Fenómenos

La peste: vendrá la muerte y tendrá tus ojos

Desde su publicación en 1947, fue leída como una metáfora: del nazismo, de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de la ocupación francesa de Argelia, del Mal, de la soledad... El mismo Camus se vio envuelto en las discusiones, las polémicas y los reclamos de esas interpretaciones. La pandemia de la covid-19, que devolvió el libro a las listas de los más vendidos, parece haberle dado a «La peste» los lectores que siempre esperó: nosotros.

{"id":136,"id_simpleblog_post":"136","id_simpleblog_category":"54","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Carlos Gamerro","author_url":null,"likes":"0","views":"3475","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:3:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;}","cover":"png","featured":"png","id_product":"25259,15315","id_category_tematica":"14","id_category_autor":"454","id_category_editorial":"11338","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"La peste: vendr\u00e1 la muerte y tendr\u00e1 tus ojos","meta_title":"La peste: vendr\u00e1 la muerte y tendr\u00e1 tus ojos","meta_description":"La pandemia de la covid-19, que devolvi\u00f3 el libro de Albert Camus a las listas de los m\u00e1s vendidos, parece haberle dado a \u00abLa peste\u00bb los lectores que siempre esper\u00f3: nosotros.","meta_keywords":"","short_content":"<p>Desde su publicaci\u00f3n en 1947, fue le\u00edda como una met\u00e1fora: del nazismo, de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de la ocupaci\u00f3n francesa de Argelia, del Mal, de la soledad... El mismo Camus se vio envuelto en las discusiones, las pol\u00e9micas y los reclamos de esas interpretaciones. La pandemia de la covid-19, que devolvi\u00f3 el libro a las listas de los m\u00e1s vendidos, parece haberle dado a \u00abLa peste\u00bb los lectores que siempre esper\u00f3: nosotros.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"k48342s\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"cb6g9yt\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"41vz7ab\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_image\":\"\",\"image\":{\"url\":\"\/es\/img\/cms\/Lengua_Imagenes\/07.png\",\"id\":1},\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"center\",\"align_mobile\":\"center\",\"caption\":\"\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5b3p0yq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Ilustraci\u00f3n de Max Rompo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s6y05th\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"border_color\":\"#d6e4e4\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":0,\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":0,\"isLinked\":false},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"150\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"150\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"3z82jkh\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"columna-autor\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"custom\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"60\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"pg9um9z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Por CARLOS GAMERRO<\/strong><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d4d4v08\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"custom\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"14\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"g2a9f0o\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_pswidget_options\":\"\",\"file\":\"autor-compartir\",\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"prestashop-widget-CustomTpl\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gpbju5v\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"3wdd7j2\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"9hvyzfk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tan habitual es utilizar la peste para metaforizar el mal, especialmente cuando este asume la forma de un flagelo que se extiende sin remedio, que su uso ha terminado banaliz\u00e1ndose. Los ejemplos van desde el barrial \u00abJaimito es la peste\u00bb a otros apenas m\u00e1s sofisticados: para Trotsky, el que era la peste era Stalin; \u00abNo saben que les traemos la peste\u00bb, habr\u00eda susurrado Freud\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>refiri\u00e9ndose al psicoan\u00e1lisis, claro<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0en el o\u00eddo de Jung mientras entraba a Nueva York el barco en que viajaban (la an\u00e9cdota es un invento de Lacan, seg\u00fan Elizabeth Roudinesco, pero no viene al caso); durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, los franceses acu\u00f1aron el t\u00e9rmino \u00ab<em>la peste brune<\/em>\u00bb\u00a0(la peste parda) para referirse al nazismo, y hoy lo aplican a la ultraderecha.<\/p><p>En febrero de 1955 Roland Barthes public\u00f3 una nota sobre la c\u00e9lebre novela de Camus, titulada \u00ab<em>La peste<\/em>, \u00bfanales de una epidemia o novela de la soledad?\u00bb. En ella cuestionaba el uso, por parte del autor, de la met\u00e1fora de la peste que cae sobre la ciudad argelina de Or\u00e1n para referir la ocupaci\u00f3n de Francia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y el recurso de hacer de la lucha de sus personajes contra la epidemia una alegor\u00eda de la Resistencia. Es f\u00e1cil, se\u00f1ala Barthes, exaltar la solidaridad cuando se trata de unirse para eliminar microbios; pero si lo que hay que eliminar son otras personas\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>los nazis y sus colaboradores<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0ya no se trata de una lucha <em>limpia<\/em> y la solidaridad deviene soledad: \u00abEl mal tiene a veces rostro humano, y de esto <em>La peste<\/em> no dice nada\u00bb. Adem\u00e1s, al proponerse como met\u00e1fora de la lucha contra todos los totalitarismos, contra \u00abla\u00bb Tiran\u00eda, <em>La peste<\/em> pretend\u00eda fundar \u00abuna moral antihist\u00f3rica\u00bb\u00a0divorciada de la situaci\u00f3n concreta que todos acababan de atravesar.\u00a0<\/p><p>La respuesta del autor no se hizo esperar (de hecho, su carta a Barthes precede a la publicaci\u00f3n de la nota de este). Escribe Camus el 11 de enero de 1955: \u00abAunque pretend\u00ed que a\u202f<em>La peste<\/em>\u202fse le dieran muchas lecturas, su contenido evidente es la lucha de la resistencia europea contra el nazismo. [\u2026]\u202f<em>La peste<\/em>, en cierto modo, es m\u00e1s que una cr\u00f3nica de la resistencia; pero, sin duda alguna, no es menos que eso\u00bb. Y a rengl\u00f3n seguido expone las razones del desplazamiento de germanos a g\u00e9rmenes: \u00abEl terror tiene muchos rostros, lo que justifica a\u00fan m\u00e1s que yo no haya nombrado ninguno para poder golpearlos mejor a todos. Esto es sin duda lo que se me reprocha, que\u202f<em>La peste<\/em>\u202fpueda servir a todas las resistencias contra todas las tiran\u00edas\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xqt0nrh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLeer pol\u00edticamente <em>La peste<\/em> de Camus, hoy, es leerla literalmente. Es a la vez un retrato de una ciudad en una verdadera situaci\u00f3n de peste y una advertencia sobre los riesgos de claudicar ante cualquier gobierno o sistema que se aprovecha de las cat\u00e1strofes para cumplir lo que Michel Foucault llam\u00f3, en su <em>Vigilar y castigar<\/em>, el sue\u00f1o pol\u00edtico de la peste.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"aofcb2l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El 4 de febrero responde Barthes: \u00ab\u00bfTiene el novelista el derecho de alienar los hechos de la historia? \u00bfPuede una peste equivaler, no digo a una ocupaci\u00f3n, sino a la Ocupaci\u00f3n? Todo su libro, el ep\u00edgrafe que lo encabeza y hasta sus explicaciones van a parar a ese derecho que precisamente se confunde ante sus ojos con el rechazo al realismo en el arte, en el que, bien lo ha precisado, usted no cree. Ahora, a mi modo de ver yo s\u00ed creo en el realismo en el arte, o al menos [\u2026] creo en un arte literal en el que las pestes no sean otra cosa que las pestes\u2026\u00bb.