Fenómenos

Ascenso y caída de los NFT: la estrella más fugaz del arte contemporáneo

Detrás del nombre críptico de «non fungible tokens» se forjó durante un tiempo la gran esperanza del mercado de arte digital: si las obras de arte siempre habían sido codiciadas y cotizadas por ser únicas e irrepetibles –existe un solo original del que puede hacerse una cantidad limitada de copias–, los NFT prometían hacer realidad esa singularidad también para las obras digitales que, en la práctica, son un archivo informático replicable infinitas veces. La invención, una suerte de firma digital que sirve como marca de propiedad, abrió un mercado inesperado: en 2021 se llegó a pagar 92 millones de dólares por una imagen digital que cualquier persona podía ver de forma gratuita en internet. Miguel Ángel Cajigal Vera (@elbarroquista) explica cómo creció un mercado en el que no hace falta ser artista para hacerse un nombre y por qué se ha pinchado la burbuja.

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La invenci\u00f3n, una suerte de firma digital que sirve como marca de propiedad, abri\u00f3 un mercado inesperado: en 2021 se lleg\u00f3 a pagar 92 millones de d\u00f3lares por una imagen digital que cualquier persona pod\u00eda ver de forma gratuita en internet. 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posible que hayas visto estas tres letras en titulares de prensa o hayas escuchado hablar de ello sin entender demasiado en qu\u00e9 consiste. Durante el \u00faltimo a\u00f1o y medio las siglas NFT han aparecido por todas partes, hasta convertirse en el centro de la noticia durante semanas. Parece indudable que ha sido la gran moda del mundo del arte desde 2021 e incluso empresas ajenas al mercado art\u00edstico han llegado a apostar por este sector \u00abemergente\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pero\u2026 \u00bfqu\u00e9 demonios son los NFT?<\/p><p>Como sucede con frecuencia cuando alg\u00fan tema se vuelve tendencia global, se promociona y discute hasta la saciedad, pero en muchas ocasiones la mayor parte de la poblaci\u00f3n no sabe exactamente en qu\u00e9 consiste. Si adem\u00e1s sucede, como con los NFT, que detr\u00e1s del asunto est\u00e1 una tecnolog\u00eda bastante vanguardista y un poco oscura de entender, la confusi\u00f3n est\u00e1 servida.<\/p><p>Aunque tendremos que simplificar un poco muchas cuestiones, especialmente en los aspectos t\u00e9cnicos que soportan esta tecnolog\u00eda, vamos a intentar explicar los NFT.<\/p><p>NFT son siglas en ingl\u00e9s, que se han traducido en castellano como \u00abtoken no fungible\u00bb, aunque se siguen usando de manera com\u00fan las siglas anglosajonas tambi\u00e9n cuando hablamos del tema en espa\u00f1ol. Consiste en un mecanismo criptogr\u00e1fico digital que funciona como una especie de registro informatizado y que, simplificando mucho, sirve para identificar la autenticidad de un objeto digital. Hace un par de a\u00f1os que este concepto se asomaba al mundo del arte y a lo largo de 2021 se convirti\u00f3, sin duda, en el \u00abpersonaje del a\u00f1o\u00bb en el \u00e1mbito art\u00edstico.<\/p><p>Un NFT se puede usar para representar algo \u00fanico, por lo que sirve como marca de propiedad de un objeto digital. Precisamente por esta utilidad, en cuanto apareci\u00f3 esta tecnolog\u00eda se vio su potencialidad para el mercado del arte 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qu\u00e9 sirve exactamente la tecnolog\u00eda NFT en el arte?<\/strong><\/p><p>Comencemos con un ejemplo. Un artista crea una ilustraci\u00f3n digital, que no es otra cosa que un archivo inform\u00e1tico. El artista puede comerciar con ese archivo, pero, dadas las caracter\u00edsticas de la informaci\u00f3n digital, el archivo podr\u00e1 ser copiado infinitas veces, con o sin su permiso. Lo sabemos perfectamente desde que vivimos en un \u00e1mbito digital: podemos tener cientos de copias de la misma foto de nuestras vacaciones simplemente copiando y pegando el objeto.