Literatura

Ningún derecho reservado: unos apuntes sobre el plagio en la literatura

Con el último libro de Héctor Aguilar Camín en mente («Plagio», Literatura Random House), la escritora Valeria Villalobos-Guízar reflexiona sobre el arte de copiar —y la caída profesional que generan los catastróficos deseos de posesión de los escritores plagiarios— en un texto en el que el lector estará tentado a desestimar el peso de los ultrajes (por lo que debe tener cuidado de no olvidar que la risa que genera la novela va secundada por un silencio lleno de vergüenza).
{"id":347,"id_simpleblog_post":"347","id_simpleblog_category":"67","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Valeria Villalobos-Gu\u00edzar","author_url":null,"likes":"0","views":"3186","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:3:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"5580,225438","id_category_tematica":"20,127","id_category_autor":"109053","id_category_editorial":"11353","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Ning\u00fan derecho reservado: unos apuntes sobre el plagio en la literatura","meta_title":"Ning\u00fan derecho reservado: unos apuntes sobre el plagio en la literatura","meta_description":"Con el \u00faltimo libro de H\u00e9ctor Aguilar Cam\u00edn en mente (\u00abPlagio\u00bb, Literatura Random House), la escritora Valeria Villalobos-Gu\u00edzar reflexiona sobre el arte de copiar y la ca\u00edda profesional que generan los deseos de posesi\u00f3n de los escritores plagiarios.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA 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entre los plagiarios hay distinciones, y eso la literatura lo sabe de sobra. <strong>Las letras han hecho del robo el argumento de algunos de los mejores cap\u00edtulos de su historia,<\/strong> como la obra de Cide Hamete Benengeli apropiada de forma muy afortunada por <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/39114-obras-completas-de-miguel-de-cervantes-9788491059691\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Miguel de Cervantes<\/a><\/span>, entre cuyas p\u00e1ginas se esconde la denuncia de un plagio virulento: el Quijote de Avellaneda, copia vulgar que suscit\u00f3 en el Manco de Lepanto y en Alonso Quijano m\u00e1s de un arranque de bilis.<\/p><p>El plagio tambi\u00e9n ha generado est\u00e9ticas delirantes, como las de Macedonio Fern\u00e1ndez, quien con impecable humor se dedic\u00f3 a mostrar las paradojas de la innovaci\u00f3n y la imitaci\u00f3n. En esta misma estirpe de la copia se encuentra <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span>, creador de genealog\u00edas, centinela de citas inexistentes y, seg\u00fan sus propios <em>Textos cautivos<\/em> y <em>Otras inquisiciones<\/em>, asiduo imitador de un pu\u00f1ado de genios, entre ellos, del propio Macedonio: <strong>\u00abLo imit\u00e9, hasta la transcripci\u00f3n, hasta el apasionado y devoto plagio. Yo sent\u00eda: Macedonio es la metaf\u00edsica, es la literatura. Quienes le precedieron pueden resplandecer en la historia, pero eran borradores de Macedonio, versiones imperfectas y previas. 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el feminismo, Gerber Bicecci ha desarrollado la idea de las escrituras del compostaje: \u00abLas escrituras \u2014y por escrituras me refiero siempre a im\u00e1genes, textos y otras formas de comunicaci\u00f3n\u2014\u00a0<strong>necesitan de una habitaci\u00f3n para reto\u00f1ar, una caja con agujeros capaz de volver a dar vida, otra vida, una que cuide o regenere las configuraciones del lenguaje y transforme la toxicidad o energ\u00eda que ya no son pertinentes.\u00a0<\/strong>Una habitaci\u00f3n que ya no ser\u00e1 tan propia porque convocar\u00e1 a diversas especies, voces, formas y objetos a una existencia colectiva en la que los nombres se difuminar\u00e1n y ya no se sabr\u00e1 muy bien qu\u00e9 era c\u00e1scara de cu\u00e1l, cu\u00e1l la idea de qui\u00e9n y qui\u00e9n el residuo digestivo de qu\u00e9. El compostero es pues el tipo de habitaci\u00f3n en que la historia, el archivo, el cuerpo y la escritura se vuelven reversibles; donde es posible una reescritura distinta a la de la apropiaci\u00f3n porque el compostero es esa l\u00ednea punteada que nos recuerda la porosidad y permeabilidad de todas las materias e ideas\u00bb.<\/p><p>Esto y mucho m\u00e1s son las escrituras del compostaje.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5wjxlmy\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Entre los plagiarios m\u00e1s exitosos y elocuentes est\u00e1n tambi\u00e9n quienes se roban a s\u00ed mismos, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/835-roberto-bolano\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Roberto Bola\u00f1o<\/a><\/span>, que durante su juventud entregaba el mismo cuento con nombres diferentes en diversos concursos literarios, gan\u00e1ndolos todos y llen\u00e1ndose temporalmente los bolsillos al repetir p\u00e1rrafos de una obra aparentemente inagotable para su corta edad.