<\/p><p>Que <em>La peste<\/em> es una met\u00e1fora sobre la Francia ocupada y, m\u00e1s generalmente, sobre el totalitarismo, ha sido un lugar com\u00fan de casi todas las lecturas de la novela, y de hecho era casi inconcebible que fuera le\u00edda de otra manera: Camus la escribi\u00f3 entre 1941 y 1947, cuando el nazismo era un problema bien real (antes bien, era el problema real) y la peste no solo un recuerdo lejano, sino una posibilidad remota. Resultaba evidente, pod\u00eda deducirse sin haber le\u00eddo una sola l\u00ednea de la novela, que Camus, que residi\u00f3 en la Francia ocupada desde 1942, que fue miembro de la Resistencia y editor de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/11252-la-noche-de-la-verdad-9788418006739\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la revista clandestina <em>Combat<\/em><\/a><\/span>, estaba hablando de la guerra, no de la peste. La pol\u00e9mica con Barthes se basa en la premisa, indiscutida por ambos, de que <em>La peste<\/em> no es una novela sobre la peste.<\/p><p>Esto resulta todav\u00eda m\u00e1s notorio en la adaptaci\u00f3n cinematogr\u00e1fica de Luis Puenzo (1992). En su pel\u00edcula, la peste no es otra cosa que la \u00faltima dictadura argentina y, por extensi\u00f3n, la serie de dictaduras latinoamericanas de las \u00faltimas d\u00e9cadas, en especial la chilena. Los periodistas franceses que llegan a la ciudad ahora latinoamericana de Or\u00e1n se cruzan con una marcha de reclamo por los desaparecidos; las tropas del ej\u00e9rcito son omnipresentes, las autoridades sanitarias se comportan como servicios de inteligencia y en una clara referencia a la utilizaci\u00f3n del Estadio Nacional de Chile como campo de detenci\u00f3n de prisioneros pol\u00edticos, los enfermos o sospechosos de serlo son encerrados en un estadio de f\u00fatbol que funciona como virtual campo de concentraci\u00f3n. La conclusi\u00f3n es clara: Puenzo cree en la peste todav\u00eda menos que Camus, y eso puede explicar en parte por qu\u00e9 su pel\u00edcula no ha sido revivida ni referida en estos d\u00edas de pandemia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"67w5dks\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"etiroaj\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"hyix39n\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La incomodidad que provoc\u00f3 este sesgo metaf\u00f3rico de <em>La peste<\/em> tom\u00f3 un nuevo giro con el comienzo, en la posguerra, de la lucha por la liberaci\u00f3n de Argelia. De pronto se hizo palpable que si <em>La peste<\/em> era una met\u00e1fora sobre la ocupaci\u00f3n nazi, en el a\u00f1o de 1947, en Or\u00e1n, Argelia, los nazis eran los franceses y los luchadores de la resistencia eran los \u00e1rabes; y que su autor, no importa si conscientemente o no, esquivaba la cuesti\u00f3n invisibilizando a los \u00e1rabes: su novela transcurre en Argelia, pero todos los protagonistas son o franceses o <em>pied noirs<\/em>, argelinos de origen franc\u00e9s, como el propio Camus: no hay \u00e1rabes individualizados o nombrados, y al no incluir a ninguno de ellos en su equipo de lucha contra la peste, el autor parece presentarlos como una masa pasiva, incapaz de cuidarse a s\u00ed mismos, que solo la tutela de los franceses puede salvar de la muerte.<\/p><p>La postura de Camus ante el proceso independentista argelino fue entendiblemente ambigua. Era mucho m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil para intelectuales como Sartre y Simone de Beauvoir justificar la lucha de los argelinos nativos sin vueltas: no hab\u00edan nacido en \u00c1frica, no se consideraban argelinos, no ten\u00edan a su madre, familia y amigos viviendo en Argelia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"e7j006q\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"15\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"cmuvbwp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_title\":\"\",\"title\":\"Te recomendamos\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"size\":\"default\",\"header_size\":\"h2\",\"header_style\":\"none\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_title_style\":\"\",\"title_color\":\"#0d807f\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"500\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":25},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"Vollkorn\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"heading\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"p9s761w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_pswidget_options\":\"\",\"product_source\":\"xy\",\"search_type_select\":\"1\",\"tematicas_ids\":\"\",\"autores_ids\":\"\",\"editoriales_ids\":\"\",\"caracteristicas_ids\":\"\",\"days_range\":\"30\",\"products_limit\":\"1\",\"order_by\":\"fecha_nov\",\"second_order_by\":\"tiraje\",\"order_way\":\"desc\",\"products_caracteristicas_ids\":[\"25259\"],\"view\":\"carousel\",\"slides_to_show\":\"1\",\"slides_to_show_tablet\":\"1\",\"slides_to_show_mobile\":\"1\",\"items_per_column\":\"1\",\"navigation\":\"both\",\"autoplay\":\"yes\",\"infinite\":\"yes\",\"section_style_navigation\":\"\",\"arrows_position\":\"middle\",\"arrows_position_top\":\"-20\",\"arrows_color\":\"\",\"arrows_bg_color\":\"\",\"dots_color\":\"\",\"section_style_product\":\"\",\"product_bg_color\":\"\",\"product_text_color\":\"\",\"product_price_color\":\"\",\"product_stars_color\":\"\",\"product_border_border\":\"\",\"product_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"product_border_color\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_style_product_h\":\"\",\"product_bg_color_h\":\"\",\"product_overlay_h\":\"\",\"product_text_color_h\":\"\",\"product_price_color_h\":\"\",\"product_stars_color_h\":\"\",\"border_h\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"17\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"no-shadow\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"none\",\"_background_color\":\"#f3f7f7\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"prestashop-widget-ProductsListNew\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j1b0m73\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"jcobp5g\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"m37g3b5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Con ser m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil, su postura era, desde el punto de vista hist\u00f3rico, la \u00fanica posible; la de Camus, justo es decir, era imposible, o para usar uno de sus t\u00e9rminos favoritos, <em>absurda<\/em>: como <em>pied noir<\/em>, se sent\u00eda tan argelino como el que m\u00e1s, y no pod\u00eda concebir que el m\u00e1s de mill\u00f3n de argelinos de origen franc\u00e9s, empezando por su madre, se vieran obligados a abandonar la tierra que sent\u00edan como propia, como efectivamente suceder\u00eda tras su muerte; como intelectual de izquierda, humanista y progresista, no pod\u00eda sin contradicci\u00f3n escribir\u00a0\u00abcontra todas las tiran\u00edas\u00bb\u00a0y al mismo tiempo justificar la presencia francesa en Argelia. Trat\u00f3 de conciliar lo inconciliable abogando por la independencia de Argelia siempre y cuando se tratara de establecer un estado plurinacional, con fuerte participaci\u00f3n de los <em>pied noirs<\/em>, y condenando \u00abtoda violencia\u00bb, pero este humanismo de alto vuelo no lo salv\u00f3 de la flagrante contradicci\u00f3n de haber justificado la violencia de los franceses que luchaban contra la ocupaci\u00f3n alemana y condenado luego la de los argelinos nativos que luchaban contra la francesa, como evidenci\u00f3 su desesperada respuesta a los cuestionamientos de un joven militante argelino en ocasi\u00f3n de recibir el Premio Nobel:\u00a0<span style=\\\"font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 11.3333px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>Creo en la justicia, pero defender\u00e9 a mi madre por encima de la justicia\u00bb.