Literatura

Gurnah por Gurnah: la odisea del forastero que ganó el Nobel

Nacido en Tanzania con raíces árabes, Abdulrazak Gurnah (1948) se vio forzado a migrar a Gran Bretaña a los 18 años, cuando la revolución de Zanzíbar derrocó al gobierno del último sultán de su país y desató una oleada de violencia contra diferentes etnias. Desde entonces, su literatura se dirigió siempre al corazón del desarraigo y el trauma del exilio, latiendo en las sociedades multiculturales y el imperialismo, cara y cruz de la misma moneda. Profesor de literatura postcolonial en la Universidad de Kent hasta su jubilación, en 2021 el Premio Nobel de Literatura lo puso en el centro de la escena. A pesar de ser el primer africano negro en ganarlo en treinta años, a continuación él mismo minimiza el hecho («¿y cuántos ganadores recientes son chinos o japoneses?») y ofrece una mirada sobre su obra, evocadora y a la vez actual, erigida entre la memoria e la imaginación, con el recuerdo como motor y cerco, una reivindicación del poder catártico y empático de la literatura.

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Desde entonces, su literatura se dirigi\u00f3 siempre al coraz\u00f3n del desarraigo y el trauma del exilio, latiendo en las sociedades multiculturales y el imperialismo, cara y cruz de la misma moneda. Profesor de literatura postcolonial en la Universidad de Kent hasta su jubilaci\u00f3n, en 2021 el Premio Nobel de Literatura lo puso en el centro de la escena. A pesar de ser el primer africano negro en ganarlo en treinta a\u00f1os, a continuaci\u00f3n \u00e9l mismo minimiza el hecho (\u00ab\u00bfy cu\u00e1ntos ganadores recientes son chinos o japoneses?\u00bb) y ofrece una mirada sobre su obra, evocadora y a la vez actual, erigida entre la memoria e la imaginaci\u00f3n, con el recuerdo como motor y cerco, una reivindicaci\u00f3n del poder cat\u00e1rtico y emp\u00e1tico de la 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Londres. 6 de diciembre de 2021. El novelista Abdulrazak Gurnah posa con su diploma Nobel durante una ceremonia celebrada en la residencia del embajador de Suecia en Londres. El encuentro tuvo lugar en la capital brit\u00e1nica, y no en Estocolmo como es habitual, por culpa de la pandemia de coronavirus. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"skyrkko\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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desarraigo no tiene distancia<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abEl desarraigo es un sentimiento universal; pueden sentirlo incluso quienes est\u00e1n a diez kil\u00f3metros de su casa. El que a m\u00ed me interesa es el que surge de los grandes \u00e9xodos, cuando la gente deja su pa\u00eds para escapar de la guerra, de la violencia o de coyunturas dif\u00edciles. Es algo que tambi\u00e9n forma parte de mi propia experiencia y que he tenido presente a lo largo de toda mi existencia como adulto: he vivido como un extranjero en un pa\u00eds que no era el m\u00edo. Pero hay millones de personas en esa misma situaci\u00f3n, tanto en Europa como en Am\u00e9rica, Australia o \u00c1frica. La migraci\u00f3n es un fen\u00f3meno global, no algo delimitado y espec\u00edfico. La humanidad lleva muchos a\u00f1os haci\u00e9ndolo. Ahora los movimientos migratorios se producen del sur al norte del mundo, lo que est\u00e1 creando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-el-ocaso-de-la-democracia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">problemas relativamente nuevos en Europa<\/a><\/span>\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/>Migraci\u00f3n en familia: de la ni\u00f1ez y la vejez<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abCuando una familia <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">se ve forzada a abandonar su pa\u00eds<\/a><\/span>, el trauma lo viven todos sus miembros, y probablemente pase de una generaci\u00f3n a otra. Cuando llegu\u00e9 a Gran Breta\u00f1a con mi familia ten\u00eda 18 a\u00f1os. Habr\u00eda sido diferente si hubiera sido un ni\u00f1o de 12. A los 18 uno ya tiene una vida detr\u00e1s que es