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yf580n5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Vivian Abenshushan (quien junto con Luigi Amara estuvo detr\u00e1s de la publicaci\u00f3n de Lethem en Tumbona) recientemente public\u00f3 un valioso artefacto literario para pensar la autoridad, la coautor\u00eda del lector y la precariedad del trabajo literario: <em>Permanente obra negra.<\/em> En una charla que la autora entabl\u00f3 con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gabriela J\u00e1uregui<\/a><\/span>, Abenshushan explic\u00f3 que su libro \u00abse funda en el plagio y el <em>copy-paste<\/em> para asumir que siempre escribimos con palabras prestadas y que siempre nos precede lo que hemos le\u00eddo y lo que hemos conversado, <strong>quedando la imaginaci\u00f3n y la escritura como una serie de recombinaciones de esas palabras y esas ideas que han sido dichas y escritas por otros y otras (\u2026)<\/strong> me interesaba adem\u00e1s ir contra la idea del autor como un sujeto conformado por el talento, el genio, la habilidad y el individualismo\u00bb.<\/p><p>Para tratar de contrarrestar \u00e1ridas conversaciones en torno al plagio, tambi\u00e9n se ha llevado al territorio de la literatura conceptos tecnol\u00f3gicos, como las potencialidades del software de c\u00f3digo abierto; y tambi\u00e9n se han desarrollado proyectos editoriales con organizaciones menos tajantes con la propiedad intelectual, como Creative Commons, o con figuras legales como el copyleft. Desde luego, no todos estar\u00edan de acuerdo con posturas flexibles en torno a la copia.<\/p><p>El plagio ha suscitado no pocos encontronazos entre egos y carteras, y ha generado silencios inc\u00f3modos en los cotilleos literarios, como fue el caso de las pesquisas cuasi paranoides de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/10154-luis-alberto-guevara-hidalgo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Alberto Hidalgo<\/a><\/span>, quien persegu\u00eda las s\u00edlabas reverberantes de innumerables escritores, entre ellos el afamado Oliverio Girondo. Hidalgo no solo ridiculiz\u00f3 a Girondo en su cuento \u00abEl plagiario\u00bb, sino que le realiz\u00f3 un inventario de parentescos encubiertos; en el pr\u00f3logo a su<em> \u00cdndice de la nueva poes\u00eda americana<\/em>, Hidalgo arremeti\u00f3 contra Oliverio se\u00f1alando que <strong>\u00abalgunos desocupados est\u00e1n ahora practicando el espor de copiar a G\u00f3mez de la Serna, al cual lo usan disfrazado en una soluci\u00f3n de Paul Morand m\u00e1s unas gotas de pornograf\u00eda. No incluyo muestras de tales engendros para no dar al plagio carta de ciudadan\u00eda art\u00edstica\u00bb.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Esta ciudadan\u00eda art\u00edstica puede ser muy costosa e ir m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del escarnio; un caso desafortunado ya bien conocido es el de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/cl\/18659-alfredo-bryce-echenique\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Alfredo Bryce Echenique<\/a><\/span>, a quien multaron por omitir el adecuado uso de las comillas u olvidar de d\u00f3nde ven\u00eda su eficiente inspiraci\u00f3n. Sin embargo, uno de los malabares literarios peor malaventurados en la comunidad cultural mexicana fue el del escritor Sealtiel Alatriste, cuando en 2012 tuvo que renunciar a su puesto como coordinador de Difusi\u00f3n Cultural de la UNAM y al distinguido Premio Xavier Villaurrutia \u00abde escritores para escritores\u00bb debido a las punzantes acusaciones por plagio a las que se enfrent\u00f3, imputaciones que demostraban su larga carrera como prestidigitador literario y que implicaban a m\u00e1s de un alto funcionario de la pol\u00edtica y la cultura de M\u00e9xico. Un esc\u00e1ndalo tan estrepitoso que no dej\u00f3 ni que Alatriste levantara su copa para brindar por el buen intento. En 2019, Alatriste intent\u00f3 volver al medio literario narrando su versi\u00f3n de lo ocurrido en la novela <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/5135-cicatrices-de-la-memoria\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Cicatrices de la memoria<\/span>.<\/em><\/a> Esa cantaleta a\u00fan no termina.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"45\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"uvixr5q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El plagio ha suscitado no pocos encontronazos entre egos y carteras, y ha generado silencios inc\u00f3modos en los cotilleos literarios, como fue el caso de las pesquisas cuasi paranoides de Alberto Hidalgo, quien persegu\u00eda las s\u00edlabas reverberantes de innumerables escritores, entre ellos el afamado Oliverio Girondo. Hidalgo no solo ridiculiz\u00f3 a Girondo en su cuento \u00abEl plagiario\u00bb, sino que le realiz\u00f3 un inventario de parentescos encubiertos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"i42wwhg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Con ir\u00f3nicos ecos a la historia de Alatriste, pero sin conformarse con ellos,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/109053-hector-aguilar-camin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">H\u00e9ctor Aguilar Cam\u00edn<\/a><\/span> public\u00f3\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/5580-plagio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Plagio (Una novela)<\/em> (Literatura Random House, 2020)<\/span>,<\/a> <strong>un libro sobre el arte de copiar, la inestable tramoya que es la escena cultural mexicana y la ca\u00edda profesional que generan los catastr\u00f3ficos deseos de posesi\u00f3n de un escritor plagiario,<\/strong> bur\u00f3crata cultural y mujeriego de alto nivel. Una novela fluida, amena y sencilla, construida con humor, en la que el lector estar\u00e1 tentado a desestimar el peso de los ultrajes, por lo que debe tener cuidado de no olvidar que la risa que genera esta novela va secundada por un silencio lleno de verg\u00fcenza.