<\/p><p>Si en vez de hacerlo con la foto de nuestras vacaciones lo hacemos con la ilustraci\u00f3n digital del artista que hemos puesto como ejemplo, es f\u00e1cil entender que su obra de arte digital no ser\u00e1 \u00fanica, como lo son el Guernica o la Gioconda.<\/p><p>Hasta ahora, las obras de arte f\u00edsicas eran siempre \u00fanicas, porque no hay dos objetos iguales. Puedes tener en tu casa una postal del Guernica, puedes haberle hecho una foto digital al cuadro o, incluso, podr\u00edas encargar a alguien una r\u00e9plica a tama\u00f1o real de la obra para tenerla en casa por capricho, pero nunca ser\u00eda el Guernica original. Pero con el arte digital todas las copias del archivo son id\u00e9nticas a la original, de manera que pueden existir \u00abinfinitos\u00bb originales. El problema se predice con facilidad: la creaci\u00f3n de arte digital no es un mercado que se pueda controlar, ya que de una vez que el artista vende su ilustraci\u00f3n digital pierde todo control sobre cu\u00e1ntas veces se va a copiar ese archivo. Mal negocio. Lo saben bien en el sector de la m\u00fasica, con las copias ilegales y la pirater\u00eda que han sufrido desde hace 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ah\u00ed es donde entran en acci\u00f3n los NFT. Si el artista asocia su ilustraci\u00f3n digital a un NFT, como si lo firmase digitalmente, ese archivo pasa a tener un registro \u00fanico, online y p\u00fablico, que identifica esa ilustraci\u00f3n como \u00fanica. En cierto modo, la tecnolog\u00eda NFT permite emular los dos valores fundamentales que hacen que el arte f\u00edsico se pueda coleccionar: su singularidad (este objeto es \u00fanico) y su escasez (este objeto no se puede replicar hasta el infinito).<\/p><p>\u00bfSignifica eso que el NFT impide que el archivo se copie? Realmente no. El archivo identificado con un NFT se puede copiar exactamente igual que se copia cualquier otro archivo digital, pero solamente una persona es la due\u00f1a certificada del NFT que lo autentifica y, por lo tanto, solo una persona es la propietaria real de la obra. 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partir de ah\u00ed, se desat\u00f3 la locura. El 25 de febrero de 2021 el artista digital Beeple subast\u00f3 en Christie\u2019s un NFT de su autor\u00eda que alcanz\u00f3 el precio de 69 millones de d\u00f3lares. Recordemos que lo que realmente adquiri\u00f3 el comprador con esos millones es el NFT que identifica ese archivo como el \u00fanico aut\u00e9ntico. En ese momento mucha gente se\u00f1al\u00f3 que hab\u00eda algo de absurdo en la compra, porque se pagaba una millonada por una imagen que cualquier persona puede ver tambi\u00e9n cuando quiera. De hecho, la obra subastada est\u00e1 colgada en Internet. Y es cierto. Si volvemos al s\u00edmil del prado, qu\u00e9 sentido tiene la propiedad del terreno cuando cualquiera lo atraviesa sin limitaciones.<\/p><p>Pero tambi\u00e9n se pagan millones por cuadros que todo el mundo ve en foto en la Wikipedia y en Google. Sobre el papel, el NFT emula el fetiche de la posesi\u00f3n de un objeto \u00fanico y asocia esa idea a los archivos digitales. Un fetiche que ha sido clave para el mercado del arte tradicional durante m\u00e1s de un siglo.<\/p><p>Hab\u00eda nacido oficialmente la burbuja de los NFT.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4u9muhq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En cierto modo, la tecnolog\u00eda NFT permite emular los dos valores fundamentales que hacen que el arte f\u00edsico se pueda coleccionar: su singularidad (este objeto es \u00fanico) y su escasez (este objeto no se puede replicar hasta el infinito).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fdqirw6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Entonces\u2026 \u00bfesto de los NFT es positivo?