Fenómenos

«El consentimiento», de Vanessa Springora: el ogro en la jaula de papel

La publicación en Francia de «El consentimiento» supuso un bienvenido estallido en el sólido sistema de consagración de la intelectualidad francesa: la hoy editora Vanessa Springora relata cómo a los trece años quedó bajo el dominio psíquico y sexual del encumbrado escritor Gabriel Matzneff, un notorio pedófilo tres décadas mayor. Ni novela ni mero testimonio, la autora convierte con su escritura a su cazador en presa, actualiza el debate sobre moral y arte en tiempos del #MeToo y a la vez echa luz sobre aquella celebrada época donde el «prohibido prohibir» abrió las puertas a los depredadores.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Vanessa Springora en un detalle de la portada de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30724-el-consentimiento-9788426409270\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El consentimiento<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> Imagen cedida por 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<a href=\\\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/aschapire\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">ALEJO SCHAPIRE<\/span><br \/><br \/><br 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30724-el-consentimiento-9788426409270\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El consentimiento<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0es el relato y la ejecuci\u00f3n de una venganza.<\/strong> El punto final, el bot\u00f3n que detona el derrumbe social, econ\u00f3mico, judicial y, finalmente, literario en el mundo real del celebrado autor franc\u00e9s Gabriel Matzneff, premio Renaudot 2013.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/10273-vanessa-springora\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Vanessa Springora<\/a><\/strong><\/span> (Par\u00eds, 1972) ha querido salir de la \u00abjaula\u00bb donde la encerr\u00f3 a los trece a\u00f1os un escritor ped\u00f3filo amigo de su madre. No opt\u00f3 por la denuncia en las redes sociales o la prensa, como se estila en la era del #MeToo, sino que ha apostado por atrapar al cazador en su propia trampa: la literatura.<\/p><p>A los cuarenta y siete a\u00f1os y con un hijo adolescente, la hoy editora parisina necesitaba encontrar las palabras que le faltaban como infante, tres d\u00e9cadas atr\u00e1s, para enfrentar a Matzneff con armas iguales y <strong>en el terreno de juego de su victimario, la arena de la escritura.<\/strong> Aunque el registro es el del testimonio, Springora no se conforma con una previsible y s\u00f3rdida cr\u00f3nica lacrim\u00f3gena de seducci\u00f3n y abuso infantil, sino que elige un camino m\u00e1s arduo, que se hace cargo de las ambig\u00fcedades de su propio deseo adolescente y las fronteras a veces difusas del consentimiento sexual.<\/p><p><strong>\u00ab\u00bfC\u00f3mo puedes admitir que has sido abusado cuando no puedes negar que has consentido?<\/strong> Cuando sentiste el deseo de ese adulto que se apresur\u00f3 a aprovecharlo... Durante a\u00f1os, yo tambi\u00e9n luchar\u00e9 con esta noci\u00f3n de victimismo\\\", admite al firmar su primer libro.\u00a0<\/p><p>En un hogar marcado por la ausencia del padre, describe a una madre que vive la libertad sexual conquistada en el Mayo franc\u00e9s y c\u00f3mo la fascinaci\u00f3n por el ambiente de la bohemia la lleva a abrir las puertas al intelectual cincuent\u00f3n de Saint-Germain-des-Pr\u00e9s, permitiendo la entrada del lobo en el gallinero.