<\/p><p>El libro comienza con una aclaraci\u00f3n en la que puede leerse: <strong>\u00abTodo lo que aqu\u00ed se cuenta es verdad, salvo los nombres propios, que tambi\u00e9n son falsos\u00bb.<\/strong> Una paradoja del mentiroso. Esta frase desdibuja en su segunda oraci\u00f3n la primera, y funciona como div\u00e1n para la confesi\u00f3n del fracaso del narrador de la novela, quien buscar\u00e1 decir y luego desdecirse para salvarse de la ruina.<\/p><p>Pero como lo importante de cada historia no es solo tener el argumento, sino saberla contar, antes de adentrarnos en los cap\u00edtulos sobre los entresijos de la escena cultural mexicana y el declive de este notable rufi\u00e1n, el autor anota de una vez por todas los anales de su descalabro y nos relata en cuartilla y media los acontecimientos que intentar\u00e1 explicar en el resto de su relato. En resumen: tras ganar el Premio Mart\u00edn Luis Guzm\u00e1n \u00abde escritores para escritores\u00bb, <strong>la prensa, instigada por su mujer en complicidad con una de las promesas de las letras mexicanas, lo acusa de haber plagiado varios de sus art\u00edculos period\u00edsticos y el tema de la novela por la cual fue galardonado.<\/strong> A estas recriminaciones se sum\u00f3 una larga lista de escritores que le exigieron renunciar al premio y a su peque\u00f1o imperio en la universidad. Cuando el escritor parec\u00eda aceptar su tr\u00e1gico destino y simplemente salir por la puerta de atr\u00e1s, su acusador apareci\u00f3 muerto, y \u00e9l se torn\u00f3 el principal sospechoso de su asesinato. As\u00ed nos recibe\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/109053-hector-aguilar-camin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">H\u00e9ctor Aguilar Cam\u00edn<\/a><\/span> a su novela, con el breve itinerario de infortunios de un sinverg\u00fcenza, que sin pretensiones de expiaci\u00f3n ni rodeos pero con humor y picard\u00eda, nos relatar\u00e1 los trucos y traiciones que hay tras bambalinas en cada uno de estos acontecimientos.<\/p><p>A lo largo de los trece cap\u00edtulos y un ir\u00f3nico <em>post scriptum<\/em> que conforman el libro, el narrador nos expone su estrat\u00e9gico ascenso en la vida cultural mexicana, una red de c\u00f3mplices y exc\u00f3mplices, pol\u00edticos, candidatos y funcionarios corruptos, oportunistas, amigos y examigos, amor\u00edos, chivos expiatorios, periodistas y cr\u00edticos pagados, premios ama\u00f1ados, puestos acordados, golpes y contragolpes, pendientes de poder y abusos. <strong>Una telara\u00f1a de agravios en donde perpetuamente se encuentran talentos art\u00edsticos que generan obras, envidias y traiciones.<\/strong> Es en ese mundillo donde el narrador de <em>Plagio<\/em> se desenvuelve como pez en el agua, el h\u00e1bitat natural de un infame.<\/p><p>Si bien el narrador dice no haber sido tocado por las musas \u2014ni por el \u00e1nimo del trabajo\u2014, sabe de qui\u00e9n ser amigo, a qui\u00e9n beneficiar, en qu\u00e9 encuentros hacerse notar y, sobre todo, a qu\u00e9 escritores imitar para lograr los puestos de poder que anhela. En uno de los ensayos de\u00a0<em>El ABC de la lectura<\/em>, Ezra Pound realiza una taxonom\u00eda de escritores y expone que en la historia de las letras hay unas cuantas lumbreras, genios a los que llama \u00abinventores\u00bb y \u00abmaestros\u00bb, y luego un sinf\u00edn de \u00abdiluidores\u00bb que patalean para m\u00e1s o menos sobrevivir a lo largo del tiempo. <strong>Para el protagonista de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/5580-plagio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Plagio<\/a><\/span><\/em>, \u00abla historia de la literatura no es sino la de una cadena de escribanos tratando de imitar lo que han amado en otros autores\u00bb,<\/strong> por eso se acepta como diluidor aunque busca hacerse pasar\u00a0por\u00a0maestro.