muy dif\u00edcil olvidar. Quiz\u00e1 adaptarse a un pa\u00eds nuevo sea m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil con\u00a012 a\u00f1os, pero tambi\u00e9n puede ser m\u00e1s dif\u00edcil, por la confusi\u00f3n que se deriva de ello. En el caso de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/273092-libro-paraiso-premio-nobel-de-literatura-2021-9788418968099\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Para\u00edso<\/a><\/em><\/span>, decid\u00ed que el protagonista ser\u00eda un ni\u00f1o porque cuando volv\u00ed a Zanz\u00edbar en los 80, despu\u00e9s de muchos a\u00f1os sin pisar mi tierra, mi padre ya era bastante mayor. Lo mir\u00e9 mientras caminaba desde su casa a la mezquita y me pareci\u00f3 viejo y d\u00e9bil. Entonces pens\u00e9: \\\"Naci\u00f3 sobre 1905, as\u00ed que era un ni\u00f1o cuando el colonialismo se asent\u00f3 aqu\u00ed\\\". Y me pregunt\u00e9 c\u00f3mo habr\u00eda vivido esa transformaci\u00f3n, esa conquista extranjera, cuando unos extra\u00f1os llegaron y dijeron: \\\"Ahora mandamos nosotros\\\". En A orillas del mar, el protagonista es un hombre viejo en el\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Afganist\u00e1n<\/a><\/span> de 1999, cuando los sovi\u00e9ticos a\u00fan estaban en el pa\u00eds, antes de que empezara la Segunda Guerra del Golfo. Lo conceb\u00ed as\u00ed a ra\u00edz de un suceso que le\u00ed en esa \u00e9poca en la prensa: el secuestro de un avi\u00f3n durante un vuelo nacional en Afganist\u00e1n. Los secuestradores obligaron al piloto a aterrizar en un aeropuerto de Londres y los agentes de seguridad les convencieron para que se entregaran y liberaran a los pasajeros. El vuelo estaba lleno de afganos que volaban de Kabul a otros lugares de su pa\u00eds para ver a sus familias: hab\u00eda mujeres, ni\u00f1os y un hombre mayor con una barba muy larga. Al d\u00eda siguiente todos los pasajeros pidieron asilo en Gran Breta\u00f1a. Y me pregunt\u00e9: \\\"\u00bfQu\u00e9 hace ese se\u00f1or? Renunciar a su pa\u00eds y a su vida, por buena o mala que sea. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 quiere que le den asilo en Londres?\\\". La cuesti\u00f3n es que no s\u00e9 nada sobre \u00e9l, si tiene razones para decir: \\\"Odio esta vida. Esta es mi oportunidad para emprender una nueva\\\". De ah\u00ed naci\u00f3 el personaje de Saleh. \u00bfAcaso era la aceptaci\u00f3n de la derrota? \u00bfSe estaba resignando? Todas esas inc\u00f3gnitas alimentaron la creaci\u00f3n del personaje\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q35txpa\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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y refugiados\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abCuando veo abandonar su pa\u00eds a tres millones de ucranianos siento una profunda empat\u00eda. \u00bfQu\u00e9 otra cosa puede sentirse ante\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-vladimir-putin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un ataque tan cruel<\/a><\/span> a tantas personas, a sus casas, a todo lo que las rodea? Es terrible que una vez m\u00e1s tanta gente tenga que dejar atr\u00e1s su pa\u00eds y a sus seres queridos. Hasta cierto punto tienen la suerte de que los pa\u00edses vecinos les acogen y apoyan, algo que no ocurre con refugiados de otras procedencias. Acabo de estar una semana en Alemania y vi en las estaciones de tren y en las calles a mujeres, ni\u00f1os y unos pocos hombres que hab\u00edan llegado de Ucrania. Estaban ansiosos, la mayor\u00eda no hablaban alem\u00e1n y ten\u00edan problemas para comunicarse. Pero tambi\u00e9n vi se\u00f1ales que les indicaban lugares donde les daban techo, ropa y asesoramiento. Es impresionante ver la simpat\u00eda con la que los est\u00e1n recibiendo, pero no me sorprende que Europa lo haga. Son sus vecinos, muchos de ellos tienen familia en otros pa\u00edses europeos, como Ruman\u00eda o la propia Alemania. Y es triste, que no sorprendente, que los emigrantes afganos, sirios o iraqu\u00edes no sean recibidos con la misma hospitalidad y empat\u00eda\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/>Emigraci\u00f3n, racismo