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong><\/strong>Hay gente que ha vendido esta tecnolog\u00eda como la salvadora del mercado del arte. Se ha anunciado a bombo y platillo como una nueva era, una salvaci\u00f3n para artistas digitales porque \u00abprotege\u00bb su trabajo como si fuese f\u00edsico. Una vez que los medios de comunicaci\u00f3n se hicieron eco glocal de esta \u00abrevoluci\u00f3n\u00bb (no siempre de manera rigurosa o desde la comprensi\u00f3n del fen\u00f3meno) la bola de nieve comenz\u00f3 su aceleraci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Como suele ocurrir, esto ha creado una burbuja de dimensiones colosales. A finales del a\u00f1o pasado una simple imagen digital de tres esferas blancas sobre fondo negro fue dividida en m\u00e1s de 300.000 fragmentos que, en total, fueron vendidos por casi 92 millones de d\u00f3lares a casi 30.000 coleccionistas diferentes. Y claro, personas de todo el mundo, no siempre artistas, se lanzaron a crear sus NFT tras la promesa del dinero f\u00e1cil.<\/p><p>Evidentemente, esto ya no ten\u00eda demasiada relaci\u00f3n con el arte y s\u00ed mucho que ver con la especulaci\u00f3n. Se estima que a lo largo del a\u00f1o pasado el valor del arte digital creci\u00f3 hasta un 299%. Todo el mundo quer\u00eda su trozo de este pastel. El creador de Twitter, Jack Dorsey, vendi\u00f3 un NFT del primer tuit de la historia por 3 millones de d\u00f3lares. Famosos de diferentes \u00e1mbitos han lanzado sus propios NFT. Algunos museos han empezado a vender NFT de sus obras, como el Hermitage o la National Gallery, como manera de hacer caja. Incluso empresas sin relaci\u00f3n con el arte o el dise\u00f1o vendieron NFT de sus logotipos o de cualquier cosa que se les ocurr\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vax7vg1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>As\u00ed naci\u00f3 el mercado del arte que emplea NFT como respaldo, en el cual lo que realmente se compra y vende es la propiedad de la obra digital, ya que el archivo en s\u00ed mismo sigue siendo replicable.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dwsyb1s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>La cara oscura de la tecnolog\u00eda NFT<\/strong><\/p><p>El mercado de NFT se dispar\u00f3 con la promesa aparente de hacer dinero r\u00e1pido, pero esto proyectaba tambi\u00e9n much\u00edsimas sombras sobre una burbuja que, como todas las anteriores, promet\u00eda desde el principio un predecible estallido catastr\u00f3fico. Desde el nacimiento del fen\u00f3meno se se\u00f1alaron abundantes puntos oscuros, entre los cuales destacaban tres cuestiones muy preocupantes.<\/p><p>En primer lugar, aunque los titulares se centraban siempre en los casos de NFT que se vend\u00edan por millones de d\u00f3lares, la realidad es que la inmensa mayor\u00eda del producto creado con esta tecnolog\u00eda no se vend\u00eda. Si nadie paga por ellos, no se venden. De manera que la idea de que es un mercado nuevo y mejor es falsa: los artistas y marcas conocidas consegu\u00edan buenos precios por sus NFT, pero la gran mayor\u00eda no ganaba un c\u00e9ntimo.<\/p><p>En segundo lugar, esta tecnolog\u00eda que se ha vendido por sus partidarios como un medio de que los artistas digitales finalmente cobren por su trabajo se est\u00e1 convirtiendo en un nido de pirater\u00eda... contra los propios artistas digitales. Ha hecho crecer el robo de arte y cada vez m\u00e1s artistas han denunciado que otras personas han vendido NFT de sus obras sin permiso. Como cualquier imagen digital vale para un NFT, en realidad no hace falta ser artista para crearlos y venderlos. Solamente manejar la tecnolog\u00eda implicada en ello.