La invasión rusa

Orlando Figes sobre la Rusia de Putin: «Esto es una guerra imperial»

Con la invasión rusa de Ucrania, el mundo ha vuelto a mirar hacia Moscú con desconcierto: ¿es Vladimir Putin un líder desquiciado? ¿Es Rusia un país desesperado en busca de la grandeza perdida? ¿Es Occidente el verdadero responsable de la guerra? Hablamos con el historiador Orlando Figes, autor de una obra monumental sobre Rusia –«La revolución rusa», «El baile de Natasha», «Los europeos»–, sobre «La historia de Rusia» (Taurus), su libro más reciente, en el que reconstruye mil años de relatos, mitos y leyendas para explicar por qué el presente de Rusia depende del control de su pasado.

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Hablamos con el historiador Orlando Figes, autor de una obra monumental sobre Rusia \u2013\u00abLa revoluci\u00f3n rusa\u00bb, \u00abEl baile de Natasha\u00bb, \u00abLos europeos\u00bb\u2013, sobre \u00abLa historia de Rusia\u00bb (Taurus), su libro m\u00e1s reciente, en el que reconstruye mil a\u00f1os de relatos, mitos y leyendas para explicar por qu\u00e9 el presente de Rusia depende del control de su pasado.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"1br43s9\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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todas las consecuencias de la guerra, hay una que parece ser algo menos dram\u00e1tica y (quiz\u00e1s) algo m\u00e1s auspiciosa. Despu\u00e9s de que el mundo pasase d\u00e9cadas obsesionado con descifrar las ideas y las acciones de Rusia y de que, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una vez ca\u00eddos el Muro y la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>, siguieran a\u00f1os de desconcierto ante la llegada del ex KGB Vladimir Putin al Kremlin,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la invasi\u00f3n rusa de Ucrania<\/a><\/span> ha revivido en pocos meses una inquietud que hab\u00eda nacido con el siglo xx y que muri\u00f3 con \u00e9l.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 piensan en Rusia? \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 los rusos se comportan como se comportan? \u00bfA qu\u00e9 se debe que durante m\u00e1s de un siglo haya habido gobernantes todopoderosos que deciden sobre vidas y destinos con la discrecionalidad de los zares que Rusia aniquil\u00f3?\u00a0<\/p><p>La explicaci\u00f3n podr\u00eda esconderse en la obstinada naturaleza rusa, si es que existe tal cosa. Pero quiz\u00e1 las formas que ha ido adoptando Rusia tengan menos que ver con el esp\u00edritu del pueblo y m\u00e1s con las invenciones de sus l\u00edderes. Este es el n\u00facleo del monumental libro\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/historia\/310330-libro-la-historia-de-rusia-9788430625451\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La historia de Rusia<\/a><\/em><\/span> de Orlando Figes, uno de los pocos autores imprescindibles para explicar el pa\u00eds: si queremos entender el presente de Rusia, tenemos que entender su pasado. M\u00e1s precisamente, los usos que se han hecho de la historia y de los mitos fundacionales, y los esfuerzos de los l\u00edderes y de las \u00e9lites rusas por controlar (l\u00e9ase adaptar) esos relatos.<\/p><p>Seg\u00fan el historiador, \u00abno hay otro pa\u00eds que haya reinventado su pasado con tanta frecuencia. En Rusia, la historia es pol\u00edtica\u00bb. O como reconoc\u00eda un chiste que se contaba durante la \u00e9poca sovi\u00e9tica: \u00abEl futuro de Rusia como pa\u00eds es indudable; lo que resulta impredecible es su pasado\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d6qw6lp\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Grieco: En tu libro explicas minuciosamente c\u00f3mo las ideas y los mitos recorren la historia rusa, desde Iv\u00e1n el Terrible a los zares, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">pasando por Stalin y Putin<\/a><\/span>, y c\u00f3mo eso define el modo en que los rusos se entienden a s\u00ed mismos. \u00bfTambi\u00e9n est\u00e1 arraigada en la historia rusa la figura del zar casi divino? \u00bfExiste una mentalidad o un temperamento ruso que rinda culto al poder y la autoridad y que explique ciertas constantes en las estructuras de poder del pa\u00eds?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> No creo que haya una \u00abmentalidad rusa\u00bb que se preste al culto del poder, no. Tenemos que pensar en esto primero en t\u00e9rminos de historia y memoria colectiva, y segundo en t\u00e9rminos de la naturaleza sagrada del poder mon\u00e1rquico en Rusia. Siglos de autocracia dejaron muy poco espacio para el desarrollo de las instituciones c\u00edvicas y de la democracia antes de 1917. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La dictadura personal de Stalin, apuntalada por su culto<\/a><\/span>, reforz\u00f3 esa idea de un zar casi 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algo m\u00e1s profundo en juego aqu\u00ed: la visi\u00f3n rusa de los ucranianos como culturalmente inferiores: los \u00abpeque\u00f1os rusos\u00bb, como los llamaban en el siglo 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Grieco: Has dicho que la historia en Rusia siempre ha sido pol\u00edtica, m\u00e1s que en la mayor\u00eda de los pa\u00edses, y que, como muchos de los rusos de su generaci\u00f3n, que crecieron con la visi\u00f3n sovi\u00e9tica de la historia, Putin nunca reconoci\u00f3 realmente la independencia de Ucrania. \u00bfEn qu\u00e9 medida influye su historia personal en la lectura m\u00edtica y el uso pol\u00edtico del pasado ruso?