Literatura

Anna Ajmátova y Marina Tsvetáieva por Julia Navarro: poetas de vidas rotas

Anna Ajmátova y Marina Tsvetáieva tuvieron vidas paralelas, al menos en lo que al sufrimiento se refiere: las dos fueron víctimas del estalinismo, supervivientes en aquella noche oscura en la que solo la escritura les daba fuerzas para seguir viviendo. No se conocieron de cerca, pero se admiraron siempre con un sentimiento profundo de reconocimiento la una por la otra. Tenían algunas cosas en común: su origen en familias acomodadas, sus viajes por el extranjero, Rusia como destino último de su razón de ser. Pero sobre todo las unió la poesía y el odio que Stalin sintió hacia ellas, un rechazo paranoide que le llevó a perseguirlas sin piedad. En las siguientes líneas, Julia Navarro recuerda a estas grandes poetas con dos fabulosos perfiles que forman parte de su coral libro «Una historia compartida. Con ellos, sin ellos, por ellos, frente a ellos» (Plaza & Janés), un viaje a través de sus inquietudes y lecturas, un encuentro con historias protagonizadas por mujeres, ya sean reales o criaturas literarias, sin olvidar el papel de los hombres que estuvieron cerca de ellas... para bien o para mal.

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No se conocieron de cerca, pero se admiraron siempre con un sentimiento profundo de reconocimiento la una por la otra. Ten\u00edan algunas cosas en com\u00fan: su origen en familias acomodadas, sus viajes por el extranjero, Rusia como destino \u00faltimo de su raz\u00f3n de ser. Pero sobre todo las uni\u00f3 la poes\u00eda y el odio que Stalin sinti\u00f3 hacia ellas, un rechazo paranoide que le llev\u00f3 a perseguirlas sin piedad. En las siguientes l\u00edneas, Julia Navarro recuerda a estas grandes poetas con dos fabulosos perfiles que forman parte de su coral libro \u00abUna historia compartida. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/398-anna-ajmatova\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Anna Ajm\u00e1tova<\/a><\/strong><\/span><\/p><p><br \/>La vida de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova es una vida digna de haber sido escrita por Tolst\u00f3i o por <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/irene-nemirovsky-la-vida-de-chejov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>Nacida en Odesa, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/guerra-invasion-ucrania-rusia-andrei-kurkov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">lo que hoy es Ucrania<\/a><\/span>, Ajm\u00e1tova fue una mujer de una belleza singular, \u00fanica, con un punto de exotismo quiz\u00e1 heredado de una abuela t\u00e1rtara de quien utiliz\u00f3 su apellido ya que el suyo era Gorenko. Pero si singular era su belleza, su inteligencia y su sensibilidad todav\u00eda lo eran mucho m\u00e1s.<\/p><p>La tentaci\u00f3n es referirme a algunos de los hombres que pasaron por la vida de Anna, pero en realidad es Anna la que pasa por la vida de ellos dej\u00e1ndolos marcados para siempre.\u00a0<\/p><p>Escribi\u00f3 su primer poema con 11 a\u00f1os mientras se recuperaba de una enfermedad, momento en que le asalt\u00f3 la pasi\u00f3n de escribir.\u00a0<\/p><p>No se puede contar la vida de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova sin hablar de Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov, su primer marido, padre de su hijo Lev, un hombre presente en su vida hasta despu\u00e9s de muerto. Pero tampoco sin el gran pintor <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/24708-ebook-el-escandalo-modigliani-9788490329498\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Amedeo Modigliani<\/a>,<\/span> con quien mantuvo una intensa relaci\u00f3n amorosa en Par\u00eds en 1911. Se conocieron en