<\/p><p>Por \u00faltimo, hay que recordar que los NFT dependen de la tecnolog\u00eda <em>blockchain<\/em>, igual que las cryptomonedas. Una tecnolog\u00eda que requiere cantidades masivas de computadores de alta potencia con un consumo de energ\u00eda disparatadamente alto que se ha convertido en un gran problema medioambiental por su crecimiento desmesurado. Digamos que la sostenibilidad energ\u00e9tica no es una caracter\u00edstica de esta tecnolog\u00eda, al menos por el momento.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"twcnb7l\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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cualquier imagen digital vale para un NFT, en realidad no hace falta ser artista para crearlos y venderlos. Solamente manejar la tecnolog\u00eda implicada en ello.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s8ph1vj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>2022: estalla la burbuja NFT<\/strong><\/p><p>Si hace apenas un a\u00f1o parec\u00eda que los NFT se iban a comer el mundo y que quien no se subiese al tren quedar\u00eda obsoleto, ahora mismo el panorama es el opuesto. La burbuja ha pinchado, tal como se preve\u00eda, y ha dejado a muchas personas sin el dinero que \u00abinvirtieron\u00bb en ella. Seg\u00fan datos recientes, el mercado de NFT ha ca\u00eddo un 85% desde hace un a\u00f1o y su valor se ha desplomado un 80%. Ha llegado el momento en que muchos \u00abcryptoartistas\u00bb reconocen que gran parte del fen\u00f3meno respond\u00eda a la pura especulaci\u00f3n, con todo tipo de marcas comerciales e incluso programas de televisi\u00f3n lanzando su NFT solamente para ganar dinero f\u00e1cil y subirse al carro.<\/p><p>Como ha ocurrido con tantas burbujas, mucha gente se pregunta c\u00f3mo fue posible una bola de nieve semejante sin que nadie diese la voz de alarma. Aunque, en realidad, las voces de alarma eran numerosas y las acusaciones a este mercado de pura estafa especulativa fueron constantes desde el inicio de su \u00e9xito.<\/p><p>En el estallido de esta burbuja ha influido mucho el desmoronamiento de las cryptomonedas, a las cuales est\u00e1 directamente vinculado el mercado de NFT, puesto que la compra y venta de estos t\u00edtulos de propiedad se realiza en el mercado crypto. Por otra parte, la inestabilidad econ\u00f3mica derivada de la actual situaci\u00f3n b\u00e9lica ha hecho que especular con un producto digital sea ahora mucho menos atractivo y que los inversores prefieran el refugio de valores menos vol\u00e1tiles. Todos estos factores, reunidos, han precipitado el pinchazo de la burbuja en apenas un a\u00f1o de vigencia.<\/p><p>El resumen de todo lo que ha sucedido no difiere demasiado de cualquier otra burbuja de mercado. La tecnolog\u00eda NFT en s\u00ed misma no es negativa y, desde luego, seguir\u00e1 existiendo y se seguir\u00e1 utilizando. Quiz\u00e1s el descalabro de este mercado sirva como advertencia y esto provoque que, en lo sucesivo, se emplee de manera m\u00e1s prudente esta tecnolog\u00eda. En todo caso, ya parece indudable que NFT ha sido el concepto del a\u00f1o en el mundo del arte y probablemente escucharemos hablar de \u00e9l de nuevo en el futuro.<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6pm3aw9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><br \/><strong><br \/><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/ai-weiwei-memorias-el-barroquista?_gl=1*1tlhnar*_up*MQ..*_ga*ODMyMTY2NzY5LjE2NDM3MzE3OTE.*_ga_NMYRVGRN30*MTY0MzczMTc4OS4xLjAuMTY0MzczMTc4OS4w#\\\">Ai Weiwei: vivir en disidencia<br \/><br \/><\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/fanfiction#\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">El fanfiction o el noble arte de elegir tu propia aventura (por si a ti tampoco te gust\u00f3 el final de \u00abJuego de tronos\u00bb)<\/span> <\/a><br \/><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/david-foenkinos-get-back-the-beatles#\\\">\u00abGet Back\u00bb por Foenkinos: The Beatles, solos en la cima (y nosotros con ellos)<\/a><\/span><br \/><br 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10 minutos