<\/p><p>G.M. \u2014Springora se refiere a \u00e9l y a s\u00ed misma siempre por sus iniciales\u2014 cultiva su aura de dandi libertario, donde placer y arte priman por sobre la moral burguesa. Arrastrar una reputaci\u00f3n de pederasta puede significar, incluso entonces, un problema con la ley,<strong> pero trasladar el apetito por los menores a un plano est\u00e9tico parece tolerable<\/strong> en la permisividad del \u00abgozar y trabas\u00bb y \u00abprohibido prohibir\u00bb de un c\u00edrculo donde la libertad sexual coquetea con la 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Matzneff no esconde sus actividades ni sus preferencias. Public\u00f3 en 1974, una d\u00e9cada antes de conocer a Springora, <em>Les moins de seize ans<\/em> (Los menores de diecis\u00e9is a\u00f1os), un ensayo <strong>donde se explaya sobre su\u00a0<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00abgusto\u00bb\u00a0y\u00a0\u00abobsesi\u00f3n\u00bb\u00a0por los ni\u00f1os de ambos sexos.<\/strong> El escritor se jacta en su prol\u00edfica obra de sus trofeos sexuales \u2014conquistas que acuesta sobre papel al documentar la cacer\u00eda: <strong>ni\u00f1as en Par\u00eds o varones de ocho a\u00f1os en las calles de Manila, donde practica turismo sexual.<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Con Springora, a\u00fan virgen, Matzneff usa un anzuelo literario: insistentes cartas inflamadas que terminan encendiendo a la adolescente, <strong>entregada primero a un fren\u00e9tico intercambio epistolar y luego de cuerpo entero.<\/strong>\u00a0\u00abUn padre ausente que ha dejado un vac\u00edo insondable en mi vida. Una gran afici\u00f3n a la lectura. Cierta precocidad sexual. Y sobre todo un enorme deseo de que me miren. Ahora se cumplen todas las condiciones\u00bb, escribe a la hora de explicar su ca\u00edda en las manos del ogro de modales aristocr\u00e1ticos.<\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Springora se hace cargo de su deseo y de la lucha interior: \u00abS\u00f3lo sue\u00f1o con una cosa (...). En una mezcla de bravuconer\u00eda y sentimentalismo, ya he aceptado \u00edntimamente este horizonte ineludible: <strong>G. ser\u00e1 mi primer amante. Y por eso estoy tumbada en su cama\u00bb,<\/strong> reconoce, al tiempo que experimenta el rechazo f\u00edsico: \u00ab\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 mi cuerpo se niega? \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 este miedo incontrolable?\u00bb. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">El arte como coartada<\/span><\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">H\u00e1bil, Matzneff se justifica ante la inexperta Springora echando mano a su vasta cultura: <strong>la Antig\u00fcedad griega y el deber de los adultos de iniciar sexualmente a los jovencitos.<\/strong> La literatura le permite evocar a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/18333-edgar-allan-poe\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Edgar Allan Poe<\/a><\/span> cas\u00e1ndose con su prima de trece a\u00f1os, o a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/499-lewis-carroll\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lewis Carroll<\/a><\/span> y su notoria obsesi\u00f3n por Alicia y otras ni\u00f1as a las que fotografiaba. En el mismo t\u00edtulo, lo secundar\u00edan la francesa Irina Ionesco, retratando con su c\u00e1mara puestas en escena hipersexualizadas a su hija de ocho a\u00f1os (fue condenada por la justicia francesa), o su colega brit\u00e1nico David Hamilton (antes de que fuera, en 2016, denunciado por abuso por las adolescentes a las que fotografi\u00f3 y apareciera muerto en un aparente suicidio). El director de cine Roman Polanski, a ojos de Matzneff, es\u00a0<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">en esto comparte una opini\u00f3n extendida en Francia<\/span>\u2014<span lang=\\\"es-419\\\"><strong>\u00a0una v\u00edctima de\u00a0<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00abestos estadounidenses encerrados en su frustraci\u00f3n sexual\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Los intentos desesperados de la joven de encontrar ayuda chocan con el t\u00f3tem del escritor sagrado. <strong>\u00abG. es un artista, un grand\u00edsimo escritor, alg\u00fan d\u00eda el mundo se dar\u00e1 cuenta. O quiz\u00e1 no, \u00bfqui\u00e9n sabe? Usted lo ama y debe aceptar su personalidad. G. nunca cambiar\u00e1.