y alteridad<\/strong><\/p><p><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/273092-libro-paraiso-premio-nobel-de-literatura-2021-9788418968099\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abPara\u00edso<\/a>\u00a0<\/em>se public\u00f3 en ingl\u00e9s en 1994 y fue bien recibido: estuvo en la lista de mejores libros del a\u00f1o de Booker Prize. No s\u00e9 si la sociedad actual es m\u00e1s consciente y comprensiva con los refugiados, con quienes se ven impelidos a abandonar su hogar. Deber\u00eda ser as\u00ed, porque ahora los peri\u00f3dicos hablan con regularidad de las muertes y fechor\u00edas que padecen y de las temeridades que los emigrantes forzosos, sean refugiados o no, deben afrontar para sobrevivir. Lo cierto es que gran parte de la sociedad est\u00e1 a la defensiva, especialmente en Europa. Y no es el \u00fanico lugar del mundo con inmigrantes. De hecho, hist\u00f3ricamente, muchos europeos han emigrado a pa\u00edses de todo el mundo. Pero esa reticencia ante los extranjeros no es nada nuevo. En el caso de Europa, surge tambi\u00e9n de la lejana procedencia de sus inmigrantes, hay un alto grado de racismo ante ellos. Pero no todos los pa\u00edses responden de la misma forma: Alemania ha recibido de buen grado a los sirios que hu\u00edan de la guerra, y en cierta medida tambi\u00e9n Espa\u00f1a y Portugal. Otros pa\u00edses hablan de ellos como si fueran criminales que vinieran a hacer da\u00f1o a la poblaci\u00f3n o a acabar con su prosperidad. <em>Para\u00edso<\/em> no habla estrictamente de ellos, sino de la llegada del colonialismo al pa\u00eds del que provengo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0rr48fu\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"q1li2tq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Literatura poscolonial<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abLa expresi\u00f3n surge para definir a un grupo de escritores que tienen en com\u00fan la experiencia del colonialismo. Antes de ello, en las instituciones educativas de Gran Breta\u00f1a se estudiaban las creaciones de otros pa\u00edses refiri\u00e9ndose a ellas por su procedencia: literatura africana, caribe\u00f1a, india, del Pac\u00edfico\u2026 Y en cada una de ellas hab\u00eda alguien que se erig\u00eda como autoridad suprema en la materia: \\\"Soy el mayor experto porque estoy en \u00c1frica\\\", o en India, o donde fuera. Pero el colonialismo es un elemento com\u00fan a todos ellos. Sus autores escrib\u00edan en ingl\u00e9s, franc\u00e9s o portugu\u00e9s, pr\u00e1cticamente por una cuesti\u00f3n curricular. Quienes entienden los beneficios de este paradigma lo enarbolar\u00e1n como una cualidad, ya que el poscolonialismo, entendido como el encuentro entre Europa y lo que no lo es, lleva siglos gest\u00e1ndose. La llamada literatura poscolonial no es un cubo al que tirar la basura, sino un concepto muy profundo y \u00fatil\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k561g38\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEs impresionante ver la simpat\u00eda con que Europa est\u00e1 recibiendo a tres millones de ucranianos. Pero no me sorprende: son sus vecinos, muchos de ellos tienen familia en otros pa\u00edses europeos, como Ruman\u00eda o Alemania. Es triste, en cambio, que los emigrantes afganos, sirios o iraqu\u00edes no sean recibidos con la misma hospitalidad y empat\u00eda\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gh7jkaj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><b>Literatura: entre uno y los otros<\/b><\/p><p>\u00abHay muchas razones para leer literatura: el placer que nos dan unas palabras hermosas o dar con una perspectiva que nos hace conocer m\u00e1s a fondo determinadas situaciones o personas. Y tambi\u00e9n nos permite entendernos mejor a nosotros mismos. Esa es la misi\u00f3n de la literatura y lo que la hace atractiva: que nos reconocemos en ella. Pero tambi\u00e9n nos atrae lo que no conocemos, aprender. Es un placer cuando un libro nos revela algo nuevo y nos hace pensar: \\\"Este escritor va a contarme algo m\u00e1s sobre