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> Influye de muchas maneras, pero sobre todo en su argumento de que Ucrania forma parte de la Gran Rusia, lo cual revive ideas imperialistas del siglo xix. En su c\u00e9lebre ensayo de 2021 <a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Sobre_la_unidad_hist%C3%B3rica_de_rusos_y_ucranianos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Sobre la unidad hist\u00f3rica de rusos y ucranianos<\/span>,<\/em> <\/a>Putin retorci\u00f3 la historia para argumentar que Ucrania no pod\u00eda ser independiente de Rusia sin caer bajo la influencia occidental y ser utilizada por Occidente contra Rusia. Este es su razonamiento detr\u00e1s de la invasi\u00f3n a Ucrania.<\/p><p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfC\u00f3mo ha influido la combinaci\u00f3n entre el liderazgo ruso y la violencia no s\u00f3lo sobre la forma en que los rusos ven su propio pasado, sino tambi\u00e9n en el modo en que ven a sus vecinos y se relacionan con ellos? \u00bfLa negaci\u00f3n de la nacionalidad ucraniana forma parte de la identidad rusa o se trata de un relato que muchos rusos quieren o\u00edr, en particular aquellos cuya mirada ha sido moldeada por la historia que les ense\u00f1aron durante la etapa sovi\u00e9tica?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> La pretensi\u00f3n imperial de Putin sobre Ucrania tiene sin duda resonancia\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-ucrania-entre-este-y-oeste\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">entre los rusos de m\u00e1s edad, que crecieron en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span> y ve\u00edan a Ucrania y a Rusia como un mismo pa\u00eds. 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Grieco: \u00bfQu\u00e9 otras idea o sentimientos hay detr\u00e1s de la mirada hist\u00f3rica de Rusia hacia Ucrania? \u00bfOdio? \u00bfSuperioridad?\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/guerra-invasion-ucrania-rusia-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfOrgullo, miedo, resentimiento?<\/a><\/span>\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> La discusi\u00f3n sobre la historia es s\u00f3lo una excusa para una apropiaci\u00f3n de tierras. En mi opini\u00f3n, se trata esencialmente de una guerra imperial en la que los rusos castigan a los ucranianos por su audacia al querer ser libres e independientes de Rusia. Es una venganza por 1991, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">cuando Ucrania abandon\u00f3 la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>. La sensaci\u00f3n de p\u00e9rdida por aquel colapso forma parte de la disposici\u00f3n de los rusos a secundar la guerra de Putin.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ww09fzv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abOccidente es mayoritariamente ignorante de la historia rusa y de su papel en la pol\u00edtica. Mide el progreso de Rusia seg\u00fan sus propios criterios (por lo que Rusia nunca est\u00e1 a la altura) en lugar de intentar comprender c\u00f3mo ven los rusos su propio pasado\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cnzv7x5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfHay un problema de compresi\u00f3n occidental de la historia rusa y de c\u00f3mo configura a la Rusia actual? \u00bfC\u00f3mo deber\u00eda relacionarse Occidente con Rusia despu\u00e9s de la guerra de Ucrania?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> Creo que Occidente es mayoritariamente ignorante de la historia rusa y de su papel en la pol\u00edtica. Mide el progreso de Rusia seg\u00fan sus propios criterios (por lo que Rusia nunca est\u00e1 a la altura) en lugar de intentar comprender c\u00f3mo ven los rusos su propio pasado. Eso es lo que quer\u00eda transmitir en <em>La historia de Rusia.<\/em> Sea cual sea el resultado de la guerra, este problema seguir\u00e1 presente en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">l<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">as relaciones de Occidente con Rusia<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfHay alg\u00fan momento de la historia rusa que todav\u00eda no se haya usado pol\u00edticamente?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> Para que Rusia salga del <em>putinismo<\/em> y encuentre un camino democr\u00e1tico tendr\u00e1 que volver a comprometerse con los momentos de su historia en los que la libertad c\u00edvica y la democracia estuvieron a su alcance. La Revoluci\u00f3n de Febrero de 1917 fue uno de esos momentos.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Florencia Grieco: \u00bfCrees entonces que la democracia es posible en Rusia?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Orlando Figes:<\/strong> Por supuesto que es posible. Pero antes los rusos deben liberarse del <em>putinismo<\/em> y de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sus mitolog\u00edas de la historia<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s3dc6qo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La invasi\u00f3n rusa: Entrevistas, perfiles y art\u00edculos para entender la guerra en Ucrania<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/guerra-invasion-ucrania-rusia-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La invasi\u00f3n a Ucrania por Andr\u00e9i Kurkov: \u00abLa guerra nos ha radicalizado a todos\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anne Applebaum en la Ucrania de los 90: extra\u00f1os en su propio pa\u00eds<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De la URSS al Euromaid\u00e1n: Ucrania en el abismo generacional<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ucrania, Putin y los limones de 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15 minutos
Orlando Figes. Crédito: Phil Fisk.