<\/strong> Es un inmenso honor que la haya elegido. Su papel es acompa\u00f1arlo en el camino de la creaci\u00f3n, y tambi\u00e9n doblegarse a sus caprichos.\u00bb As\u00ed consigna Springora la respuesta del fil\u00f3sofo rumano\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6159-e-m-cioran\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Emil Cioran<\/a><\/span> cuando se refugia en su casa en busca de protecci\u00f3n.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"59\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m601a55\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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1977 se publica en <em>Le Monde<\/em> una carta abierta en favor de la despenalizaci\u00f3n de las relaciones sexuales entre menores. Entre los firmantes, aparecen intelectuales de la talla e influencia de Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre o Andr\u00e9 Glucksmann. En 2013, Matzneff reconocer\u00eda haber sido el promotor y redactor de la carta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"x12o1pf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Aparte de la cultura, la \u00e9poca ofrece una coartada a Matzneff. Springora recuerda que diez a\u00f1os antes de conocer al escritor, numerosos peri\u00f3dicos e intelectuales de izquierda defendieron p\u00fablicamente a adultos acusados de haber mantenido relaciones con adolescentes. <strong>\u00ab<\/strong><\/span><strong>En 1977 se publica en <i>Le Monde<\/i> una carta abierta en favor de la despenalizaci\u00f3n de las relaciones sexuales entre menores\u00bb,<\/strong> recuerda Springora. Entre los firmantes, aparecen intelectuales de la talla e influencia de Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/penguinkids\/ficciones\/las-inseparables-simone-de-beauvoir\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Simone de Beauvoir<\/a><\/span>, Jean-Paul Sartre o Andr\u00e9 Glucksmann.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">El texto cuestiona \u00abel encarcelamiento de tres hombres a la espera de juicio por haber mantenido (y fotografiado) relaciones sexuales con menores de trece y catorce a\u00f1os\u00bb. En 2013, Matzneff reconocer\u00eda haber sido el promotor y redactor de la carta, as\u00ed como de otras tribunas en el mismo sentido que pocos medios rechazaron. <strong>\u00abLuchar contra el encarcelamiento de los deseos y contra toda represi\u00f3n son las consignas de ese per\u00edodo, y nadie tiene nada que objetar, salvo los santurrones y algunos tribunales reaccionarios\u00bb<\/strong>, reflexiona Springora retrospectivamente.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">\u00abTreinta a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, todos los peri\u00f3dicos que aceptaron publicar esos art\u00edculos m\u00e1s que discutibles entonar\u00e1n uno tras otro su <em>mea culpa<\/em>. Los medios de comunicaci\u00f3n no son m\u00e1s que el reflejo de su tiempo, argumentar\u00e1n\u00bb, apunta.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">\u00bfCaza de brujas?<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Incluso el mundillo literario parisino, marcado por el amiguismo e impermeable a todo lo que huela a puritanismo venido del otro lado del Atl\u00e1ntico, empieza en estos d\u00edas a admitir su connivencia.\u00a0<\/span>En 1990, el c\u00e9lebre periodista literario Bernard Pivot invit\u00f3 a Gabriel Matzneff. <strong>En el plat\u00f3 comentaron el apetito del escritor por adolescentes entre las risas de sus convidados.<\/strong> Solo la novelista canadiense Denise Bombardier desenton\u00f3, denunciando una complacencia t\u00edpicamente francesa. \u00abEn este pa\u00eds, la literatura entre comillas sirve de coartada a este tipo de confidencias\u00bb, sentenci\u00f3. \u00abPorque lo que nos cuenta el se\u00f1or Matzneff en un libro que es muy aburrido [\u2026] es la sodom\u00eda de ni\u00f1as de catorce, quince a\u00f1os\u00bb, sostuvo, compar\u00e1ndolo con un viejo pervertido que atrae ni\u00f1os con caramelos, <strong>usando su\u00a0\u00abreputaci\u00f3n\u00bb\u00a0para un\u00a0\u00ababuso de poder\u00bb\u00a0que deja a sus v\u00edctimas\u00a0\u00abmarchitas para el resto de sus vidas\u00bb.