<\/p><p>Transfigurando y transcribiendo pasajes es como el protagonista comienza a volverse escritor \u2014o \u00abescribidor\u00bb, dir\u00e1n algunos\u2014. Pero sus plagios no son un simple<em> copy-paste<\/em>, son un artificio bastante embrollado que obtiene su car\u00e1cter de desde\u00f1able m\u00e1s por el tono en el que es narrado que por el hecho en s\u00ed. Como mencion\u00e9 arriba,<strong> el plagio puede ser defendido desde muchas trincheras, comenzando por argumentar que en el arte no hay algo como la generaci\u00f3n espont\u00e1nea,<\/strong> y continuando con que la literatura es inevitablemente coral, estereof\u00f3nica y una \u00fanica conversaci\u00f3n milenaria. Lo que molesta es que el autor esconde sus copias con c\u00ednicos malabares conceptuales, como que su originalidad es la transfiguraci\u00f3n o que hace uso magistral de los palimpsestos intertextuales o que son libros de antesala a un futuro homenaje jam\u00e1s planeado. Es su corrupci\u00f3n y la manera en que habla de sus trucos lo que enfada; hace ver al lector que \u00e9l, conscientemente, construye literatura de poca monta calculada para enga\u00f1ar. <strong>Escribe por su deseo de poder, no por el entusiasmo dial\u00f3gico que genera la literatura. No le exigimos comillas al narrador, ni reverencias frente a sus precursores, ni siquiera seriedad: le exigimos rigor frente a la literatura.<\/strong><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0d77rka\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/5580-plagio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El libro de H\u00e9ctor Aguilar Cam\u00edn<\/a><\/span>\u00a0comienza con una aclaraci\u00f3n en la que puede leerse: \u00abTodo lo que aqu\u00ed se cuenta es verdad, salvo los nombres propios, que tambi\u00e9n son falsos\u00bb. Una paradoja del mentiroso. Esta frase desdibuja en su segunda oraci\u00f3n la primera, y funciona como div\u00e1n para la confesi\u00f3n del fracaso del narrador de la novela, quien buscar\u00e1 decir y luego desdecirse para salvarse de la ruina.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qyhrg26\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pero el plagio es el menor de sus cr\u00edmenes, es solo sin\u00e9cdoque de todo lo que su figura representa. El protagonista colecciona textos, como colecciona mujeres, favores y ripiosos cumplidos; \u00e9l metamorfosea sus abusos sobre las mujeres y los alcances de su posici\u00f3n; se favorece de codearse con los poderes que se alimentan de una falsa y llorona sumisi\u00f3n, y de la adulaci\u00f3n gratuita. Por ello, cuando su caso pone en riesgo a m\u00e1s de una vaca sagrada de la cultura mexicana, <strong>sus superiores prefieren r\u00e1pidamente mandarlo guillotinar por un crimen menor, antes de que ruede m\u00e1s de una cabeza por los verdaderos delitos a pagar.<\/strong> Su ca\u00edda es un castigo ejemplar; libera una casilla que permite a los que se quedan en el juego volver a definir las reglas y determinar el deber de la literatura de acuerdo con sus propios intereses.<\/p><p>Pero la fortuna hace de las suyas y m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de sus recriminaciones por plagiario, el narrador encuentra de nuevo el lenguaje en su contra, no a la forma de Samuel Beckett, sino de forma pat\u00e9tica: el escritor se ve s\u00fabitamente involucrado en un segundo crimen del que no est\u00e1 seguro haber participado, el asesinato de su acusador.<strong> La muerte que dese\u00f3 y que conjur\u00f3 con odio se hizo realidad y ahora \u00e9l es el presunto culpable.<\/strong>\u00a0\u00abUsted tiene un problema serio con las palabras \u2014dijo Saladrigas\u2014: le sobran, le faltan o se le vuelven realidad\u00bb, le dice el detective que investiga el homicidio. Es tan dudosa la capacidad del protagonista para crear algo y est\u00e1 tan idiotizado por los celos que le tiene a su denunciante, que hasta \u00e9l desconf\u00eda de s\u00ed mismo, de sus palabras y de su participaci\u00f3n en el homicidio. Desconoce sus propios l\u00edmites, como los desconoci\u00f3 su puesto.<\/p><p><strong>\u00ab\u00bfUsted por qu\u00e9 no se pone a escribir lo que le pasa, en vez de lo que han escrito otros?\u00bb,<\/strong> le pregunta Saladrigas, e ir\u00f3nicamente eso es lo que pasa, es la experiencia de todo este enredo lo que posibilita al narrador escribir finalmente algo propio. Pero como la fortuna desconoce la justicia, y la hidra de los poderosos no olvida los favores que debe, el final del protagonista no ser\u00e1 el que el lector desear\u00eda, sino el que con lealtades y traiciones ha construido. <strong>Esperemos que el caudillo no vuelva de las sombras.<\/strong><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ricardo Piglia y Hemingway: el \u00faltimo (re)lector<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Los documentos de Aspern<\/em>: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la cancelaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/elena-ferrante-dos-amigas-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Por qu\u00e9 todas las historias de familia que narra Elena Ferrante son tambi\u00e9n historias de dinero<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"u8xcqz4\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Cartel promocional de Lolita (Stanley Kubrick, 1962), adaptación al cine de la novela de Vladimir Nabokov. En 2004, el autor ruso fue acusado de plagiar el personaje femenino protagonista (que en el filme es interpretado por Sue Lyon) al periodista alemán Heinz von Lichberg, quien publicó en 1916 un relato titulado, precisamente, Lolita. Crédito: Getty Images.