 Crédito: Getty Images.

Es posible que hayas visto estas tres letras en titulares de prensa o hayas escuchado hablar de ello sin entender demasiado en qué consiste. Durante el último año y medio las siglas NFT han aparecido por todas partes, hasta convertirse en el centro de la noticia durante semanas. Parece indudable que ha sido la gran moda del mundo del arte desde 2021 e incluso empresas ajenas al mercado artístico han llegado a apostar por este sector «emergente».

Pero… ¿qué demonios son los NFT?

Como sucede con frecuencia cuando algún tema se vuelve tendencia global, se promociona y discute hasta la saciedad, pero en muchas ocasiones la mayor parte de la población no sabe exactamente en qué consiste. Si además sucede, como con los NFT, que detrás del asunto está una tecnología bastante vanguardista y un poco oscura de entender, la confusión está servida.

Aunque tendremos que simplificar un poco muchas cuestiones, especialmente en los aspectos técnicos que soportan esta tecnología, vamos a intentar explicar los NFT.

NFT son siglas en inglés, que se han traducido en castellano como «token no fungible», aunque se siguen usando de manera común las siglas anglosajonas también cuando hablamos del tema en español. Consiste en un mecanismo criptográfico digital que funciona como una especie de registro informatizado y que, simplificando mucho, sirve para identificar la autenticidad de un objeto digital. Hace un par de años que este concepto se asomaba al mundo del arte y a lo largo de 2021 se convirtió, sin duda, en el «personaje del año» en el ámbito artístico.

Un NFT se puede usar para representar algo único, por lo que sirve como marca de propiedad de un objeto digital. Precisamente por esta utilidad, en cuanto apareció esta tecnología se vio su potencialidad para el mercado del arte digital.

¿Para qué sirve exactamente la tecnología NFT en el arte?

Comencemos con un ejemplo. Un artista crea una ilustración digital, que no es otra cosa que un archivo informático. El artista puede comerciar con ese archivo, pero, dadas las características de la información digital, el archivo podrá ser copiado infinitas veces, con o sin su permiso. Lo sabemos perfectamente desde que vivimos en un ámbito digital: podemos tener cientos de copias de la misma foto de nuestras vacaciones simplemente copiando y pegando el objeto.

Si en vez de hacerlo con la foto de nuestras vacaciones lo hacemos con la ilustración digital del artista que hemos puesto como ejemplo, es fácil entender que su obra de arte digital no será única, como lo son el Guernica o la Gioconda.

Hasta ahora, las obras de arte físicas eran siempre únicas, porque no hay dos objetos iguales. Puedes tener en tu casa una postal del Guernica, puedes haberle hecho una foto digital al cuadro o, incluso, podrías encargar a alguien una réplica a tamaño real de la obra para tenerla en casa por capricho, pero nunca sería el Guernica original. Pero con el arte digital todas las copias del archivo son idénticas a la original, de manera que pueden existir «infinitos» originales. El problema se predice con facilidad: la creación de arte digital no es un mercado que se pueda controlar, ya que de una vez que el artista vende su ilustración digital pierde todo control sobre cuántas veces se va a copiar ese archivo. Mal negocio. Lo saben bien en el sector de la música, con las copias ilegales y la piratería que han sufrido desde hace años.

Un NFT se puede usar para representar algo único, por lo que sirve como marca de propiedad de un objeto digital.

Justamente ahí es donde entran en acción los NFT. Si el artista asocia su ilustración digital a un NFT, como si lo firmase digitalmente, ese archivo pasa a tener un registro único, online y público, que identifica esa ilustración como única. En cierto modo, la tecnología NFT permite emular los dos valores fundamentales que hacen que el arte físico se pueda coleccionar: su singularidad (este objeto es único) y su escasez (este objeto no se puede replicar hasta el infinito).