un caf\u00e9 de Montparnasse un a\u00f1o antes, cuando estaba de visita en la ciudad junto a su marido. Modigliani era tan solo un aspirante a pintor que so\u00f1aba con que se le reconociera una obra que apenas le daba para comer. Un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s se reencontrar\u00edan, Anna ya sin Gumiliov y cuando \u00e9l empezaba a tener cierto reconocimiento. La poeta y el pintor y escultor se amar\u00edan apasionadamente y no se olvidar\u00edan 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le ense\u00f1\u00f3 a Anna el Par\u00eds bohemio y creativo, donde a nadie le importaba qui\u00e9n se acostaba con qui\u00e9n. Pasaron un tiempo juntos, el suficiente para que el rostro de Anna nunca se borrara de la retina de aquel genio de la pintura que muri\u00f3 pobre, y para que en ella fructificara en poemas toda la experiencia de aquel amor libre y desinhibido que hab\u00eda vivido en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-pierre-lemaitre\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Par\u00eds<\/a><\/span>. Su experiencia parisina fue un interludio en su vida, quiz\u00e1 los meses m\u00e1s felices y despreocupados de cuantos vivi\u00f3. Tengo el p\u00e1lpito de que aquel fue el mejor de los amores que mantuvo Anna, no solo el m\u00e1s apasionado, sino tambi\u00e9n el m\u00e1s gratificante para su alma. Ella abandon\u00f3 Par\u00eds y regres\u00f3 a Rusia ya para siempre, pero dejando sus respectivas huellas, en el caso de Anna en sus poemas y en el de Amedeo Modigliani en muchos cuadros y esculturas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para entonces Anna ya hab\u00eda publicado su primer poemario en 1912, que llev\u00f3 por t\u00edtulo <em>La tarde,<\/em> el segundo fue <em>El rosario<\/em> y se public\u00f3 en 1914, y el tercero, <em>La bandada blanca,<\/em> ver\u00eda la luz en 1917.\u00a0<\/p><p>Con Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov, con el que estuvo casada entre 1910 y 1918, no solo comparti\u00f3 matrimonio sino tambi\u00e9n militancia en el movimiento acme\u00edsta, en el que tambi\u00e9n particip\u00f3 \u00d3sip Mandelshtam, y que romp\u00eda con el lenguaje simbolista de la generaci\u00f3n anterior, proponiendo una renovaci\u00f3n del lenguaje po\u00e9tico con una mirada sobre la vida cotidiana. Tambi\u00e9n aparejaba un distanciamiento sobre lo que signific\u00f3 la Revoluci\u00f3n de 1917, que acab\u00f3 siendo una guada\u00f1a para los intelectuales.\u00a0<\/p><p>Nikol\u00e1i fue un hombre de personalidad exuberante que empez\u00f3 a escribir con ocho a\u00f1os. Viajero amante de \u00c1frica, tanto que al d\u00eda siguiente de casarse con Anna le dio un beso de despedida y puso rumbo al continente africano para cazar leones. Duelista y h\u00e9roe de la guerra de 1914, en la que fue condecorado por su valor. Ese era el compa\u00f1ero de vida que eligi\u00f3 Ajm\u00e1tova: el hombre que a nadie dejaba indiferente, tal era la fuerza que de \u00e9l emanaba. Y tambi\u00e9n era un gran poeta. Sus poemas \u00abLa duda\u00bb, \u00abElla\u00bb, \u00abColumna de fuego\u00bb, \u00abLa palabra\u00bb y tantos otros supusieron un soplo de aire fresco en el panorama literario de la Rusia de su 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Gorki intercedi\u00f3 por Gumiliov ante el mism\u00edsimo Stalin, pero fue in\u00fatil, estaba condenado de antemano, acusado de conspiraci\u00f3n, de manera que no pudo esquivar la cita con la muerte. La sentencia la ejecut\u00f3 un pelot\u00f3n de bolcheviques en un bosque a las afueras de Mosc\u00fa. Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov muri\u00f3 como hab\u00eda vivido y, de acuerdo con la leyenda que se hab\u00eda construido, como el hombre valiente que era: se coloc\u00f3 el sombrero, aspir\u00f3 el humo del cigarrillo, clav\u00f3 la mirada en sus verdugos y aguard\u00f3 los disparos. Mientras ca\u00eda, seguramente pens\u00f3 en aquella estrofa de uno de sus 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espesa<\/em><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rvxk93h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Ese fue el marido de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova, el hombre con el que estuvo casada ocho a\u00f1os tan intensos que fue como si hubieran vivido una larga vida.\u00a0<\/p><p>Creo que para conocer a alguien es importante saber de qui\u00e9nes se ha rodeado a lo largo de su vida. La figura aparentemente hier\u00e1tica de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova parecer\u00eda disentir de la exuberante de Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov, pero quiz\u00e1 sea una apreciaci\u00f3n enga\u00f1osa. La diferencia entre ambos era la manera de manifestar la pasi\u00f3n por la vida, pero por lo dem\u00e1s coincid\u00edan en la valent\u00eda de afrontar cualquier desaf\u00edo, aunque no les debi\u00f3 de resultar f\u00e1cil combinar personalidades tan distintas. Se reconoc\u00edan el uno en el otro, se admiraban y quiz\u00e1 por eso se amaban. Ninguno se rindi\u00f3 nunca y mantuvieron la cabeza alta hasta el final. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Stalin les hizo a\u00fan m\u00e1s grandes con su encarnizada persecuci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p>El segundo marido de Anna, Vlad\u00edmir Shileiko, apenas ocupa media l\u00ednea en su biograf\u00eda, como si la relaci\u00f3n entre ambos hubiera sido poco menos que un par\u00e9ntesis en sus vidas. Poeta, traductor de lenguas orientales, tradujo al ruso el<em> Gilgamesh,<\/em> una narraci\u00f3n en verso que relata la epopeya de este rey m\u00edtico de la regi\u00f3n de Mesopotamia. Vlad\u00edmir Shileiko muri\u00f3 en Mosc\u00fa a consecuencia de la tuberculosis. Por lo escueto de su biograf\u00eda oficial es dif\u00edcil calibrar por qu\u00e9 Anna se cas\u00f3 con \u00e9l, si el suyo fue un matrimonio por amor o como consecuencia del devenir de la vida. Solo duraron juntos cuatro a\u00f1os, de 1918 a 1922.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna siempre eligi\u00f3 a hombres con los que hab\u00eda compartido sus a\u00f1os de juventud, los de San Petersburgo, donde se reun\u00edan en los caf\u00e9s y en las casas a hablar de lo divino y lo humano, del arte, de la poes\u00eda, de la Revoluci\u00f3n. Gumiliov, Shileiko y, despu\u00e9s, Nikol\u00e1i Punin. \u00bfSe enamoraba de ellos o su relaci\u00f3n, m\u00e1s que fruto del amor, era consecuencia de la afinidad intelectual?\u00a0<\/p><p>Shileiko muri\u00f3 joven, pero no parece que dejara una huella imborrable en Anna, es como si con las paladas de tierra sobre su cuerpo tambi\u00e9n se hubiera enterrado su esp\u00edritu y la parte de su biograf\u00eda en com\u00fan.\u00a0<\/p><p>Nikol\u00e1i Punin fue su tercer marido y el hombre con el que comparti\u00f3 diecis\u00e9is a\u00f1os de su vida, de 1922 a 1938. Punin hab\u00eda nacido en el Gran Ducado de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Finlandia<\/a><\/span>, estudi\u00f3 Historia del Arte en San Petersburgo y form\u00f3 parte de los nuevos movimientos art\u00edsticos rusos en aquellos primeros a\u00f1os del siglo XX. Escritor tambi\u00e9n y editor de revistas, formaba parte del grupo de Gumiliov y Anna, la \u00abinteligencia\u00bb de la \u00e9poca, adem\u00e1s de compartir con ellos la nueva renovaci\u00f3n po\u00e9tica del acme\u00edsmo con una mirada puesta en el constructivismo en materia de arte.