Por VALERIA VILLALOBOS-GUÍZAR

Hasta entre los plagiarios hay distinciones, y eso la literatura lo sabe de sobra. Las letras han hecho del robo el argumento de algunos de los mejores capítulos de su historia, como la obra de Cide Hamete Benengeli apropiada de forma muy afortunada por Miguel de Cervantes, entre cuyas páginas se esconde la denuncia de un plagio virulento: el Quijote de Avellaneda, copia vulgar que suscitó en el Manco de Lepanto y en Alonso Quijano más de un arranque de bilis.

El plagio también ha generado estéticas delirantes, como las de Macedonio Fernández, quien con impecable humor se dedicó a mostrar las paradojas de la innovación y la imitación. En esta misma estirpe de la copia se encuentra Jorge Luis Borges, creador de genealogías, centinela de citas inexistentes y, según sus propios Textos cautivos y Otras inquisiciones, asiduo imitador de un puñado de genios, entre ellos, del propio Macedonio: «Lo imité, hasta la transcripción, hasta el apasionado y devoto plagio. Yo sentía: Macedonio es la metafísica, es la literatura. Quienes le precedieron pueden resplandecer en la historia, pero eran borradores de Macedonio, versiones imperfectas y previas. No imitar ese canon hubiera sido una negligencia increíble».

Entre los plagiarios más exitosos y elocuentes están también quienes se roban a sí mismos, como Roberto Bolaño, que durante su juventud entregaba el mismo cuento con nombres diferentes en diversos concursos literarios, ganándolos todos y llenándose temporalmente los bolsillos al repetir párrafos de una obra aparentemente inagotable para su corta edad. 

Jonathan Lethem, en su sugerente ensayo The Ecstasy of Influence: A plagiarism —reproducido en Jonathan Lethem contra la originalidad (Tumbona, 2008)—, expone algunos afortunados casos de plagio, desde Bob Dylan hasta Lolita de Nabokov, que tiene entre sus precursores a Heinz von Lichberg, el autor alemán que escribió una historia que comparte casi el mismo argumento que la obra de Nabokov, pero cuarenta años antes; sin embargo, el segundo poco tiene que ver con el primero, porque tener el pincel no te asegura saber pintar. 