Orlando Figes. Crédito: Phil Fisk.

De todas las consecuencias de la guerra, hay una que parece ser algo menos dramática y (quizás) algo más auspiciosa. Después de que el mundo pasase décadas obsesionado con descifrar las ideas y las acciones de Rusia y de que, una vez caídos el Muro y la Unión Soviética, siguieran años de desconcierto ante la llegada del ex KGB Vladimir Putin al Kremlin, la invasión rusa de Ucrania ha revivido en pocos meses una inquietud que había nacido con el siglo xx y que murió con él. 

¿Qué piensan en Rusia? ¿Por qué los rusos se comportan como se comportan? ¿A qué se debe que durante más de un siglo haya habido gobernantes todopoderosos que deciden sobre vidas y destinos con la discrecionalidad de los zares que Rusia aniquiló? 

La explicación podría esconderse en la obstinada naturaleza rusa, si es que existe tal cosa. Pero quizá las formas que ha ido adoptando Rusia tengan menos que ver con el espíritu del pueblo y más con las invenciones de sus líderes. Este es el núcleo del monumental libro La historia de Rusia de Orlando Figes, uno de los pocos autores imprescindibles para explicar el país: si queremos entender el presente de Rusia, tenemos que entender su pasado. Más precisamente, los usos que se han hecho de la historia y de los mitos fundacionales, y los esfuerzos de los líderes y de las élites rusas por controlar (léase adaptar) esos relatos.

Según el historiador, «no hay otro país que haya reinventado su pasado con tanta frecuencia. En Rusia, la historia es política». O como reconocía un chiste que se contaba durante la época soviética: «El futuro de Rusia como país es indudable; lo que resulta impredecible es su pasado».

Palabra de Figes

Florencia Grieco: En tu libro explicas minuciosamente cómo las ideas y los mitos recorren la historia rusa, desde Iván el Terrible a los zares, pasando por Stalin y Putin, y cómo eso define el modo en que los rusos se entienden a sí mismos. ¿También está arraigada en la historia rusa la figura del zar casi divino? ¿Existe una mentalidad o un temperamento ruso que rinda culto al poder y la autoridad y que explique ciertas constantes en las estructuras de poder del país?

Orlando Figes: No creo que haya una «mentalidad rusa» que se preste al culto del poder, no. Tenemos que pensar en esto primero en términos de historia y memoria colectiva, y segundo en términos de la naturaleza sagrada del poder monárquico en Rusia. Siglos de autocracia dejaron muy poco espacio para el desarrollo de las instituciones cívicas y de la democracia antes de 1917. La dictadura personal de Stalin, apuntalada por su culto, reforzó esa idea de un zar casi divino.