<\/p><p>Y, sin embargo, de toda esta mara\u00f1a de evasiones, confusiones y desplazamientos surgi\u00f3 una novela que habla poderosamente sobre la situaci\u00f3n que atravesamos. Como Camus le responde a Barthes,\u00a0<span style=\\\"font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 11.3333px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span><em>La peste<\/em> es m\u00e1s que una cr\u00f3nica de la resistencia\u00bb; es ese\u00a0<span style=\\\"font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 11.3333px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>m\u00e1s\u00bb\u00a0el que hoy nos interesa. Si la novela ha pasado a ser una de las m\u00e1s le\u00eddas de la actualidad no ser\u00e1 por un s\u00fabito renacimiento del inter\u00e9s en la historia de <em>La R\u00e9sistence<\/em> ni en la lucha contra los totalitarismos, sino por el renovado inter\u00e9s en la peste. No nos equivocamos en acudir a la novela de Camus, y ciertamente nos equivocamos menos que el autor y sus cr\u00edticos: <em>La peste<\/em> se ha vuelto, hoy, como quer\u00eda Barthes, una novela sobre la peste, aunque debi\u00f3 esperar m\u00e1s de setenta a\u00f1os para serlo. Muchas veces los libros deben aguardar pacientemente a que llegue su momento; nosotros, mucho m\u00e1s que los franceses de la posguerra, somos los lectores para los cuales <em>La peste<\/em> fue escrita; nadie, antes de nosotros, ni siquiera Camus, pudo leerla como pide ser le\u00edda: su h\u00e9roe, el maduro doctor Rieux, es un m\u00e9dico que debe denunciar cada caso de la enfermedad, aun sabiendo que eso separar\u00e1 al paciente de sus seres queridos y disminuir\u00e1 sus posibilidades de supervivencia, pero no lo hace por miedo a las autoridades ni por colaboracionista, sino porque es su deber como m\u00e9dico; el padre Paneloux pronuncia dos sermones: en el primero fustiga, exultante, a sus feligreses con la figura de la peste como azote de Dios, en el segundo les propone aceptar con humildad lo que no se puede entender, que Dios haya querido el sufrimiento atroz de un ni\u00f1o inocente: la evoluci\u00f3n del padre Paneloux puede entenderse perfectamente si se trata de la peste; no ser\u00eda tan clara, ni convincente, si tuvi\u00e9ramos que entender que en realidad est\u00e1 diciendo que Dios envi\u00f3 a los nazis para castigar a Francia, y que nos pide que aceptemos la tortura de un ni\u00f1o por parte de estos como manifestaci\u00f3n de la voluntad divina; Cottard, como oportunista que lucra con la peste, est\u00e1 m\u00e1s vivo, es m\u00e1s interesante e inteligible, que Cottard s\u00edmbolo del colaboracionismo. La novela gana si se la lee literalmente, como una novela sobre la llegada de una epidemia a una ciudad que no estaba preparada para recibirla; y cuando el sentido literal es m\u00e1s fuerte que el sentido aleg\u00f3rico, el sentido aleg\u00f3rico se desvanece.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"-15\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"59\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5jcj8ek\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"oa0vejf\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"2y5vi7z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_image\":\"\",\"image\":{\"url\":\"\/es\/img\/cms\/Lengua_Imagenes\/GettyImages-50418008.jpg\",\"id\":1},\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"center\",\"align_mobile\":\"center\",\"caption\":\"\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dowe1zd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Camus en confinamiento: el autor y <em>La peste<\/em> cobraron una vigencia que parece a medida. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"z2zafzo\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"tmrtl97\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"xqf13nx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Aun as\u00ed, las lecturas en clave aleg\u00f3rica o metaf\u00f3rica dominaron las interpretaciones de <em>La peste<\/em> durante d\u00e9cadas. Una voz disidente fue la de Susan Sontag:\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; font-size: 8.5pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>La novela de Camus no es, como suele afirmarse, una alegor\u00eda pol\u00edtica en la que el estallido de la peste bub\u00f3nica en un puerto mediterr\u00e1neo represente la ocupaci\u00f3n nazi. [\u2026] Camus no protesta contra nada, ni contra la corrupci\u00f3n ni contra la tiran\u00eda, ni siquiera contra la mortalidad. <em>La peste<\/em> es ni m\u00e1s ni menos que un acontecimiento ejemplar, la irrupci\u00f3n de la muerte que da seriedad a la vida. Su uso de la peste, ep\u00edtome m\u00e1s que met\u00e1fora, es distanciado, estoico, alerta, no se trata de hacer un juicio. [\u2026] Los personajes de la novela de Camus afirman lo impensable que es una peste en el siglo XX\u2026\u00bb.<\/p><p>La cita pertenece a <em>El sida y sus met\u00e1foras<\/em> (1988) y este dato basta para explicar por qu\u00e9 la autora eligi\u00f3 leer <em>La peste<\/em> a contrapelo de las lecturas anteriores: en los a\u00f1os ochenta el sida se consideraba incurable y la epidemia no cesaba de extenderse, y para muchos ten\u00eda el potencial de devastar el planeta, y de hecho devast\u00f3 y sigue devastando una buena parte de este, el continente africano. La conclusi\u00f3n es clara: se necesita de la experiencia de una epidemia, o al menos del miedo\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(33, 37, 41); font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>que suele tomar la forma del p\u00e1nico<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0a una epidemia, para leer <em>La peste<\/em> como una novela sobre la peste. En 1947 ni la experiencia reciente ni las perspectivas futuras dotaban de sustancia al fantasma de la peste, y de ah\u00ed que a nadie\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>ni siquiera a Camus<span style=\\\"background-color: #ffffff; color: #212529; font-family: lato, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;\\\">\u2014<\/span>\u00a0le resultara muy f\u00e1cil tom\u00e1rsela en serio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"em3l3v3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"nworu1e\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"nlqvzcu\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Susan Sontag: \u00abLa novela de Camus no es, como suele afirmarse, una alegor\u00eda pol\u00edtica en la que la peste bub\u00f3nica represente la ocupaci\u00f3n nazi. La peste es ni m\u00e1s ni menos que la irrupci\u00f3n de la muerte que da seriedad a la vida. Su uso de la peste, ep\u00edtome m\u00e1s que met\u00e1fora, es distanciado, estoico, alerta: los personajes de la novela de Camus afirman lo impensable que es una peste en el siglo XX\u2026\u00bb.<\/p><p>\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"maffuja\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Es probable que el desider\u00e1tum de Camus fuera una novela a la vez realista y simb\u00f3lica; seg\u00fan su bi\u00f3grafo, Herbert R. Lottman, uno de sus modelos pudo haber sido <em>Moby Dick<\/em>, que sin dejar de ser una met\u00e1fora sobre el mal, y de la lucha fan\u00e1tica y monoman\u00edaca contra este, es un minucioso retrato verista de la vida a bordo de un barco ballenero. As\u00ed, <em>La peste<\/em> pudo leerse en su momento como met\u00e1fora de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y puede leerse hoy como retrato de la vida de una ciudad bajo una epidemia. Camus quer\u00eda una novela tan realista como el <em>Diario del a\u00f1o de la peste<\/em> de Daniel Defoe, pero con el agregado de una dimensi\u00f3n simb\u00f3lica que la novela de Defoe no tiene. Este agregado fue su maldici\u00f3n y su r\u00e9mora, hasta el d\u00eda de hoy, en que podemos liberarla de esa carga y leerla literalmente.<\/p><p>La tarea de discernir qu\u00e9 disposiciones pueden ser acatadas y cu\u00e1les deben ser resistidas, qu\u00e9 instrumentos pueden tolerarse por ahora, sin la certeza de que luego podr\u00e1n ser desmontados, qu\u00e9 h\u00e1bitos podemos incorporar sin que se vuelvan nueva normalidad o segunda naturaleza, es tan incesante, microsc\u00f3pica, desesperante y agotadora, se encuentra hasta tal punto bajo el imperio de la incertidumbre y el miedo, que por momentos es comprensible caer en las sim\u00e9tricas resignaciones de la obediencia ciega y la resistencia ciega, en suponer que la peste no existe o que se origina en siniestras conspiraciones. Leer con cuidado <em>La peste<\/em> de Camus puede ayudarnos a navegar este siempre cambiante laberinto: es a la vez un retrato de una ciudad en una verdadera situaci\u00f3n de peste y una advertencia sobre los riesgos de claudicar ante cualquier gobierno o sistema que se aprovecha de las cat\u00e1strofes para cumplir lo que Michel Foucault llam\u00f3, en su <em>Vigilar y castigar<\/em>, el <span style=\\\"background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; font-size: 8.5pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>sue\u00f1o pol\u00edtico de la peste\u00bb. Leer pol\u00edticamente <em>La peste<\/em> de Camus, hoy, es leerla literalmente. No es denunciando conspiraciones y fabricaciones imaginarias, ni levant\u00e1ndose contra la peste creyendo que esta es apenas la m\u00e1scara detr\u00e1s de la cual se esconde el poder disciplinario, que se lucha efectivamente contra este.