¿Criptomnesia? Qué importa. Después de un buen arsenal de ejemplos de todas las disciplinas del arte, Lethem señala que «la apropiación, la imitación, la cita, la alusión y la colaboración sublimada forman una especie de sine qua non del acto creativo y atraviesan todas las formas y géneros en el ámbito de la producción cultural»; hallar una voz propia es encontrar las filiaciones y linajes a los que uno quiere sumarse; inventar «no consiste en crear algo de la nada, sino a partir del caos».

En los últimos años han surgido proyectos y posturas verdaderamente estimulantes que ponen en entredicho aquellas nociones muy limitadas sobre la copia en detrimento del original, y aquellas que aseguran que la propiedad intelectual debe ser una lógica implacable contra el bien público o la propia creación; tal es el caso de Valeria Mata y su obra de ensayos Plagie copie manipule robe reescriba este libro, que ahonda de forma interesante en las dinámicas persecutorias que determinado concepto de plagio implica en el campo cultural, la desmitificación del autor, la tiranía de la originalidad, el bricoleur y el libre acceso, entre muchas otras cosas.

Otra postura crítica y enriquecedora a la discusión sobre los matices del plagio y de la apropiación es la de Verónica Gerber Bicecci, autora que ha intervenido narraciones de otros y otras autoras para reescribirlas o mezclarlas con elementos gráficos ajenos, e inaugurarles una nueva dimensión, como lo hizo en La compañía (Almadía, 2019), donde retoma el cuento «El huésped» de Amparo Dávila y piezas de Manuel Felguérez; o en Las palabras y las imágenes, un nuevo trazo de Les mots et les images de René Magritte (Minerva Editorial, 2019).

Desde el feminismo, Gerber Bicecci ha desarrollado la idea de las escrituras del compostaje: «Las escrituras —y por escrituras me refiero siempre a imágenes, textos y otras formas de comunicación— necesitan de una habitación para retoñar, una caja con agujeros capaz de volver a dar vida, otra vida, una que cuide o regenere las configuraciones del lenguaje y transforme la toxicidad o energía que ya no son pertinentes. Una habitación que ya no será tan propia porque convocará a diversas especies, voces, formas y objetos a una existencia colectiva en la que los nombres se difuminarán y ya no se sabrá muy bien qué era cáscara de cuál, cuál la idea de quién y quién el residuo digestivo de qué. El compostero es pues el tipo de habitación en que la historia, el archivo, el cuerpo y la escritura se vuelven reversibles; donde es posible una reescritura distinta a la de la apropiación porque el compostero es esa línea punteada que nos recuerda la porosidad y permeabilidad de todas las materias e ideas».

Esto y mucho más son las escrituras del compostaje.

Entre los plagiarios más exitosos y elocuentes están también quienes se roban a sí mismos, como Roberto Bolaño, que durante su juventud entregaba el mismo cuento con nombres diferentes en diversos concursos literarios, ganándolos todos y llenándose temporalmente los bolsillos al repetir párrafos de una obra aparentemente inagotable para su corta edad. 

Vivian Abenshushan (quien junto con Luigi Amara estuvo detrás de la publicación de Lethem en Tumbona) recientemente publicó un valioso artefacto literario para pensar la autoridad, la coautoría del lector y la precariedad del trabajo literario: Permanente obra negra. En una charla que la autora entabló con Gabriela Jáuregui, Abenshushan explicó que su libro «se funda en el plagio y el copy-paste para asumir que siempre escribimos con palabras prestadas y que siempre nos precede lo que hemos leído y lo que hemos conversado, quedando la imaginación y la escritura como una serie de recombinaciones de esas palabras y esas ideas que han sido dichas y escritas por otros y otras (…) me interesaba además ir contra la idea del autor como un sujeto conformado por el talento, el genio, la habilidad y el individualismo».

Para tratar de contrarrestar áridas conversaciones en torno al plagio, también se ha llevado al territorio de la literatura conceptos tecnológicos, como las potencialidades del software de código abierto; y también se han desarrollado proyectos editoriales con organizaciones menos tajantes con la propiedad intelectual, como Creative Commons, o con figuras legales como el copyleft. Desde luego, no todos estarían de acuerdo con posturas flexibles en torno a la copia.

El plagio ha suscitado no pocos encontronazos entre egos y carteras, y ha generado silencios incómodos en los cotilleos literarios, como fue el caso de las pesquisas cuasi paranoides de Alberto Hidalgo, quien perseguía las sílabas reverberantes de innumerables escritores, entre ellos el afamado Oliverio Girondo. Hidalgo no solo ridiculizó a Girondo en su cuento «El plagiario», sino que le realizó un inventario de parentescos encubiertos; en el prólogo a su Índice de la nueva poesía americana, Hidalgo arremetió contra Oliverio señalando que «algunos desocupados están ahora practicando el espor de copiar a Gómez de la Serna, al cual lo usan disfrazado en una solución de Paul Morand más unas gotas de pornografía. No incluyo muestras de tales engendros para no dar al plagio carta de ciudadanía artística». 