<\/strong>\u00a0\u00abLa literatura no puede servir de coartada\u00bb, replic\u00f3 Bombardier a los intentos de defenderse del escritor, visiblemente nervioso.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Al exhumarse hoy el fragmento del programa estrella de la televisi\u00f3n francesa dedicada a la prescripci\u00f3n literaria, Pivot responde a trav\u00e9s de su cuenta de Twitter. <strong>\u00abEn los a\u00f1os setenta y ochenta, la literatura estaba antes que la moralidad; hoy en d\u00eda, la moralidad est\u00e1 antes que la literatura. Moralmente, es un progreso. Somos m\u00e1s o menos los productos intelectuales y morales de un pa\u00eds y, sobre todo, de una \u00e9poca<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">No todos han cambiado de opini\u00f3n, sin embargo. La periodista Josyane Savigneau, al frente del suplemento literario de <i>Le Monde<\/i> (de 1991 a 2005), coment\u00f3 la redifusi\u00f3n del v\u00eddeo. <strong>\u00abNo cambio de opini\u00f3n sobre Matzneff porque la caza de brujas haya comenzado. Y \u00e9l al menos sabe escribir<\/strong><\/span><strong>\u00bb<\/strong>, enfatiz\u00f3, compar\u00e1ndolo con la novelista canadiense.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">\u00abQue me achaquen esto en 2020, en pleno siglo XXI, me parece una locura\u00bb, se defiende hoy Matzneff desde Italia, donde se ha refugiado a los ochenta y tres a\u00f1os. Del libro de Springora dice que no tiene \u00abganas de leerlo\u00bb. <strong>\u00abNunca dir\u00e9 nada en contra de ella porque es una persona luminosa.\u00bb<\/strong>\u00a0\u00abTuvimos una larga y maravillosa historia de amor\u00bb, insiste. Una versi\u00f3n que captur\u00f3 en las p\u00e1ginas de su novela <i>Harrison Plaza<\/i> (1988) y del diario \u00edntimo <i>La Prunelle de mes yeux<\/i> (1993).\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\"><strong>Pero en el ocaso de su vida, el escritor ha ca\u00eddo en desgracia.<\/strong> Cuatro de sus editores, entre los que figura Gallimard, anunciaron que ya no comercializar\u00edan sus diarios \u00edntimos ni su ensayo <i>Les moins de seize ans<\/i>. En septiembre, la ministra de Cultura Roselyne Bachelot confirm\u00f3 que Matzneff ya no gozaba de las ayudas p\u00fablicas a los escritores con dificultades econ\u00f3micas que cobraba desde 2002: 160.000 euros otorgados durante dieciocho a\u00f1os por el Centro Nacional del Libro, as\u00ed como de una vivienda social. <strong>Tambi\u00e9n anunciaron que le retirar\u00edan las condecoraciones al hombre que supo ser invitado al Palacio del El\u00edseo por su admirador Fran\u00e7ois Mitterrand,<\/strong> quien escribi\u00f3 una rese\u00f1a elogiosa en la revista <i>Matulu<\/i> en 1986 mientras era presidente (cuando la polic\u00eda lo convoc\u00f3 en su momento por denuncias an\u00f3nimas sobre su relaci\u00f3n con Springora, Matzneff cuenta que acudi\u00f3 con el art\u00edculo en el bolsillo e impresion\u00f3 a los polic\u00edas). La revista <i>Le Point<\/i> le quit\u00f3 su columna.<strong> Y, sobre todo, la justicia ha abierto en su contra una investigaci\u00f3n por violaci\u00f3n de menores de quince a\u00f1os.<\/strong><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>\u00abHay que situarse en el tiempo. Grandes escritores como Roland Barthes o Michel Foucault militaron por la disminuci\u00f3n de la mayor\u00eda sexual\u00bb,<\/strong> protesta Matzneff, entrevistado desde su exilio en la Riviera italiana. \u00ab\u00a1Quieren que me mate, que me mate, esa es la trampa! <strong>\u00a1Realmente es la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica! Vamos, Matzneff, al gulag.<\/strong> No s\u00e9 c\u00f3mo resisto\u00bb, lamenta el escritor octogenario. \u00abEl libro de Springora es una cacer\u00eda humana en la que soy la presa\u00bb, asegura, confirmando el \u00e9xito de su autora.