esto, y si no ser\u00e9 yo quien lo investigue\\\". En la seducci\u00f3n de la literatura siempre hay un elemento de novedad, quiz\u00e1 m\u00e1s cuando la acci\u00f3n tiene lugar en otras \u00e9pocas o contextos culturales. <em>Para\u00edso<\/em> se sit\u00faa en el marco de la llegada del colonialismo europeo al este de \u00c1frica. Y no es que los historiadores no hayan escrito sobre ello, sino que no lo hacen igual que un escritor o un periodista. Como disciplina, la Historia ofrece una visi\u00f3n m\u00e1s distante de lo que ocurre, sin profundizar en las vidas de la gente. Y el conocimiento popular hereda esa distancia. La literatura, en cambio, humaniza lo que se aprende en el \u00e1mbito acad\u00e9mico, proporcionando a la gente informaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s \u00edntima y mostrando realidades que no conoce poni\u00e9ndoles en la piel de los personajes\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/>El yin y el yang\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abLa naturaleza humana es dual: podemos ser generosos, pero tambi\u00e9n extremadamente crueles. Cuando encontramos la capacidad para la bondad y la justicia tenemos que aferrarnos a ella, exaltarla y ponerla como ejemplo para los dem\u00e1s y para nosotros mismos. La concordia es algo a lo que todos deber\u00edamos llegar. No es dif\u00edcil aprender de la propia experiencia, del crecimiento, de la madurez, que la generosidad es preferible a la crueldad. La generosidad flota en el aire, es palpable, y deber\u00edamos\u00a0tomarla cada vez que la encontremos\u00bb.<\/p><p><strong><br \/>Esclavitud(es)<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abEl t\u00e9rmino \\\"esclavo\\\" se acu\u00f1\u00f3 para referirse a los trabajadores forzosos de las plantaciones transatl\u00e1nticas hasta bien entrado el siglo XIX, personas que fueron secuestradas en sus pa\u00edses de origen y sus descendientes. Si nos atenemos a esa definici\u00f3n, el Khalil de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/273091-ebook-paraiso-premio-nobel-de-literatura-2021\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Para\u00edso<\/em><\/a><\/span> no hace un uso adecuado de esta palabra cuando dice que \u00e9l y Yusuf lo son. La suya es una servidumbre distinta: ambos son trabajadores dom\u00e9sticos, no propiedad legal del mercader. No pueden comprarse y venderse en el mercado. Incluso hoy en d\u00eda hay gente retenida trabajando en condiciones cercanas a la esclavitud en muchos lugares del mundo, y hay asociaciones que investigan esos abusos. Pero no se trata del mismo tipo de esclavitud que gran parte de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-colson-whitehead\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la poblaci\u00f3n negra vivi\u00f3 en las plantaciones<\/a><\/span>. Las palabras son flexibles, y por eso hay que contextualizar para saber qu\u00e9 significan realmente. Cuando puse esa palabra en boca de Khalil era m\u00e1s para mostrar su frustraci\u00f3n ante su propia condici\u00f3n y para hacer ver a Yusuf la realidad a la que se 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la lectura a la acci\u00f3n<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abNo se puede parar un tanque con un libro. La literatura no puede impedir las tiran\u00edas. Lo que s\u00ed puede hacer, quiz\u00e1s, es arrojar luz sobre distintos asuntos. Y a partir de ah\u00ed es el lector quien debe actuar si as\u00ed lo desea. Es dif\u00edcil que el l\u00edder de un r\u00e9gimen autoritario se ponga a leer y exclame: \\\"\u00a1Est\u00e1 bien, ya no bombardeo m\u00e1s!