\u00a0<\/p><p>A Nikol\u00e1i Punin le consideraban un buen revolucionario, un hombre de izquierdas; de hecho, fue jefe del comit\u00e9 de Educaci\u00f3n de Petrogrado y Comisario del Pueblo del Hermitage y los Museos Rusos, lo que le permiti\u00f3 salvar de la destrucci\u00f3n muchos cuadros de pintores occidentales considerados contrarrevolucionarios por <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los nuevos amos de Rusia: Lenin, Trotski, Stalin y compa\u00f1\u00eda<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>De modo que ten\u00edan mucho en com\u00fan. 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fue la relaci\u00f3n de Anna y Nikol\u00e1i Punin? Monika Zgustov\u00e1, en <em>El canto y la ceniza,<\/em> afirma que una amiga de ambos contaba que Nikol\u00e1i Punin \u00abno pod\u00eda soportar la idea de que Anna fuera poeta\u00bb. Sin embargo, \u00e9l la conoci\u00f3 poeta, hab\u00edan compartido sus a\u00f1os de juventud junto a otros integrantes del movimiento acme\u00edsta, as\u00ed que sab\u00eda que esa era una parte intr\u00ednseca de ella. Acaso, a\u00f1ado yo, lo que no pudo soportar era el inter\u00e9s que Anna despertaba en los dem\u00e1s, el reconocimiento que recib\u00eda, la dignidad con la que se conduc\u00eda pese a su sufrimiento. Quiz\u00e1 eran celos o quiz\u00e1 \u00e9l cre\u00eda en su superioridad intelectual respecto a ella. Resulta incomprensible esta escena que relata Monika Zgustov\u00e1: \u00abUna tarde, en el invierno de 1936, Ajm\u00e1tova invit\u00f3 a su casa a unos amigos escritores para leerles sus poemas. Una vez empezada la lectura, Nikol\u00e1i Punin irrumpi\u00f3 en la habitaci\u00f3n hecho un basilisco: \\\"Anna Ajm\u00e1tova \u2014grit\u00f3 desaforado\u2014, usted es una poeta digna como mucho de la atenci\u00f3n de una aldea de provincias\\\"\u00bb. Seg\u00fan Zgustov\u00e1, esa fue la raz\u00f3n por la que Ajm\u00e1tova estuvo diez a\u00f1os sin escribir. Sin embargo, yo creo que lo que la llev\u00f3 a guardar la pluma fue el tener que afrontar cada vez m\u00e1s circunstancias adversas que convert\u00edan cada d\u00eda en un reto por sobrevivir, incluso a los celos po\u00e9ticos de su propio marido.\u00a0<\/p><p>De hecho, la detenci\u00f3n de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Nikolay_Punin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nikol\u00e1i Punin<\/a><\/span> y su encarcelamiento en Siberia supuso otro rev\u00e9s que tuvo que encajar aun sin saber que durante su detenci\u00f3n la acus\u00f3 de actividades antisovi\u00e9ticas, lo mismo que a su primer marido Gumiliov y al hijo de ambos, Lev. En <em>La palabra arrestada,<\/em> uno de los libros m\u00e1s impresionantes que relata la persecuci\u00f3n de los intelectuales llevada a cabo por Stalin, su autor, Vitali Shentalinski, publica una carta que encontr\u00f3 en los archivos y que contiene la declaraci\u00f3n de Nikol\u00e1i Punin durante su detenci\u00f3n. No le juzguemos, al menos yo no juzgar\u00e9 a Punin, porque no hay por qu\u00e9 esperar que los hombres sean h\u00e9roes cuando solo son hombres. \u00bfAcaso se puede exigir a un ser humano que no se quiebre ante la tortura?\u00a0<\/p><p>Punin les explica cu\u00e1ndo y c\u00f3mo conoci\u00f3 a Anna Ajm\u00e1tova y a su primer marido, Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov, y se acusa a s\u00ed mismo de haber participado en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">reuniones antisovi\u00e9ticas<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p>Nikol\u00e1i Punin morir\u00e1 \u2014por torturas, por agotamiento y desesperanza\u2014 en el Gulag, en el C\u00edrculo Polar \u00c1rtico.