<\/p><p><b><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">Leer <i>Lolita<\/i> en la era del #MeToo<\/span><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">\u00bfSe trata, como afirma la periodista Josyane Savigneau, de una \u00abcaza de brujas\u00bb para destruir socialmente a una personalidad o, para decirlo con palabras de la era #MeToo, de la mentada <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/penguinkids\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">cultura de la cancelaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>, incapaz de separar al autor de la obra, que abusa del anacronismo que supone juzgar el pasado exclusivamente a la luz del prisma moral del presente?<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\">La misma Springora se encarga de responder en <i>El consentimiento<\/i>, comentando su relectura de la obra ic\u00f3nica <i>Lolita<\/i> de <span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/481-vladimir-nabokov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Vladimir Nabokov<\/a><\/span>, un cl\u00e1sico de la novela moderna donde el narrador, Humbert Humbert, relata su obsesi\u00f3n por una chica de doce a\u00f1os. <strong>\u00ab<\/strong><\/span><strong>Pese a la perversidad inconsciente de <i>Lolita<\/i>, pese a sus juegos de seducci\u00f3n y sus caranto\u00f1as de estrella de cine, Nabokov nunca pretende convertir a Humbert en un benefactor, y menos a\u00fan en un buen tipo.<\/strong> Por el contrario, su relato de la pasi\u00f3n de su personaje por las ninfas, pasi\u00f3n irrefrenable y enfermiza que lo tortura durante toda su vida, es de una lucidez implacable. En las obras de G. estamos lejos de cualquier contrici\u00f3n, incluso de cualquier cuestionamiento.\u00bb Humbert muere en esta ficci\u00f3n de un paro card\u00edaco en prisi\u00f3n a la espera de su juicio, tras matar al amante de Lolita.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span lang=\\\"es-419\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration-line: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30724-el-consentimiento-9788426409270\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El consentimiento<\/a><\/span>\u00a0<\/em>condensa, en primera persona, el debate actual de la moral y la producci\u00f3n art\u00edstica en una \u00e9poca donde la obra ya no puede escudarse en la libertad creativa. <strong>Es tambi\u00e9n el tiempo donde los usuarios de las redes sociales y otros medios de comunicaci\u00f3n rehabilitan la censura, las listas negras y el escrache, al margen de los tribunales de justicia y sin redenci\u00f3n posible del condenado.<\/strong> Aqu\u00ed, Springora se distingue por un enfoque introspectivo, matizado y sincero, al tiempo que logra un ajuste de cuentas personal. Sin embargo, su alegato deja en suspenso preguntas que reflejan los imperativos que hasta ahora estaban reservados al puritanismo:\u00a0<strong>\u00bfdebe juzgarse una obra por su mensaje moral? \u00bfSe puede separar el pensamiento del narrador del de su autor?<\/strong> En nombre de las v\u00edctimas, y ya no de las instituciones religiosas o las ligas de virtud, el debate, que parec\u00eda superado, vuelve a empezar bajo una nueva luz.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/literatura\/elena-ferrante-dos-amigas-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Por qu\u00e9 todas las historias de familia que narra Elena Ferrante son tambi\u00e9n historias de dinero<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/fenomenos\/la-peste-vendra-la-muerte-y-tendra-tus-ojos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>La peste<\/em>: vendr\u00e1 la muerte y tendr\u00e1 tus ojos<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Los documentos de Aspern<\/em>: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la 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10 minutos