«Hay algo más profundo en juego aquí: la visión rusa de los ucranianos como culturalmente inferiores: los «pequeños rusos», como los llamaban en el siglo XIX».

Florencia Grieco: Has dicho que la historia en Rusia siempre ha sido política, más que en la mayoría de los países, y que, como muchos de los rusos de su generación, que crecieron con la visión soviética de la historia, Putin nunca reconoció realmente la independencia de Ucrania. ¿En qué medida influye su historia personal en la lectura mítica y el uso político del pasado ruso?

Orlando Figes: Influye de muchas maneras, pero sobre todo en su argumento de que Ucrania forma parte de la Gran Rusia, lo cual revive ideas imperialistas del siglo xix. En su célebre ensayo de 2021 Sobre la unidad histórica de rusos y ucranianos, Putin retorció la historia para argumentar que Ucrania no podía ser independiente de Rusia sin caer bajo la influencia occidental y ser utilizada por Occidente contra Rusia. Este es su razonamiento detrás de la invasión a Ucrania.

Florencia Grieco: ¿Cómo ha influido la combinación entre el liderazgo ruso y la violencia no sólo sobre la forma en que los rusos ven su propio pasado, sino también en el modo en que ven a sus vecinos y se relacionan con ellos? ¿La negación de la nacionalidad ucraniana forma parte de la identidad rusa o se trata de un relato que muchos rusos quieren oír, en particular aquellos cuya mirada ha sido moldeada por la historia que les enseñaron durante la etapa soviética?

Orlando Figes: La pretensión imperial de Putin sobre Ucrania tiene sin duda resonancia entre los rusos de más edad, que crecieron en la Unión Soviética y veían a Ucrania y a Rusia como un mismo país. También hay algo más profundo en juego aquí: la visión rusa de los ucranianos como culturalmente inferiores: los «pequeños rusos», como los llamaban en el siglo XIX.

Un cartel con el rostro de Putin en una calle de Varsovia, Polonia. Crédito: Getty Images.

Un cartel con el rostro de Putin en una calle de Varsovia, Polonia. Crédito: Getty Images.

Florencia Grieco: ¿Qué otras idea o sentimientos hay detrás de la mirada histórica de Rusia hacia Ucrania? ¿Odio? ¿Superioridad? ¿Orgullo, miedo, resentimiento? 

Orlando Figes: La discusión sobre la historia es sólo una excusa para una apropiación de tierras. En mi opinión, se trata esencialmente de una guerra imperial en la que los rusos castigan a los ucranianos por su audacia al querer ser libres e independientes de Rusia. Es una venganza por 1991, cuando Ucrania abandonó la Unión Soviética. La sensación de pérdida por aquel colapso forma parte de la disposición de los rusos a secundar la guerra de Putin. 

«Occidente es mayoritariamente ignorante de la historia rusa y de su papel en la política. Mide el progreso de Rusia según sus propios criterios (por lo que Rusia nunca está a la altura) en lugar de intentar comprender cómo ven los rusos su propio pasado».

Florencia Grieco: ¿Hay un problema de compresión occidental de la historia rusa y de cómo configura a la Rusia actual? ¿Cómo debería relacionarse Occidente con Rusia después de la guerra de Ucrania?

Orlando Figes: Creo que Occidente es mayoritariamente ignorante de la historia rusa y de su papel en la política. Mide el progreso de Rusia según sus propios criterios (por lo que Rusia nunca está a la altura) en lugar de intentar comprender cómo ven los rusos su propio pasado. Eso es lo que quería transmitir en La historia de Rusia. Sea cual sea el resultado de la guerra, este problema seguirá presente en las relaciones de Occidente con Rusia

Florencia Grieco: ¿Hay algún momento de la historia rusa que todavía no se haya usado políticamente?

Orlando Figes: Para que Rusia salga del putinismo y encuentre un camino democrático tendrá que volver a comprometerse con los momentos de su historia en los que la libertad cívica y la democracia estuvieron a su alcance. La Revolución de Febrero de 1917 fue uno de esos momentos. 

Florencia Grieco: ¿Crees entonces que la democracia es posible en Rusia?

Orlando Figes: Por supuesto que es posible. Pero antes los rusos deben liberarse del putinismo y de sus mitologías de la historia.

Libros para entender la guerra en Ucrania

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