\\\". Lo que los escritores pueden hacer es informar al pueblo, no a los tiranos, y mostrarnos por qu\u00e9 no deber\u00edamos dejar que abusen de nosotros\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/>Premio Nobel: el antes como el despu\u00e9s<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abUn premio Nobel es todo un acontecimiento. Es un gran honor y me siento muy feliz por sumarme a una lista de escritores a quienes admiro y que siempre he visto como personas de una \u00f3rbita diferente. Es maravilloso que tanta gente quiera leer mis libros. Mis editores me dicen que los traducir\u00e1n a muchos otros idiomas, que es lo que desear\u00eda cualquier escritor. Tambi\u00e9n hay otros cambios: la gente quiere hablar contigo, preguntarte cosas, invitarte a participar en sus proyectos, y atender esas demandas me llevar\u00e1 alg\u00fan tiempo. Pero antes o despu\u00e9s volver\u00e9 a ponerme a escribir. Y para m\u00ed es imposible hacerlo de modo diferente al que siempre lo he hecho. Jam\u00e1s he trabajado por encargo: siempre he presentado mis novelas una vez terminadas. Y ahora hay menos motivo que nunca para dejar de hacerlo. Me gusta la libertad de decidir sobre qu\u00e9 escribir y organizar mi tiempo como quiera: viajar, cuidar mi jard\u00edn, cocinar\u2026 Cuando quiero escribir, escribo. Y no paro hasta que estoy lo suficientemente satisfecho como para presentar el texto a mi editor\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9yjszpq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abCuando me dicen que soy el primer escritor africano de raza negra que gana el Nobel de Literatura en 30 a\u00f1os, me pregunto: \u00bfcu\u00e1ntos escritores indios lo han ganado? \u00bfCu\u00e1ntos eran chinos o japoneses? En la historia de este premio casi todos los ganadores son europeos\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"sccgf17\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Europa y los premios<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abCuando me dicen que soy el primer escritor africano de raza negra que gana el Nobel de Literatura en 30 a\u00f1os, me pregunto: \u00bfcu\u00e1ntos escritores indios lo han ganado? \u00bfCu\u00e1ntos eran chinos o japoneses? En la historia de este premio casi todos los ganadores son europeos, lo que expresa el escaso valor que se atribuye a la literatura de otros lugares del mundo. La cosa es as\u00ed y no hay marcha atr\u00e1s, no se puede cambiar el pasado, que es fruto de una cierta estrechez de miras de la Academia sueca. Pero si miramos adelante quiz\u00e1 llegue a reconocerse el valor de escritores de otras procedencias. Hasta cierto punto ya est\u00e1 pasando. Ya veremos\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/>El papel y las pantallas<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abDurante\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/david-quammen-contagio-federico-kukso\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el confinamiento pand\u00e9mico<\/a><\/span> se han vendido muchos m\u00e1s libros de lo habitual, al menos en Gran Breta\u00f1a. Todos ellos pod\u00edan leerse en formato electr\u00f3nico, pero la gente quer\u00eda un libro f\u00edsico, no una pantalla. No comparto esa preocupaci\u00f3n sobre la posible desaparici\u00f3n de los libros en papel a ra\u00edz del e-book. Los libros son libros, los leas como los leas. El libro digital no genera ning\u00fan da\u00f1o y ofrece muchas ventajas; por ejemplo, abarata los precios para los estudiantes con pocos ingresos. Ambos soportes tienen las suyas y cada lector puede elegir el que m\u00e1s le guste. Debemos aprovechar los recursos que tenemos. As\u00ed que soy optimista acerca del futuro de los libros\u00bb.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en detalle<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/hanya-yanagihara-al-paraiso\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yanagihara por Yanagihara: tres tristes vidas y la posibilidad de una huida<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-saramago-jose-luis-peixoto\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los otros Saramago<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"b57771n\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Londres. 6 de diciembre de 2021. El novelista Abdulrazak Gurnah posa con su diploma Nobel durante una ceremonia celebrada en la residencia del embajador de Suecia en Londres. El encuentro tuvo lugar en la capital británica, y no en Estocolmo como es habitual, por culpa de la pandemia de coronavirus. Crédito: Getty Images.