Vanessa Springora en un detalle de la portada de El consentimiento. Imagen cedida por Lumen.

El consentimiento es el relato y la ejecución de una venganza. El punto final, el botón que detona el derrumbe social, económico, judicial y, finalmente, literario en el mundo real del celebrado autor francés Gabriel Matzneff, premio Renaudot 2013. Vanessa Springora (París, 1972) ha querido salir de la «jaula» donde la encerró a los trece años un escritor pedófilo amigo de su madre. No optó por la denuncia en las redes sociales o la prensa, como se estila en la era del #MeToo, sino que ha apostado por atrapar al cazador en su propia trampa: la literatura.

A los cuarenta y siete años y con un hijo adolescente, la hoy editora parisina necesitaba encontrar las palabras que le faltaban como infante, tres décadas atrás, para enfrentar a Matzneff con armas iguales y en el terreno de juego de su victimario, la arena de la escritura. Aunque el registro es el del testimonio, Springora no se conforma con una previsible y sórdida crónica lacrimógena de seducción y abuso infantil, sino que elige un camino más arduo, que se hace cargo de las ambigüedades de su propio deseo adolescente y las fronteras a veces difusas del consentimiento sexual.

«¿Cómo puedes admitir que has sido abusado cuando no puedes negar que has consentido? Cuando sentiste el deseo de ese adulto que se apresuró a aprovecharlo... Durante años, yo también lucharé con esta noción de victimismo", admite al firmar su primer libro. 

En un hogar marcado por la ausencia del padre, describe a una madre que vive la libertad sexual conquistada en el Mayo francés y cómo la fascinación por el ambiente de la bohemia la lleva a abrir las puertas al intelectual cincuentón de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, permitiendo la entrada del lobo en el gallinero.

G.M. —Springora se refiere a él y a sí misma siempre por sus iniciales— cultiva su aura de dandi libertario, donde placer y arte priman por sobre la moral burguesa. Arrastrar una reputación de pederasta puede significar, incluso entonces, un problema con la ley, pero trasladar el apetito por los menores a un plano estético parece tolerable en la permisividad del «gozar y trabas» y «prohibido prohibir» de un círculo donde la libertad sexual coquetea con la pedofilia.

Matzneff no esconde sus actividades ni sus preferencias. Publicó en 1974, una década antes de conocer a Springora, Les moins de seize ans (Los menores de dieciséis años), un ensayo donde se explaya sobre su «gusto» y «obsesión» por los niños de ambos sexos. El escritor se jacta en su prolífica obra de sus trofeos sexuales —conquistas que acuesta sobre papel al documentar la cacería: niñas en París o varones de ocho años en las calles de Manila, donde practica turismo sexual.

Con Springora, aún virgen, Matzneff usa un anzuelo literario: insistentes cartas inflamadas que terminan encendiendo a la adolescente, entregada primero a un frenético intercambio epistolar y luego de cuerpo entero. «Un padre ausente que ha dejado un vacío insondable en mi vida. Una gran afición a la lectura. Cierta precocidad sexual. Y sobre todo un enorme deseo de que me miren. Ahora se cumplen todas las condiciones», escribe a la hora de explicar su caída en las manos del ogro de modales aristocráticos.

Springora se hace cargo de su deseo y de la lucha interior: «Sólo sueño con una cosa (...). En una mezcla de bravuconería y sentimentalismo, ya he aceptado íntimamente este horizonte ineludible: G. será mi primer amante. Y por eso estoy tumbada en su cama», reconoce, al tiempo que experimenta el rechazo físico: «¿Por qué mi cuerpo se niega? ¿Por qué este miedo incontrolable?». La autora plasma una puja entre dos voluntades, el nudo del libro: qué vale el consentimiento de una adolescente subyugada por un adulto especializado en seducir menores.

El arte como coartada

Hábil, Matzneff se justifica ante la inexperta Springora echando mano a su vasta cultura: la Antigüedad griega y el deber de los adultos de iniciar sexualmente a los jovencitos. La literatura le permite evocar a Edgar Allan Poe casándose con su prima de trece años, o a Lewis Carroll y su notoria obsesión por Alicia y otras niñas a las que fotografiaba. En el mismo título, lo secundarían la francesa Irina Ionesco, retratando con su cámara puestas en escena hipersexualizadas a su hija de ocho años (fue condenada por la justicia francesa), o su colega británico David Hamilton (antes de que fuera, en 2016, denunciado por abuso por las adolescentes a las que fotografió y apareciera muerto en un aparente suicidio). El director de cine Roman Polanski, a ojos de Matzneff, es en esto comparte una opinión extendida en Francia una víctima de «estos estadounidenses encerrados en su frustración sexual».