<\/p><p>En un conocido relato que no se propone quitarnos el miedo a la peste sino asustarnos en serio, Edgar Allan Poe hace que el pr\u00edncipe Pr\u00f3spero desenmascare al farsante que se ha presentado en su fiesta disfrazado de Muerte Roja para descubrir que detr\u00e1s de la m\u00e1scara de la Muerte Roja se ocultaba nada menos que la Muerte Roja; acto seguido mueren todos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"47\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"avtxivg\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"a5tcgi0\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"la7lb1f\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_separator\":\"\",\"direction\":\"top\",\"shape\":\"triangle-rect-left\",\"shape_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"shape_color\":\"\",\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"shape-separator\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vhngv9b\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"110\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"110\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"18xo4lf\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"fzo7ozj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>La otra peste: la pandemia de 1918<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00a0<\/p><p>En Europa al menos, la pandemia de 1918 tuvo una seria competidora en la Gran Guerra; aun as\u00ed, sus huellas fantasmales pueden rastrearse en algunas obras ic\u00f3nicas de la posguerra: la protagonista de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos-en-audiolibro\/13730-la-senora-dalloway\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La se\u00f1ora\u00a0Dalloway<\/a><\/em><\/span> (1925) de Virginia Woolf se recupera de un severo ataque de influenza, evidentemente la de la gran pandemia: estamos en 1919. La enfermedad la ha cambiado para siempre, dej\u00e1ndola muy blanca, avejentada y temerosa, con el coraz\u00f3n afectado,\u00a0<span style=\\\"background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; font-size: 8.5pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>rasqueteada, da\u00f1ada en la espina dorsal\u00bb. Es habitual caracterizar a la se\u00f1ora Dalloway como una celebraci\u00f3n de la vida cotidiana, a la manera del <em>Ulises<\/em> (1922) de Joyce, cuyos procedimientos (mon\u00f3logo interior, m\u00faltiples puntos de vista, concentrar la acci\u00f3n en un d\u00eda) evoca sin duda; pero si lo es, lo es a su manera: los variados sentimientos y sensaciones de Clarissa en su caminata matinal sugieren menos la celebraci\u00f3n del universo sensible por parte de un Walt Whitman o un Leopold Bloom plet\u00f3ricos de salud y energ\u00eda que el incr\u00e9dulo y azorado redescubrimiento del mundo exterior por parte de un paciente que sale de una larga convalecencia (todos, en la novela, tienen algo de L\u00e1zaros redivivos). Ni la guerra ni la pandemia se narran en <em>La se\u00f1ora Dalloway<\/em>, y la pandemia mucho menos que la guerra; pero guerra y pandemia dan forma y sentido a todo lo que la novela nos muestra. En su siguiente novela, <em>Al faro<\/em> (1927), Woolf ahondar\u00e1 en el recurso de narrar por ausencia, historiando dos d\u00edas en la historia de la familia Ramsay, dos d\u00edas separados por un lapso de diez a\u00f1os en los que tienen lugar la Gran Guerra y la gran pandemia, diez a\u00f1os protagonizados por la gran casa de veraneo abandonada por sus inquilinos, invadida por aires y sombras, cay\u00e9ndose a pedazos, enferma.<\/p><p>Sin la competencia tan directa y cercana de la guerra, del otro lado del Atl\u00e1ntico la pandemia fue encarada de modo m\u00e1s directo por Katherine Anne Porter en su novela breve <em>P\u00e1lido caballo, p\u00e1lido jinete<\/em> (1939). El t\u00edtulo refiere a uno de los cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis, el que figura la peste y alcanza a la reportera Miranda en la ciudad de Denver, Colorado, y por poco acaba con ella, y acaba efectivamente con su novio Adam. En su novela, el acallado sufrimiento de millones trata de hacerse o\u00edr por sobre el estr\u00e9pito de la guerra y sus \u00e9picos \u00e9nfasis. La novela, vale la pena agregar, est\u00e1 basada en la experiencia vivida: Porter contrajo la influenza, estuvo tan cerca de la muerte que el diario donde trabajaba ya hab\u00eda compuesto su obituario y despert\u00f3 quebrada y calva; su cabello, cuando volvi\u00f3 a crecer, era completamente blanco.\u00a0<span style=\\\"font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 11.3333px;\\\">\u00ab<\/span>Parti\u00f3 mi vida en dos\u00bb, dir\u00eda a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde en una entrevista.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"4\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vnt9msq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"double\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"4\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"border_color\":\"#d6e4e4\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"45\",\"right\":0,\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":0,\"isLinked\":false},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"60\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"qq1f3lh\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"bm81c7z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_title\":\"\",\"title\":\"Albert Camus nos esperaba\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/454-albert-camus\"},\"size\":\"default\",\"header_size\":\"h2\",\"header_style\":\"none\",\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_title_style\":\"\",\"title_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":24},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":24},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"Vollkorn\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"heading\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zccjg2d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_pswidget_options\":\"\",\"product_source\":\"xy\",\"search_type_select\":1,\"tematicas_ids\":\"\",\"autores_ids\":\"\",\"editoriales_ids\":\"\",\"caracteristicas_ids\":\"\",\"days_range\":\"30\",\"products_limit\":\"10\",\"order_by\":\"fecha_nov\",\"second_order_by\":\"tiraje\",\"order_way\":\"desc\",\"products_caracteristicas_ids\":[\"226969\",\"226501\",\"226549\",\"226970\"],\"view\":\"carousel\",\"slides_to_show\":\"4\",\"slides_to_show_tablet\":\"2\",\"slides_to_show_mobile\":\"1\",\"items_per_column\":\"1\",\"navigation\":\"both\",\"autoplay\":\"yes\",\"infinite\":\"yes\",\"section_style_navigation\":\"\",\"arrows_position\":\"middle\",\"arrows_position_top\":\"-20\",\"arrows_color\":\"\",\"arrows_bg_color\":\"\",\"dots_color\":\"\",\"section_style_product\":\"\",\"product_bg_color\":\"\",\"product_text_color\":\"\",\"product_price_color\":\"\",\"product_stars_color\":\"\",\"product_border_border\":\"\",\"product_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"product_border_color\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_style_product_h\":\"\",\"product_bg_color_h\":\"\",\"product_overlay_h\":\"\",\"product_text_color_h\":\"\",\"product_price_color_h\":\"\",\"product_stars_color_h\":\"\",\"border_h\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"45\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"25\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"25\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"slider-libros-blog arrow-exterior no-description