El desarraigo no tiene distancia

«El desarraigo es un sentimiento universal; pueden sentirlo incluso quienes están a diez kilómetros de su casa. El que a mí me interesa es el que surge de los grandes éxodos, cuando la gente deja su país para escapar de la guerra, de la violencia o de coyunturas difíciles. Es algo que también forma parte de mi propia experiencia y que he tenido presente a lo largo de toda mi existencia como adulto: he vivido como un extranjero en un país que no era el mío. Pero hay millones de personas en esa misma situación, tanto en Europa como en América, Australia o África. La migración es un fenómeno global, no algo delimitado y específico. La humanidad lleva muchos años haciéndolo. Ahora los movimientos migratorios se producen del sur al norte del mundo, lo que está creando problemas relativamente nuevos en Europa». 


Migración en familia: de la niñez y la vejez

«Cuando una familia se ve forzada a abandonar su país, el trauma lo viven todos sus miembros, y probablemente pase de una generación a otra. Cuando llegué a Gran Bretaña con mi familia tenía 18 años. Habría sido diferente si hubiera sido un niño de 12. A los 18 uno ya tiene una vida detrás que es muy difícil olvidar. Quizá adaptarse a un país nuevo sea más fácil con 12 años, pero también puede ser más difícil, por la confusión que se deriva de ello. En el caso de Paraíso, decidí que el protagonista sería un niño porque cuando volví a Zanzíbar en los 80, después de muchos años sin pisar mi tierra, mi padre ya era bastante mayor. Lo miré mientras caminaba desde su casa a la mezquita y me pareció viejo y débil. Entonces pensé: "Nació sobre 1905, así que era un niño cuando el colonialismo se asentó aquí". Y me pregunté cómo habría vivido esa transformación, esa conquista extranjera, cuando unos extraños llegaron y dijeron: "Ahora mandamos nosotros". En A orillas del mar, el protagonista es un hombre viejo en el Afganistán de 1999, cuando los soviéticos aún estaban en el país, antes de que empezara la Segunda Guerra del Golfo. Lo concebí así a raíz de un suceso que leí en esa época en la prensa: el secuestro de un avión durante un vuelo nacional en Afganistán. Los secuestradores obligaron al piloto a aterrizar en un aeropuerto de Londres y los agentes de seguridad les convencieron para que se entregaran y liberaran a los pasajeros. El vuelo estaba lleno de afganos que volaban de Kabul a otros lugares de su país para ver a sus familias: había mujeres, niños y un hombre mayor con una barba muy larga. Al día siguiente todos los pasajeros pidieron asilo en Gran Bretaña. Y me pregunté: "¿Qué hace ese señor? Renunciar a su país y a su vida, por buena o mala que sea. ¿Por qué quiere que le den asilo en Londres?". La cuestión es que no sé nada sobre él, si tiene razones para decir: "Odio esta vida. Esta es mi oportunidad para emprender una nueva". De ahí nació el personaje de Saleh. ¿Acaso era la aceptación de la derrota? ¿Se estaba resignando? Todas esas incógnitas alimentaron la creación del personaje».

Inmigrantes y refugiados 

«Cuando veo abandonar su país a tres millones de ucranianos siento una profunda empatía. ¿Qué otra cosa puede sentirse ante un ataque tan cruel a tantas personas, a sus casas, a todo lo que las rodea? Es terrible que una vez más tanta gente tenga que dejar atrás su país y a sus seres queridos. Hasta cierto punto tienen la suerte de que los países vecinos les acogen y apoyan, algo que no ocurre con refugiados de otras procedencias. Acabo de estar una semana en Alemania y vi en las estaciones de tren y en las calles a mujeres, niños y unos pocos hombres que habían llegado de Ucrania. Estaban ansiosos, la mayoría no hablaban alemán y tenían problemas para comunicarse. Pero también vi señales que les indicaban lugares donde les daban techo, ropa y asesoramiento. Es impresionante ver la simpatía con la que los están recibiendo, pero no me sorprende que Europa lo haga. Son sus vecinos, muchos de ellos tienen familia en otros países europeos, como Rumanía o la propia Alemania. Y es triste, que no sorprendente, que los emigrantes afganos, sirios o iraquíes no sean recibidos con la misma hospitalidad y empatía». 