¿Significa eso que el NFT impide que el archivo se copie? Realmente no. El archivo identificado con un NFT se puede copiar exactamente igual que se copia cualquier otro archivo digital, pero solamente una persona es la dueña certificada del NFT que lo autentifica y, por lo tanto, solo una persona es la propietaria real de la obra. Por poner un ejemplo un poco ligero, es parecido a tener la propiedad de un prado en el campo sin vallar: la gente puede pasar por tu prado, pero solamente tú tienes su propiedad.

Esta tecnología recién nacida permitía de repente a los artistas digitales la posible venta de su obra con una nueva tecnología que replicaba la singularidad y la escasez de un objeto artístico tradicional. Así nació el mercado del arte que emplea NFT como respaldo, en el cual lo que realmente se compra y vende es la propiedad de la obra digital, ya que el archivo en sí mismo sigue siendo replicable, como vimos antes.

Rodrigo Fresán

  Crédito: Getty Images.

A partir de ahí, se desató la locura. El 25 de febrero de 2021 el artista digital Beeple subastó en Christie’s un NFT de su autoría que alcanzó el precio de 69 millones de dólares. Recordemos que lo que realmente adquirió el comprador con esos millones es el NFT que identifica ese archivo como el único auténtico. En ese momento mucha gente señaló que había algo de absurdo en la compra, porque se pagaba una millonada por una imagen que cualquier persona puede ver también cuando quiera. De hecho, la obra subastada está colgada en Internet. Y es cierto. Si volvemos al símil del prado, qué sentido tiene la propiedad del terreno cuando cualquiera lo atraviesa sin limitaciones.

Pero también se pagan millones por cuadros que todo el mundo ve en foto en la Wikipedia y en Google. Sobre el papel, el NFT emula el fetiche de la posesión de un objeto único y asocia esa idea a los archivos digitales. Un fetiche que ha sido clave para el mercado del arte tradicional durante más de un siglo.

Había nacido oficialmente la burbuja de los NFT.

En cierto modo, la tecnología NFT permite emular los dos valores fundamentales que hacen que el arte físico se pueda coleccionar: su singularidad (este objeto es único) y su escasez (este objeto no se puede replicar hasta el infinito).

Entonces… ¿esto de los NFT es positivo?

Hay gente que ha vendido esta tecnología como la salvadora del mercado del arte. Se ha anunciado a bombo y platillo como una nueva era, una salvación para artistas digitales porque «protege» su trabajo como si fuese físico. Una vez que los medios de comunicación se hicieron eco glocal de esta «revolución» (no siempre de manera rigurosa o desde la comprensión del fenómeno) la bola de nieve comenzó su aceleración.

Como suele ocurrir, esto ha creado una burbuja de dimensiones colosales. A finales del año pasado una simple imagen digital de tres esferas blancas sobre fondo negro fue dividida en más de 300.000 fragmentos que, en total, fueron vendidos por casi 92 millones de dólares a casi 30.000 coleccionistas diferentes. Y claro, personas de todo el mundo, no siempre artistas, se lanzaron a crear sus NFT tras la promesa del dinero fácil.

Evidentemente, esto ya no tenía demasiada relación con el arte y sí mucho que ver con la especulación. Se estima que a lo largo del año pasado el valor del arte digital creció hasta un 299%. Todo el mundo quería su trozo de este pastel. El creador de Twitter, Jack Dorsey, vendió un NFT del primer tuit de la historia por 3 millones de dólares. Famosos de diferentes ámbitos han lanzado sus propios NFT. Algunos museos han empezado a vender NFT de sus obras, como el Hermitage o la National Gallery, como manera de hacer caja. Incluso empresas sin relación con el arte o el diseño vendieron NFT de sus logotipos o de cualquier cosa que se les ocurría.

Así nació el mercado del arte que emplea NFT como respaldo, en el cual lo que realmente se compra y vende es la propiedad de la obra digital, ya que el archivo en sí mismo sigue siendo replicable.