Los intentos desesperados de la joven de encontrar ayuda chocan con el tótem del escritor sagrado. «G. es un artista, un grandísimo escritor, algún día el mundo se dará cuenta. O quizá no, ¿quién sabe? Usted lo ama y debe aceptar su personalidad. G. nunca cambiará. Es un inmenso honor que la haya elegido. Su papel es acompañarlo en el camino de la creación, y también doblegarse a sus caprichos.» Así consigna Springora la respuesta del filósofo rumano Emil Cioran cuando se refugia en su casa en busca de protección.

En 1977 se publica en Le Monde una carta abierta en favor de la despenalización de las relaciones sexuales entre menores. Entre los firmantes, aparecen intelectuales de la talla e influencia de Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre o André Glucksmann. En 2013, Matzneff reconocería haber sido el promotor y redactor de la carta.

Aparte de la cultura, la época ofrece una coartada a Matzneff. Springora recuerda que diez años antes de conocer al escritor, numerosos periódicos e intelectuales de izquierda defendieron públicamente a adultos acusados de haber mantenido relaciones con adolescentes. «En 1977 se publica en Le Monde una carta abierta en favor de la despenalización de las relaciones sexuales entre menores», recuerda Springora. Entre los firmantes, aparecen intelectuales de la talla e influencia de Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre o André Glucksmann.

El texto cuestiona «el encarcelamiento de tres hombres a la espera de juicio por haber mantenido (y fotografiado) relaciones sexuales con menores de trece y catorce años». En 2013, Matzneff reconocería haber sido el promotor y redactor de la carta, así como de otras tribunas en el mismo sentido que pocos medios rechazaron. «Luchar contra el encarcelamiento de los deseos y contra toda represión son las consignas de ese período, y nadie tiene nada que objetar, salvo los santurrones y algunos tribunales reaccionarios», reflexiona Springora retrospectivamente.

«Treinta años después, todos los periódicos que aceptaron publicar esos artículos más que discutibles entonarán uno tras otro su mea culpa. Los medios de comunicación no son más que el reflejo de su tiempo, argumentarán», apunta.

¿Caza de brujas?

Incluso el mundillo literario parisino, marcado por el amiguismo e impermeable a todo lo que huela a puritanismo venido del otro lado del Atlántico, empieza en estos días a admitir su connivencia. En 1990, el célebre periodista literario Bernard Pivot invitó a Gabriel Matzneff. En el plató comentaron el apetito del escritor por adolescentes entre las risas de sus convidados. Solo la novelista canadiense Denise Bombardier desentonó, denunciando una complacencia típicamente francesa. «En este país, la literatura entre comillas sirve de coartada a este tipo de confidencias», sentenció. «Porque lo que nos cuenta el señor Matzneff en un libro que es muy aburrido […] es la sodomía de niñas de catorce, quince años», sostuvo, comparándolo con un viejo pervertido que atrae niños con caramelos, usando su «reputación» para un «abuso de poder» que deja a sus víctimas «marchitas para el resto de sus vidas». «La literatura no puede servir de coartada», replicó Bombardier a los intentos de defenderse del escritor, visiblemente nervioso.

Al exhumarse hoy el fragmento del programa estrella de la televisión francesa dedicada a la prescripción literaria, Pivot responde a través de su cuenta de Twitter. «En los años setenta y ochenta, la literatura estaba antes que la moralidad; hoy en día, la moralidad está antes que la literatura. Moralmente, es un progreso. Somos más o menos los productos intelectuales y morales de un país y, sobre todo, de una época».

No todos han cambiado de opinión, sin embargo. La periodista Josyane Savigneau, al frente del suplemento literario de Le Monde (de 1991 a 2005), comentó la redifusión del vídeo. «No cambio de opinión sobre Matzneff porque la caza de brujas haya comenzado. Y él al menos sabe escribir», enfatizó, comparándolo con la novelista canadiense.