<\/p><p>Anna Ajm\u00e1tova era extremadamente exigente con su escritura y, si los poemas de su primera etapa ya hab\u00edan obtenido la admiraci\u00f3n de sus contempor\u00e1neos, no ser\u00e1 hasta que el sufrimiento le arranque la \u00faltima l\u00e1grima cuando sus poemas alcancen la plenitud de la grandeza. \u00abR\u00e9quiem\u00bb es el poema que aprender\u00e1n de memoria sus coet\u00e1neos, el poema prohibido por Stalin, el poema que arranca las l\u00e1grimas y remueve conciencias. Porque Anna Ajm\u00e1tova es una poeta no solo del dolor sino tambi\u00e9n de la \u00e9tica, de ese compromiso contra la opresi\u00f3n y en defensa de la verdad.<\/p><p>Es un poema que salta de las entra\u00f1as de Anna, quien ha sido testigo del encarcelamiento de sus amigos, del fusilamiento de su primer marido y de la detenci\u00f3n de su hijo Lev, condenado a Siberia, al Gulag, el mismo camino que seguir\u00e1 poco despu\u00e9s su tercer marido, Nikol\u00e1i Punin.<\/p><p>De ese desgarro, de esa rabia contenida, de esa desolaci\u00f3n, nace uno de los poemas m\u00e1s extraordinarios de la historia de la poes\u00eda.\u00a0<\/p><p>La propia Anna Ajm\u00e1tova relatar\u00e1 en 1957 qu\u00e9 la llev\u00f3 a escribirlo. Este es su testimonio, el testimonio de una madre que vive atenazada por el miedo a lo que pueda sucederle a su hijo, injustamente encarcelado varias veces por oponerse al criminal r\u00e9gimen sovi\u00e9tico:\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m0t80z0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>Diecisiete meses pas\u00e9 haciendo cola a las puertas de la c\u00e1rcel, en Leningrado, en los terribles a\u00f1os del terror de Yezhov. Un d\u00eda alguien me reconoci\u00f3. Detr\u00e1s de m\u00ed, una mujer \u2014los labios morados por el fr\u00edo\u2014 que nunca hab\u00eda o\u00eddo mi nombre sali\u00f3 del acorchamiento en que todos est\u00e1bamos y me pregunt\u00f3 al o\u00eddo (all\u00ed se hablaba solo en susurros):\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u2014\u00bfY usted puede dar cuenta de esto?\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Yo le dije:\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u2014Puedo.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xqjcita\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Y as\u00ed germina \u00abR\u00e9quiem\u00bb, un poema que a m\u00ed me sacude el alma, que me arranca l\u00e1grimas, que me parece el m\u00e1s sublime de todos los poemas:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r0afd37\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En aquel tiempo sonre\u00edan <br \/>solo los muertos, deleit\u00e1ndose en su paz, <br \/>y vagaba ante las c\u00e1rceles <br \/>el alma errante de Leningrado.<\/p><p>Part\u00edan locos de dolor los regimientos\u00a0<br \/> de condenados en hilera y era <br \/>el silbido de las locomotoras <br \/>su breve canci\u00f3n de despedida. <br \/>Nos vigilaban estrellas de la muerte, <br \/>e, inocente y convulsa, se estremec\u00eda Rusia <br \/>bajo botas ensangrentadas, <br \/>bajo las ruedas de negros furgones.<\/p><p>De madrugada vinieron a buscarte. <br \/>Yo fui detr\u00e1s de ti como en un duelo. <br \/>Lloraban los ni\u00f1os en la habitaci\u00f3n oscura <br \/>y el cirio bendito se extingui\u00f3. <br \/>Ten\u00edas los labios fr\u00edos del icono <br \/>y un sudor mortal en la frente. No olvidar\u00e9. <br \/>Me quedar\u00e9, como las viudas de los soldados del zar Pedro, <br \/>aullando al pie de las torres del Kremlin.<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bqllf8y\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Este poema est\u00e1 dedicado a su amigo \u00d3sip Maldelshtam, uno de los m\u00e1s grandes poetas contempor\u00e1neos que sufri\u00f3 el infierno del Gulag.