no-shadow\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"prestashop-widget-ProductsListNew\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vm6zl5r\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"double\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"4\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"border_color\":\"#d6e4e4\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"15\",\"right\":0,\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":0,\"isLinked\":false},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"50\",\"right\":0,\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":0,\"isLinked\":false},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"30\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":false},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"cgygb06\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"k9dgs0q\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":true,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height_inner\":\"default\",\"custom_height_inner\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_section\":\"\",\"background_overlay_background\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_overlay_color_b\":\"\",\"background_overlay_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_overlay_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_overlay_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_overlay_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_overlay_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_position\":\"\",\"background_overlay_attachment\":\"\",\"background_overlay_repeat\":\"\",\"background_overlay_size\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_link\":\"\",\"background_overlay_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_overlay_opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":0.5},\"section_border\":\"\",\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":0,\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":0,\"isLinked\":false},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"53\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"53\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"reverse_order_mobile\":\"\",\"heading_visibility\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"h1n6ip7\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":true,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":100,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"transparent\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"vwndmex\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_title\":\"\",\"title\":\"Art\u00edculos relacionados\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"size\":\"default\",\"header_size\":\"h2\",\"header_style\":\"none\",\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_title_style\":\"\",\"title_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":24},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":24},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"50\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"Vollkorn\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"heading\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zju292c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_pswidget_options\":\"\",\"posts_source\":\"vp\",\"select_producto\":\"\",\"select_tematica\":\"\",\"select_autor\":\"\",\"select_sello\":\"\",\"posts_limit\":\"3\",\"view\":\"blog-adultos-listado-general\",\"slides_to_show\":\"6\",\"slides_to_show_tablet\":\"6\",\"slides_to_show_mobile\":\"6\",\"slides_to_show_g\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g1\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g1_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g1_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g2\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g2_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g2_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g3\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g3_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g3_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g4\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g4_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g4_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g5\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g5_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_g5_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosprincipal\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosprincipal_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosprincipal_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosmasleidos\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosmasleidos_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultosmasleidos_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultoslistadogeneral\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultoslistadogeneral_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogadultoslistadogeneral_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsprincipal\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsprincipal_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsprincipal_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblog-kids-destacados\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblog-kids-destacados_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblog-kids-destacados_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsmasleidos\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsmasleidos_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsmasleidos_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsarticulodestacado\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsarticulodestacado_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsarticulodestacado_mobile\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsfavoritosdelmes\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsfavoritosdelmes_tablet\":\"3\",\"slides_to_show_gblogkidsfavoritosdelmes_mobile\":\"3\",\"navigation\":\"both\",\"pause_on_hover\":\"yes\",\"autoplay\":\"yes\",\"autoplay_speed\":5000,\"infinite\":\"yes\",\"section_style_navigation\":\"\",\"arrows_color\":\"\",\"arrows_bg_color\":\"\",\"dots_color\":\"\",\"section_style_post\":\"\",\"post_margin\":{\"unit\":\"rem\",\"size\":1},\"post_padding\":{\"unit\":\"rem\",\"size\":0},\"post_bg_color\":\"\",\"post_title_color\":\"\",\"post_text_color\":\"\",\"post_border_border\":\"\",\"post_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"post_border_color\":\"\",\"post_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"post_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_style_post_h\":\"\",\"post_bg_color_h\":\"\",\"post_title_color_h\":\"\",\"post_text_color_h\":\"\",\"border_h\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"product_box_shadow_h_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"no-leer-mas\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\",\"revista\":\"1\",\"pageType\":\"blog\",\"pageId\":121,\"posts_ids\":\"\",\"posts_offset\":\"0\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"prestashop-widget-Blog\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}]","link_rewrite":"la-peste-vendra-la-muerte-y-tendra-tus-ojos","video_code":"","external_url":"","reading_time":"15 min.","date_add":"2021-02-06 22:12:35","date_upd":"2021-05-11 13:31:02","featured_image":"\/es\/modules\/ph_simpleblog\/featured\/136.png","banner":"\/es\/modules\/ph_simpleblog\/covers\/136.png","tags":[],"post_type":"post","category_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos","parent_category":{"id":38,"id_shop":"1","id_simpleblog_category":"38","name":"Art\u00edculos","description":"<p>Autores, libros, cine y series, c\u00f3mics...<\/p>","link_rewrite":"articulos","meta_title":"","meta_keywords":"","meta_description":"","date_add":"2021-01-04 17:57:01","date_upd":"2022-02-21 12:16:28","cover":"","position":"2","image":null,"id_parent":"0","active":"1","revista":"1","id_shop_list":[],"force_id":false,"tags":[]},"category":"Fen\u00f3menos","revista":"1","id_shop_list":[],"force_id":false,"category_rewrite":"fenomenos","url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/la-peste-vendra-la-muerte-y-tendra-tus-ojos","banner_thumb":"\/es\/modules\/ph_simpleblog\/covers\/136-thumb.png","banner_wide":"\/es\/modules\/ph_simpleblog\/covers\/136-wide.png","comments":"0"}
15 min.

