería más difícil investigarlo y publicarlo. Cuando trabajé en él se había publicado el informe de una comisión de investigación del estado para estudiar la violencia del pasado. La opinión pública tenía ganas de conocer la historia. Hoy, el Perú está mucho más polarizado. Todos los países lo están. Y los discursos extremos complican la búsqueda de una historia que desafíe los panfletos. Los radicales no quieren la verdad, sino la propaganda. 

Miguel Aguilar: ¿Cabe imaginar una figura como Guzmán en la Latinoamérica actual

Santiago Roncagliolo: Lo dudo, porque en la América Latina de hoy, casi todos han ido al colegio. Esa es la gran diferencia. La idea de comunidad y nación se forja ahí. Si el Estado no la ofrece, alguien más lo hará. Guzmán demostró que la educación puede convertirse en un arma letal.


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