Esta ciudadanía artística puede ser muy costosa e ir más allá del escarnio; un caso desafortunado ya bien conocido es el de Alfredo Bryce Echenique, a quien multaron por omitir el adecuado uso de las comillas u olvidar de dónde venía su eficiente inspiración. Sin embargo, uno de los malabares literarios peor malaventurados en la comunidad cultural mexicana fue el del escritor Sealtiel Alatriste, cuando en 2012 tuvo que renunciar a su puesto como coordinador de Difusión Cultural de la UNAM y al distinguido Premio Xavier Villaurrutia «de escritores para escritores» debido a las punzantes acusaciones por plagio a las que se enfrentó, imputaciones que demostraban su larga carrera como prestidigitador literario y que implicaban a más de un alto funcionario de la política y la cultura de México. Un escándalo tan estrepitoso que no dejó ni que Alatriste levantara su copa para brindar por el buen intento. En 2019, Alatriste intentó volver al medio literario narrando su versión de lo ocurrido en la novela Cicatrices de la memoria. Esa cantaleta aún no termina.

El plagio ha suscitado no pocos encontronazos entre egos y carteras, y ha generado silencios incómodos en los cotilleos literarios, como fue el caso de las pesquisas cuasi paranoides de Alberto Hidalgo, quien perseguía las sílabas reverberantes de innumerables escritores, entre ellos el afamado Oliverio Girondo. Hidalgo no solo ridiculizó a Girondo en su cuento «El plagiario», sino que le realizó un inventario de parentescos encubiertos.

Con irónicos ecos a la historia de Alatriste, pero sin conformarse con ellos, Héctor Aguilar Camín publicó Plagio (Una novela) (Literatura Random House, 2020), un libro sobre el arte de copiar, la inestable tramoya que es la escena cultural mexicana y la caída profesional que generan los catastróficos deseos de posesión de un escritor plagiario, burócrata cultural y mujeriego de alto nivel. Una novela fluida, amena y sencilla, construida con humor, en la que el lector estará tentado a desestimar el peso de los ultrajes, por lo que debe tener cuidado de no olvidar que la risa que genera esta novela va secundada por un silencio lleno de vergüenza.

El libro comienza con una aclaración en la que puede leerse: «Todo lo que aquí se cuenta es verdad, salvo los nombres propios, que también son falsos». Una paradoja del mentiroso. Esta frase desdibuja en su segunda oración la primera, y funciona como diván para la confesión del fracaso del narrador de la novela, quien buscará decir y luego desdecirse para salvarse de la ruina.

Pero como lo importante de cada historia no es solo tener el argumento, sino saberla contar, antes de adentrarnos en los capítulos sobre los entresijos de la escena cultural mexicana y el declive de este notable rufián, el autor anota de una vez por todas los anales de su descalabro y nos relata en cuartilla y media los acontecimientos que intentará explicar en el resto de su relato. En resumen: tras ganar el Premio Martín Luis Guzmán «de escritores para escritores», la prensa, instigada por su mujer en complicidad con una de las promesas de las letras mexicanas, lo acusa de haber plagiado varios de sus artículos periodísticos y el tema de la novela por la cual fue galardonado. A estas recriminaciones se sumó una larga lista de escritores que le exigieron renunciar al premio y a su pequeño imperio en la universidad. Cuando el escritor parecía aceptar su trágico destino y simplemente salir por la puerta de atrás, su acusador apareció muerto, y él se tornó el principal sospechoso de su asesinato. Así nos recibe Héctor Aguilar Camín a su novela, con el breve itinerario de infortunios de un sinvergüenza, que sin pretensiones de expiación ni rodeos pero con humor y picardía, nos relatará los trucos y traiciones que hay tras bambalinas en cada uno de estos acontecimientos.

A lo largo de los trece capítulos y un irónico post scriptum que conforman el libro, el narrador nos expone su estratégico ascenso en la vida cultural mexicana, una red de cómplices y excómplices, políticos, candidatos y funcionarios corruptos, oportunistas, amigos y examigos, amoríos, chivos expiatorios, periodistas y críticos pagados, premios amañados, puestos acordados, golpes y contragolpes, pendientes de poder y abusos. Una telaraña de agravios en donde perpetuamente se encuentran talentos artísticos que generan obras, envidias y traiciones. Es en ese mundillo donde el narrador de Plagio se desenvuelve como pez en el agua, el hábitat natural de un infame.