Ilustración de Max Rompo.

Por CARLOS GAMERRO



Tan habitual es utilizar la peste para metaforizar el mal, especialmente cuando este asume la forma de un flagelo que se extiende sin remedio, que su uso ha terminado banalizándose. Los ejemplos van desde el barrial «Jaimito es la peste» a otros apenas más sofisticados: para Trotsky, el que era la peste era Stalin; «No saben que les traemos la peste», habría susurrado Freud refiriéndose al psicoanálisis, claro en el oído de Jung mientras entraba a Nueva York el barco en que viajaban (la anécdota es un invento de Lacan, según Elizabeth Roudinesco, pero no viene al caso); durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, los franceses acuñaron el término «la peste brune» (la peste parda) para referirse al nazismo, y hoy lo aplican a la ultraderecha.

En febrero de 1955 Roland Barthes publicó una nota sobre la célebre novela de Camus, titulada «La peste, ¿anales de una epidemia o novela de la soledad?». En ella cuestionaba el uso, por parte del autor, de la metáfora de la peste que cae sobre la ciudad argelina de Orán para referir la ocupación de Francia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y el recurso de hacer de la lucha de sus personajes contra la epidemia una alegoría de la Resistencia. Es fácil, señala Barthes, exaltar la solidaridad cuando se trata de unirse para eliminar microbios; pero si lo que hay que eliminar son otras personas los nazis y sus colaboradores ya no se trata de una lucha limpia y la solidaridad deviene soledad: «El mal tiene a veces rostro humano, y de esto La peste no dice nada». Además, al proponerse como metáfora de la lucha contra todos los totalitarismos, contra «la» Tiranía, La peste pretendía fundar «una moral antihistórica» divorciada de la situación concreta que todos acababan de atravesar. 

La respuesta del autor no se hizo esperar (de hecho, su carta a Barthes precede a la publicación de la nota de este). Escribe Camus el 11 de enero de 1955: «Aunque pretendí que a La peste se le dieran muchas lecturas, su contenido evidente es la lucha de la resistencia europea contra el nazismo. […] La peste, en cierto modo, es más que una crónica de la resistencia; pero, sin duda alguna, no es menos que eso». Y a renglón seguido expone las razones del desplazamiento de germanos a gérmenes: «El terror tiene muchos rostros, lo que justifica aún más que yo no haya nombrado ninguno para poder golpearlos mejor a todos. Esto es sin duda lo que se me reprocha, que La peste pueda servir a todas las resistencias contra todas las tiranías».

«Leer políticamente La peste de Camus, hoy, es leerla literalmente. Es a la vez un retrato de una ciudad en una verdadera situación de peste y una advertencia sobre los riesgos de claudicar ante cualquier gobierno o sistema que se aprovecha de las catástrofes para cumplir lo que Michel Foucault llamó, en su Vigilar y castigar, el sueño político de la peste.»

El 4 de febrero responde Barthes: «¿Tiene el novelista el derecho de alienar los hechos de la historia? ¿Puede una peste equivaler, no digo a una ocupación, sino a la Ocupación? Todo su libro, el epígrafe que lo encabeza y hasta sus explicaciones van a parar a ese derecho que precisamente se confunde ante sus ojos con el rechazo al realismo en el arte, en el que, bien lo ha precisado, usted no cree. Ahora, a mi modo de ver yo sí creo en el realismo en el arte, o al menos […] creo en un arte literal en el que las pestes no sean otra cosa que las pestes…».