La cara oscura de la tecnología NFT

El mercado de NFT se disparó con la promesa aparente de hacer dinero rápido, pero esto proyectaba también muchísimas sombras sobre una burbuja que, como todas las anteriores, prometía desde el principio un predecible estallido catastrófico. Desde el nacimiento del fenómeno se señalaron abundantes puntos oscuros, entre los cuales destacaban tres cuestiones muy preocupantes.

En primer lugar, aunque los titulares se centraban siempre en los casos de NFT que se vendían por millones de dólares, la realidad es que la inmensa mayoría del producto creado con esta tecnología no se vendía. Si nadie paga por ellos, no se venden. De manera que la idea de que es un mercado nuevo y mejor es falsa: los artistas y marcas conocidas conseguían buenos precios por sus NFT, pero la gran mayoría no ganaba un céntimo.

En segundo lugar, esta tecnología que se ha vendido por sus partidarios como un medio de que los artistas digitales finalmente cobren por su trabajo se está convirtiendo en un nido de piratería... contra los propios artistas digitales. Ha hecho crecer el robo de arte y cada vez más artistas han denunciado que otras personas han vendido NFT de sus obras sin permiso. Como cualquier imagen digital vale para un NFT, en realidad no hace falta ser artista para crearlos y venderlos. Solamente manejar la tecnología implicada en ello.

Por último, hay que recordar que los NFT dependen de la tecnología blockchain, igual que las cryptomonedas. Una tecnología que requiere cantidades masivas de computadores de alta potencia con un consumo de energía disparatadamente alto que se ha convertido en un gran problema medioambiental por su crecimiento desmesurado. Digamos que la sostenibilidad energética no es una característica de esta tecnología, al menos por el momento.

Como cualquier imagen digital vale para un NFT, en realidad no hace falta ser artista para crearlos y venderlos. Solamente manejar la tecnología implicada en ello.

2022: estalla la burbuja NFT

Si hace apenas un año parecía que los NFT se iban a comer el mundo y que quien no se subiese al tren quedaría obsoleto, ahora mismo el panorama es el opuesto. La burbuja ha pinchado, tal como se preveía, y ha dejado a muchas personas sin el dinero que «invirtieron» en ella. Según datos recientes, el mercado de NFT ha caído un 85% desde hace un año y su valor se ha desplomado un 80%. Ha llegado el momento en que muchos «cryptoartistas» reconocen que gran parte del fenómeno respondía a la pura especulación, con todo tipo de marcas comerciales e incluso programas de televisión lanzando su NFT solamente para ganar dinero fácil y subirse al carro.

Como ha ocurrido con tantas burbujas, mucha gente se pregunta cómo fue posible una bola de nieve semejante sin que nadie diese la voz de alarma. Aunque, en realidad, las voces de alarma eran numerosas y las acusaciones a este mercado de pura estafa especulativa fueron constantes desde el inicio de su éxito.

En el estallido de esta burbuja ha influido mucho el desmoronamiento de las cryptomonedas, a las cuales está directamente vinculado el mercado de NFT, puesto que la compra y venta de estos títulos de propiedad se realiza en el mercado crypto. Por otra parte, la inestabilidad económica derivada de la actual situación bélica ha hecho que especular con un producto digital sea ahora mucho menos atractivo y que los inversores prefieran el refugio de valores menos volátiles. Todos estos factores, reunidos, han precipitado el pinchazo de la burbuja en apenas un año de vigencia.

El resumen de todo lo que ha sucedido no difiere demasiado de cualquier otra burbuja de mercado. La tecnología NFT en sí misma no es negativa y, desde luego, seguirá existiendo y se seguirá utilizando. Quizás el descalabro de este mercado sirva como advertencia y esto provoque que, en lo sucesivo, se emplee de manera más prudente esta tecnología. En todo caso, ya parece indudable que NFT ha sido el concepto del año en el mundo del arte y probablemente escucharemos hablar de él de nuevo en el futuro.

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