Emigración, racismo y alteridad

«Paraíso se publicó en inglés en 1994 y fue bien recibido: estuvo en la lista de mejores libros del año de Booker Prize. No sé si la sociedad actual es más consciente y comprensiva con los refugiados, con quienes se ven impelidos a abandonar su hogar. Debería ser así, porque ahora los periódicos hablan con regularidad de las muertes y fechorías que padecen y de las temeridades que los emigrantes forzosos, sean refugiados o no, deben afrontar para sobrevivir. Lo cierto es que gran parte de la sociedad está a la defensiva, especialmente en Europa. Y no es el único lugar del mundo con inmigrantes. De hecho, históricamente, muchos europeos han emigrado a países de todo el mundo. Pero esa reticencia ante los extranjeros no es nada nuevo. En el caso de Europa, surge también de la lejana procedencia de sus inmigrantes, hay un alto grado de racismo ante ellos. Pero no todos los países responden de la misma forma: Alemania ha recibido de buen grado a los sirios que huían de la guerra, y en cierta medida también España y Portugal. Otros países hablan de ellos como si fueran criminales que vinieran a hacer daño a la población o a acabar con su prosperidad. Paraíso no habla estrictamente de ellos, sino de la llegada del colonialismo al país del que provengo». 

Literatura poscolonial

«La expresión surge para definir a un grupo de escritores que tienen en común la experiencia del colonialismo. Antes de ello, en las instituciones educativas de Gran Bretaña se estudiaban las creaciones de otros países refiriéndose a ellas por su procedencia: literatura africana, caribeña, india, del Pacífico… Y en cada una de ellas había alguien que se erigía como autoridad suprema en la materia: "Soy el mayor experto porque estoy en África", o en India, o donde fuera. Pero el colonialismo es un elemento común a todos ellos. Sus autores escribían en inglés, francés o portugués, prácticamente por una cuestión curricular. Quienes entienden los beneficios de este paradigma lo enarbolarán como una cualidad, ya que el poscolonialismo, entendido como el encuentro entre Europa y lo que no lo es, lleva siglos gestándose. La llamada literatura poscolonial no es un cubo al que tirar la basura, sino un concepto muy profundo y útil».

«Es impresionante ver la simpatía con que Europa está recibiendo a tres millones de ucranianos. Pero no me sorprende: son sus vecinos, muchos de ellos tienen familia en otros países europeos, como Rumanía o Alemania. Es triste, en cambio, que los emigrantes afganos, sirios o iraquíes no sean recibidos con la misma hospitalidad y empatía».

Literatura: entre uno y los otros

«Hay muchas razones para leer literatura: el placer que nos dan unas palabras hermosas o dar con una perspectiva que nos hace conocer más a fondo determinadas situaciones o personas. Y también nos permite entendernos mejor a nosotros mismos. Esa es la misión de la literatura y lo que la hace atractiva: que nos reconocemos en ella. Pero también nos atrae lo que no conocemos, aprender. Es un placer cuando un libro nos revela algo nuevo y nos hace pensar: "Este escritor va a contarme algo más sobre esto, y si no seré yo quien lo investigue". En la seducción de la literatura siempre hay un elemento de novedad, quizá más cuando la acción tiene lugar en otras épocas o contextos culturales. Paraíso se sitúa en el marco de la llegada del colonialismo europeo al este de África. Y no es que los historiadores no hayan escrito sobre ello, sino que no lo hacen igual que un escritor o un periodista. Como disciplina, la Historia ofrece una visión más distante de lo que ocurre, sin profundizar en las vidas de la gente. Y el conocimiento popular hereda esa distancia. La literatura, en cambio, humaniza lo que se aprende en el ámbito académico, proporcionando a la gente información más íntima y mostrando realidades que no conoce poniéndoles en la piel de los personajes». 


El yin y el yang 

«La naturaleza humana es dual: podemos ser generosos, pero también extremadamente crueles. Cuando encontramos la capacidad para la bondad y la justicia tenemos que aferrarnos a ella, exaltarla y ponerla como ejemplo para los demás y para nosotros mismos. La concordia es algo a lo que todos deberíamos llegar. No es difícil aprender de la propia experiencia, del crecimiento, de la madurez, que la generosidad es preferible a la crueldad. La generosidad flota en el aire, es palpable, y deberíamos tomarla cada vez que la encontremos».