Que La peste es una metáfora sobre la Francia ocupada y, más generalmente, sobre el totalitarismo, ha sido un lugar común de casi todas las lecturas de la novela, y de hecho era casi inconcebible que fuera leída de otra manera: Camus la escribió entre 1941 y 1947, cuando el nazismo era un problema bien real (antes bien, era el problema real) y la peste no solo un recuerdo lejano, sino una posibilidad remota. Resultaba evidente, podía deducirse sin haber leído una sola línea de la novela, que Camus, que residió en la Francia ocupada desde 1942, que fue miembro de la Resistencia y editor de la revista clandestina Combat, estaba hablando de la guerra, no de la peste. La polémica con Barthes se basa en la premisa, indiscutida por ambos, de que La peste no es una novela sobre la peste.

Esto resulta todavía más notorio en la adaptación cinematográfica de Luis Puenzo (1992). En su película, la peste no es otra cosa que la última dictadura argentina y, por extensión, la serie de dictaduras latinoamericanas de las últimas décadas, en especial la chilena. Los periodistas franceses que llegan a la ciudad ahora latinoamericana de Orán se cruzan con una marcha de reclamo por los desaparecidos; las tropas del ejército son omnipresentes, las autoridades sanitarias se comportan como servicios de inteligencia y en una clara referencia a la utilización del Estadio Nacional de Chile como campo de detención de prisioneros políticos, los enfermos o sospechosos de serlo son encerrados en un estadio de fútbol que funciona como virtual campo de concentración. La conclusión es clara: Puenzo cree en la peste todavía menos que Camus, y eso puede explicar en parte por qué su película no ha sido revivida ni referida en estos días de pandemia.

La incomodidad que provocó este sesgo metafórico de La peste tomó un nuevo giro con el comienzo, en la posguerra, de la lucha por la liberación de Argelia. De pronto se hizo palpable que si La peste era una metáfora sobre la ocupación nazi, en el año de 1947, en Orán, Argelia, los nazis eran los franceses y los luchadores de la resistencia eran los árabes; y que su autor, no importa si conscientemente o no, esquivaba la cuestión invisibilizando a los árabes: su novela transcurre en Argelia, pero todos los protagonistas son o franceses o pied noirs, argelinos de origen francés, como el propio Camus: no hay árabes individualizados o nombrados, y al no incluir a ninguno de ellos en su equipo de lucha contra la peste, el autor parece presentarlos como una masa pasiva, incapaz de cuidarse a sí mismos, que solo la tutela de los franceses puede salvar de la muerte.

La postura de Camus ante el proceso independentista argelino fue entendiblemente ambigua. Era mucho más fácil para intelectuales como Sartre y Simone de Beauvoir justificar la lucha de los argelinos nativos sin vueltas: no habían nacido en África, no se consideraban argelinos, no tenían a su madre, familia y amigos viviendo en Argelia.

Con ser más fácil, su postura era, desde el punto de vista histórico, la única posible; la de Camus, justo es decir, era imposible, o para usar uno de sus términos favoritos, absurda: como pied noir, se sentía tan argelino como el que más, y no podía concebir que el más de millón de argelinos de origen francés, empezando por su madre, se vieran obligados a abandonar la tierra que sentían como propia, como efectivamente sucedería tras su muerte; como intelectual de izquierda, humanista y progresista, no podía sin contradicción escribir «contra todas las tiranías» y al mismo tiempo justificar la presencia francesa en Argelia. Trató de conciliar lo inconciliable abogando por la independencia de Argelia siempre y cuando se tratara de establecer un estado plurinacional, con fuerte participación de los pied noirs, y condenando «toda violencia», pero este humanismo de alto vuelo no lo salvó de la flagrante contradicción de haber justificado la violencia de los franceses que luchaban contra la ocupación alemana y condenado luego la de los argelinos nativos que luchaban contra la francesa, como evidenció su desesperada respuesta a los cuestionamientos de un joven militante argelino en ocasión de recibir el Premio Nobel: «Creo en la justicia, pero defenderé a mi madre por encima de la justicia».

Y, sin embargo, de toda esta maraña de evasiones, confusiones y desplazamientos surgió una novela que habla poderosamente sobre la situación que atravesamos. Como Camus le responde a Barthes, «La peste es más que una crónica de la resistencia»; es ese «más» el que hoy nos interesa. Si la novela ha pasado a ser una de las más leídas de la actualidad no será por un súbito renacimiento del interés en la historia de La Résistence ni en la lucha contra los totalitarismos, sino por el renovado interés en la peste. No nos equivocamos en acudir a la novela de Camus, y ciertamente nos equivocamos menos que el autor y sus críticos: La peste se ha vuelto, hoy, como quería Barthes, una novela sobre la peste, aunque debió esperar más de setenta años para serlo. Muchas veces los libros deben aguardar pacientemente a que llegue su momento; nosotros, mucho más que los franceses de la posguerra, somos los lectores para los cuales La peste fue escrita; nadie, antes de nosotros, ni siquiera Camus, pudo leerla como pide ser leída: su héroe, el maduro doctor Rieux, es un médico que debe denunciar cada caso de la enfermedad, aun sabiendo que eso separará al paciente de sus seres queridos y disminuirá sus posibilidades de supervivencia, pero no lo hace por miedo a las autoridades ni por colaboracionista, sino porque es su deber como médico; el padre Paneloux pronuncia dos sermones: en el primero fustiga, exultante, a sus feligreses con la figura de la peste como azote de Dios, en el segundo les propone aceptar con humildad lo que no se puede entender, que Dios haya querido el sufrimiento atroz de un niño inocente: la evolución del padre Paneloux puede entenderse perfectamente si se trata de la peste; no sería tan clara, ni convincente, si tuviéramos que entender que en realidad está diciendo que Dios envió a los nazis para castigar a Francia, y que nos pide que aceptemos la tortura de un niño por parte de estos como manifestación de la voluntad divina; Cottard, como oportunista que lucra con la peste, está más vivo, es más interesante e inteligible, que Cottard símbolo del colaboracionismo. La novela gana si se la lee literalmente, como una novela sobre la llegada de una epidemia a una ciudad que no estaba preparada para recibirla; y cuando el sentido literal es más fuerte que el sentido alegórico, el sentido alegórico se desvanece.

Camus en confinamiento: el autor y La peste cobraron una vigencia que parece a medida. Crédito: Getty.

Aun así, las lecturas en clave alegórica o metafórica dominaron las interpretaciones de La peste durante décadas. Una voz disidente fue la de Susan Sontag: «La novela de Camus no es, como suele afirmarse, una alegoría política en la que el estallido de la peste bubónica en un puerto mediterráneo represente la ocupación nazi. […] Camus no protesta contra nada, ni contra la corrupción ni contra la tiranía, ni siquiera contra la mortalidad. La peste es ni más ni menos que un acontecimiento ejemplar, la irrupción de la muerte que da seriedad a la vida. Su uso de la peste, epítome más que metáfora, es distanciado, estoico, alerta, no se trata de hacer un juicio. […] Los personajes de la novela de Camus afirman lo impensable que es una peste en el siglo XX…».