Si bien el narrador dice no haber sido tocado por las musas —ni por el ánimo del trabajo—, sabe de quién ser amigo, a quién beneficiar, en qué encuentros hacerse notar y, sobre todo, a qué escritores imitar para lograr los puestos de poder que anhela. En uno de los ensayos de El ABC de la lectura, Ezra Pound realiza una taxonomía de escritores y expone que en la historia de las letras hay unas cuantas lumbreras, genios a los que llama «inventores» y «maestros», y luego un sinfín de «diluidores» que patalean para más o menos sobrevivir a lo largo del tiempo. Para el protagonista de Plagio, «la historia de la literatura no es sino la de una cadena de escribanos tratando de imitar lo que han amado en otros autores», por eso se acepta como diluidor aunque busca hacerse pasar por maestro.

Transfigurando y transcribiendo pasajes es como el protagonista comienza a volverse escritor —o «escribidor», dirán algunos—. Pero sus plagios no son un simple copy-paste, son un artificio bastante embrollado que obtiene su carácter de desdeñable más por el tono en el que es narrado que por el hecho en sí. Como mencioné arriba, el plagio puede ser defendido desde muchas trincheras, comenzando por argumentar que en el arte no hay algo como la generación espontánea, y continuando con que la literatura es inevitablemente coral, estereofónica y una única conversación milenaria. Lo que molesta es que el autor esconde sus copias con cínicos malabares conceptuales, como que su originalidad es la transfiguración o que hace uso magistral de los palimpsestos intertextuales o que son libros de antesala a un futuro homenaje jamás planeado. Es su corrupción y la manera en que habla de sus trucos lo que enfada; hace ver al lector que él, conscientemente, construye literatura de poca monta calculada para engañar. Escribe por su deseo de poder, no por el entusiasmo dialógico que genera la literatura. No le exigimos comillas al narrador, ni reverencias frente a sus precursores, ni siquiera seriedad: le exigimos rigor frente a la literatura.

El libro de Héctor Aguilar Camín comienza con una aclaración en la que puede leerse: «Todo lo que aquí se cuenta es verdad, salvo los nombres propios, que también son falsos». Una paradoja del mentiroso. Esta frase desdibuja en su segunda oración la primera, y funciona como diván para la confesión del fracaso del narrador de la novela, quien buscará decir y luego desdecirse para salvarse de la ruina.

Pero el plagio es el menor de sus crímenes, es solo sinécdoque de todo lo que su figura representa. El protagonista colecciona textos, como colecciona mujeres, favores y ripiosos cumplidos; él metamorfosea sus abusos sobre las mujeres y los alcances de su posición; se favorece de codearse con los poderes que se alimentan de una falsa y llorona sumisión, y de la adulación gratuita. Por ello, cuando su caso pone en riesgo a más de una vaca sagrada de la cultura mexicana, sus superiores prefieren rápidamente mandarlo guillotinar por un crimen menor, antes de que ruede más de una cabeza por los verdaderos delitos a pagar. Su caída es un castigo ejemplar; libera una casilla que permite a los que se quedan en el juego volver a definir las reglas y determinar el deber de la literatura de acuerdo con sus propios intereses.

Pero la fortuna hace de las suyas y más allá de sus recriminaciones por plagiario, el narrador encuentra de nuevo el lenguaje en su contra, no a la forma de Samuel Beckett, sino de forma patética: el escritor se ve súbitamente involucrado en un segundo crimen del que no está seguro haber participado, el asesinato de su acusador. La muerte que deseó y que conjuró con odio se hizo realidad y ahora él es el presunto culpable. «Usted tiene un problema serio con las palabras —dijo Saladrigas—: le sobran, le faltan o se le vuelven realidad», le dice el detective que investiga el homicidio. Es tan dudosa la capacidad del protagonista para crear algo y está tan idiotizado por los celos que le tiene a su denunciante, que hasta él desconfía de sí mismo, de sus palabras y de su participación en el homicidio. Desconoce sus propios límites, como los desconoció su puesto.

«¿Usted por qué no se pone a escribir lo que le pasa, en vez de lo que han escrito otros?», le pregunta Saladrigas, e irónicamente eso es lo que pasa, es la experiencia de todo este enredo lo que posibilita al narrador escribir finalmente algo propio. Pero como la fortuna desconoce la justicia, y la hidra de los poderosos no olvida los favores que debe, el final del protagonista no será el que el lector desearía, sino el que con lealtades y traiciones ha construido. Esperemos que el caudillo no vuelva de las sombras.



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