«Que me achaquen esto en 2020, en pleno siglo XXI, me parece una locura», se defiende hoy Matzneff desde Italia, donde se ha refugiado a los ochenta y tres años. Del libro de Springora dice que no tiene «ganas de leerlo». «Nunca diré nada en contra de ella porque es una persona luminosa.» «Tuvimos una larga y maravillosa historia de amor», insiste. Una versión que capturó en las páginas de su novela Harrison Plaza (1988) y del diario íntimo La Prunelle de mes yeux (1993). 

Pero en el ocaso de su vida, el escritor ha caído en desgracia. Cuatro de sus editores, entre los que figura Gallimard, anunciaron que ya no comercializarían sus diarios íntimos ni su ensayo Les moins de seize ans. En septiembre, la ministra de Cultura Roselyne Bachelot confirmó que Matzneff ya no gozaba de las ayudas públicas a los escritores con dificultades económicas que cobraba desde 2002: 160.000 euros otorgados durante dieciocho años por el Centro Nacional del Libro, así como de una vivienda social. También anunciaron que le retirarían las condecoraciones al hombre que supo ser invitado al Palacio del Elíseo por su admirador François Mitterrand, quien escribió una reseña elogiosa en la revista Matulu en 1986 mientras era presidente (cuando la policía lo convocó en su momento por denuncias anónimas sobre su relación con Springora, Matzneff cuenta que acudió con el artículo en el bolsillo e impresionó a los policías). La revista Le Point le quitó su columna. Y, sobre todo, la justicia ha abierto en su contra una investigación por violación de menores de quince años.

«Hay que situarse en el tiempo. Grandes escritores como Roland Barthes o Michel Foucault militaron por la disminución de la mayoría sexual», protesta Matzneff, entrevistado desde su exilio en la Riviera italiana. «¡Quieren que me mate, que me mate, esa es la trampa! ¡Realmente es la Unión Soviética! Vamos, Matzneff, al gulag. No sé cómo resisto», lamenta el escritor octogenario. «El libro de Springora es una cacería humana en la que soy la presa», asegura, confirmando el éxito de su autora.

Leer Lolita en la era del #MeToo

¿Se trata, como afirma la periodista Josyane Savigneau, de una «caza de brujas» para destruir socialmente a una personalidad o, para decirlo con palabras de la era #MeToo, de la mentada cultura de la cancelación, incapaz de separar al autor de la obra, que abusa del anacronismo que supone juzgar el pasado exclusivamente a la luz del prisma moral del presente?

La misma Springora se encarga de responder en El consentimiento, comentando su relectura de la obra icónica Lolita de Vladimir Nabokov, un clásico de la novela moderna donde el narrador, Humbert Humbert, relata su obsesión por una chica de doce años. «Pese a la perversidad inconsciente de Lolita, pese a sus juegos de seducción y sus carantoñas de estrella de cine, Nabokov nunca pretende convertir a Humbert en un benefactor, y menos aún en un buen tipo. Por el contrario, su relato de la pasión de su personaje por las ninfas, pasión irrefrenable y enfermiza que lo tortura durante toda su vida, es de una lucidez implacable. En las obras de G. estamos lejos de cualquier contrición, incluso de cualquier cuestionamiento.» Humbert muere en esta ficción de un paro cardíaco en prisión a la espera de su juicio, tras matar al amante de Lolita.

El consentimiento condensa, en primera persona, el debate actual de la moral y la producción artística en una época donde la obra ya no puede escudarse en la libertad creativa. Es también el tiempo donde los usuarios de las redes sociales y otros medios de comunicación rehabilitan la censura, las listas negras y el escrache, al margen de los tribunales de justicia y sin redención posible del condenado. Aquí, Springora se distingue por un enfoque introspectivo, matizado y sincero, al tiempo que logra un ajuste de cuentas personal. Sin embargo, su alegato deja en suspenso preguntas que reflejan los imperativos que hasta ahora estaban reservados al puritanismo: ¿debe juzgarse una obra por su mensaje moral? ¿Se puede separar el pensamiento del narrador del de su autor? En nombre de las víctimas, y ya no de las instituciones religiosas o las ligas de virtud, el debate, que parecía superado, vuelve a empezar bajo una nueva luz.



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