La cita pertenece a El sida y sus metáforas (1988) y este dato basta para explicar por qué la autora eligió leer La peste a contrapelo de las lecturas anteriores: en los años ochenta el sida se consideraba incurable y la epidemia no cesaba de extenderse, y para muchos tenía el potencial de devastar el planeta, y de hecho devastó y sigue devastando una buena parte de este, el continente africano. La conclusión es clara: se necesita de la experiencia de una epidemia, o al menos del miedo que suele tomar la forma del pánico a una epidemia, para leer La peste como una novela sobre la peste. En 1947 ni la experiencia reciente ni las perspectivas futuras dotaban de sustancia al fantasma de la peste, y de ahí que a nadie ni siquiera a Camus le resultara muy fácil tomársela en serio.

Susan Sontag: «La novela de Camus no es, como suele afirmarse, una alegoría política en la que la peste bubónica represente la ocupación nazi. La peste es ni más ni menos que la irrupción de la muerte que da seriedad a la vida. Su uso de la peste, epítome más que metáfora, es distanciado, estoico, alerta: los personajes de la novela de Camus afirman lo impensable que es una peste en el siglo XX…».

 

Es probable que el desiderátum de Camus fuera una novela a la vez realista y simbólica; según su biógrafo, Herbert R. Lottman, uno de sus modelos pudo haber sido Moby Dick, que sin dejar de ser una metáfora sobre el mal, y de la lucha fanática y monomaníaca contra este, es un minucioso retrato verista de la vida a bordo de un barco ballenero. Así, La peste pudo leerse en su momento como metáfora de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y puede leerse hoy como retrato de la vida de una ciudad bajo una epidemia. Camus quería una novela tan realista como el Diario del año de la peste de Daniel Defoe, pero con el agregado de una dimensión simbólica que la novela de Defoe no tiene. Este agregado fue su maldición y su rémora, hasta el día de hoy, en que podemos liberarla de esa carga y leerla literalmente.

La tarea de discernir qué disposiciones pueden ser acatadas y cuáles deben ser resistidas, qué instrumentos pueden tolerarse por ahora, sin la certeza de que luego podrán ser desmontados, qué hábitos podemos incorporar sin que se vuelvan nueva normalidad o segunda naturaleza, es tan incesante, microscópica, desesperante y agotadora, se encuentra hasta tal punto bajo el imperio de la incertidumbre y el miedo, que por momentos es comprensible caer en las simétricas resignaciones de la obediencia ciega y la resistencia ciega, en suponer que la peste no existe o que se origina en siniestras conspiraciones. Leer con cuidado La peste de Camus puede ayudarnos a navegar este siempre cambiante laberinto: es a la vez un retrato de una ciudad en una verdadera situación de peste y una advertencia sobre los riesgos de claudicar ante cualquier gobierno o sistema que se aprovecha de las catástrofes para cumplir lo que Michel Foucault llamó, en su Vigilar y castigar, el «sueño político de la peste». Leer políticamente La peste de Camus, hoy, es leerla literalmente. No es denunciando conspiraciones y fabricaciones imaginarias, ni levantándose contra la peste creyendo que esta es apenas la máscara detrás de la cual se esconde el poder disciplinario, que se lucha efectivamente contra este.

En un conocido relato que no se propone quitarnos el miedo a la peste sino asustarnos en serio, Edgar Allan Poe hace que el príncipe Próspero desenmascare al farsante que se ha presentado en su fiesta disfrazado de Muerte Roja para descubrir que detrás de la máscara de la Muerte Roja se ocultaba nada menos que la Muerte Roja; acto seguido mueren todos.

La otra peste: la pandemia de 1918

 

En Europa al menos, la pandemia de 1918 tuvo una seria competidora en la Gran Guerra; aun así, sus huellas fantasmales pueden rastrearse en algunas obras icónicas de la posguerra: la protagonista de La señora Dalloway (1925) de Virginia Woolf se recupera de un severo ataque de influenza, evidentemente la de la gran pandemia: estamos en 1919. La enfermedad la ha cambiado para siempre, dejándola muy blanca, avejentada y temerosa, con el corazón afectado, «rasqueteada, dañada en la espina dorsal». Es habitual caracterizar a la señora Dalloway como una celebración de la vida cotidiana, a la manera del Ulises (1922) de Joyce, cuyos procedimientos (monólogo interior, múltiples puntos de vista, concentrar la acción en un día) evoca sin duda; pero si lo es, lo es a su manera: los variados sentimientos y sensaciones de Clarissa en su caminata matinal sugieren menos la celebración del universo sensible por parte de un Walt Whitman o un Leopold Bloom pletóricos de salud y energía que el incrédulo y azorado redescubrimiento del mundo exterior por parte de un paciente que sale de una larga convalecencia (todos, en la novela, tienen algo de Lázaros redivivos). Ni la guerra ni la pandemia se narran en La señora Dalloway, y la pandemia mucho menos que la guerra; pero guerra y pandemia dan forma y sentido a todo lo que la novela nos muestra. En su siguiente novela, Al faro (1927), Woolf ahondará en el recurso de narrar por ausencia, historiando dos días en la historia de la familia Ramsay, dos días separados por un lapso de diez años en los que tienen lugar la Gran Guerra y la gran pandemia, diez años protagonizados por la gran casa de veraneo abandonada por sus inquilinos, invadida por aires y sombras, cayéndose a pedazos, enferma.

Sin la competencia tan directa y cercana de la guerra, del otro lado del Atlántico la pandemia fue encarada de modo más directo por Katherine Anne Porter en su novela breve Pálido caballo, pálido jinete (1939). El título refiere a uno de los cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis, el que figura la peste y alcanza a la reportera Miranda en la ciudad de Denver, Colorado, y por poco acaba con ella, y acaba efectivamente con su novio Adam. En su novela, el acallado sufrimiento de millones trata de hacerse oír por sobre el estrépito de la guerra y sus épicos énfasis. La novela, vale la pena agregar, está basada en la experiencia vivida: Porter contrajo la influenza, estuvo tan cerca de la muerte que el diario donde trabajaba ya había compuesto su obituario y despertó quebrada y calva; su cabello, cuando volvió a crecer, era completamente blanco. «Partió mi vida en dos», diría años más tarde en una entrevista.

Añadido a tus libros guardados