Esclavitud(es)

«El término "esclavo" se acuñó para referirse a los trabajadores forzosos de las plantaciones transatlánticas hasta bien entrado el siglo XIX, personas que fueron secuestradas en sus países de origen y sus descendientes. Si nos atenemos a esa definición, el Khalil de Paraíso no hace un uso adecuado de esta palabra cuando dice que él y Yusuf lo son. La suya es una servidumbre distinta: ambos son trabajadores domésticos, no propiedad legal del mercader. No pueden comprarse y venderse en el mercado. Incluso hoy en día hay gente retenida trabajando en condiciones cercanas a la esclavitud en muchos lugares del mundo, y hay asociaciones que investigan esos abusos. Pero no se trata del mismo tipo de esclavitud que gran parte de la población negra vivió en las plantaciones. Las palabras son flexibles, y por eso hay que contextualizar para saber qué significan realmente. Cuando puse esa palabra en boca de Khalil era más para mostrar su frustración ante su propia condición y para hacer ver a Yusuf la realidad a la que se enfrenta». 

Abdulrazak Gurnah. Crédito: Getty Images.

De la lectura a la acción

«No se puede parar un tanque con un libro. La literatura no puede impedir las tiranías. Lo que sí puede hacer, quizás, es arrojar luz sobre distintos asuntos. Y a partir de ahí es el lector quien debe actuar si así lo desea. Es difícil que el líder de un régimen autoritario se ponga a leer y exclame: "¡Está bien, ya no bombardeo más!". Lo que los escritores pueden hacer es informar al pueblo, no a los tiranos, y mostrarnos por qué no deberíamos dejar que abusen de nosotros». 


Premio Nobel: el antes como el después

«Un premio Nobel es todo un acontecimiento. Es un gran honor y me siento muy feliz por sumarme a una lista de escritores a quienes admiro y que siempre he visto como personas de una órbita diferente. Es maravilloso que tanta gente quiera leer mis libros. Mis editores me dicen que los traducirán a muchos otros idiomas, que es lo que desearía cualquier escritor. También hay otros cambios: la gente quiere hablar contigo, preguntarte cosas, invitarte a participar en sus proyectos, y atender esas demandas me llevará algún tiempo. Pero antes o después volveré a ponerme a escribir. Y para mí es imposible hacerlo de modo diferente al que siempre lo he hecho. Jamás he trabajado por encargo: siempre he presentado mis novelas una vez terminadas. Y ahora hay menos motivo que nunca para dejar de hacerlo. Me gusta la libertad de decidir sobre qué escribir y organizar mi tiempo como quiera: viajar, cuidar mi jardín, cocinar… Cuando quiero escribir, escribo. Y no paro hasta que estoy lo suficientemente satisfecho como para presentar el texto a mi editor». 

«Cuando me dicen que soy el primer escritor africano de raza negra que gana el Nobel de Literatura en 30 años, me pregunto: ¿cuántos escritores indios lo han ganado? ¿Cuántos eran chinos o japoneses? En la historia de este premio casi todos los ganadores son europeos».

Europa y los premios

«Cuando me dicen que soy el primer escritor africano de raza negra que gana el Nobel de Literatura en 30 años, me pregunto: ¿cuántos escritores indios lo han ganado? ¿Cuántos eran chinos o japoneses? En la historia de este premio casi todos los ganadores son europeos, lo que expresa el escaso valor que se atribuye a la literatura de otros lugares del mundo. La cosa es así y no hay marcha atrás, no se puede cambiar el pasado, que es fruto de una cierta estrechez de miras de la Academia sueca. Pero si miramos adelante quizá llegue a reconocerse el valor de escritores de otras procedencias. Hasta cierto punto ya está pasando. Ya veremos». 


El papel y las pantallas

«Durante el confinamiento pandémico se han vendido muchos más libros de lo habitual, al menos en Gran Bretaña. Todos ellos podían leerse en formato electrónico, pero la gente quería un libro físico, no una pantalla. No comparto esa preocupación sobre la posible desaparición de los libros en papel a raíz del e-book. Los libros son libros, los leas como los leas. El libro digital no genera ningún daño y ofrece muchas ventajas; por ejemplo, abarata los precios para los estudiantes con pocos ingresos. Ambos soportes tienen las suyas y cada lector puede elegir el que más le guste. Debemos aprovechar los recursos que tenemos. Así que soy optimista acerca del futuro de los libros».



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