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna renuncia al exilio. No puede, no quiere abandonar a su hijo, a sus amigos, a los hombres que am\u00f3 o que la amaron. No quiere separarse de su pueblo, se empe\u00f1a en correr su misma suerte.\u00a0<\/p><p>En \u00abR\u00e9quiem\u00bb se resume el dolor de todo un pueblo que se aprendi\u00f3 los versos de memoria, y la transmisi\u00f3n oral salv\u00f3 muchos de los poemas de los poetas rusos contrarios al r\u00e9gimen sovi\u00e9tico.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna decidi\u00f3 sufrir. Quiz\u00e1 podr\u00eda haber abandonado la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, pero no lo hizo. Habr\u00eda sido tanto como traicionarse a s\u00ed misma. All\u00ed estaban sus amigos y all\u00ed estaba Lev, su hijo, ese hijo que vivi\u00f3 siempre con el peso de unos padres cuyas vidas y obras sobrepasaban la de cualquiera que intentara medirse con ellos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y sin embargo, Lev ten\u00eda la misma pasi\u00f3n por la vida que hab\u00eda tenido su padre; era un estudioso, un intelectual que desafi\u00f3 el manto de oscuridad y sinraz\u00f3n del r\u00e9gimen sovi\u00e9tico. Al igual que su padre, Nikol\u00e1i Gumiliov, y que su madre, Anna Ajm\u00e1tova, nunca se rindi\u00f3.\u00a0<\/p><p>La poeta afronta el horror del estalinismo con dignidad, consciente de que su dolor no era superior al de los dem\u00e1s:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s8p77la\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Diecisiete meses hace que grito\u00a0<br \/>llam\u00e1ndote a casa. <br \/>Me he postrado a los pies del verdugo, <br \/>hijo m\u00edo, terror m\u00edo. <br \/>El mundo entero es confusi\u00f3n <br \/>y yo ya no s\u00e9 distinguir qui\u00e9n es la bestia <br \/>y qui\u00e9n el hombre. <br \/>\u00bfCu\u00e1nto falta para tu final? <br \/>Quedan solo flores polvorientas, <br \/>el rumor de la l\u00e1mpara de incienso, <br \/>y huellas que no llevan a ninguna parte. <br \/>Directa a los ojos me mira, <br \/>mal augurio de una muerte cercana, <br \/>una inmensa estrella.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mwf7q60\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Anna escrib\u00eda a\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Stalin<\/a> suplicando por la vida de su hijo; no se sent\u00eda humillada por hacerlo, poco le importaba postrarse \u00aba los pies del verdugo\u00bb si de esa manera salvaba a Lev.\u00a0<\/p><p>Su hijo entra y sale de las c\u00e1rceles sovi\u00e9ticas, sufre el terror del Gulag, pero en todas las declaraciones a sus torturadores se defiende con brillantez, y defiende sin dudarlo a su madre, a la que admira al igual que a su padre. Puede que cuando era ni\u00f1o la sintiera lejana, ensimismada en la poes\u00eda y en su propia vida, pero la sabe incondicional. No hay nada que Anna no est\u00e9 dispuesta a hacer por su hijo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna tampoco abandonaba a los amigos o a cualquiera que acudiera a ella buscando una brizna de esperanza.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero si \u00abR\u00e9quiem\u00bb es la expresi\u00f3n del dolor provocado por el estalinismo, \u00abPoema sin h\u00e9roe\u00bb es un recorrido por su propia vida al tiempo que de \u00e9l emerge la de la propia Rusia. La conciencia, los amigos, la supervivencia, el arte, todo pasa por el poema.\u00a0<\/p><p>No es de extra\u00f1ar que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Joseph_Brodsky\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el premio Nobel de Literatura Joseph Brodsky<\/a><\/span> confesara no solo la admiraci\u00f3n sino la influencia de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova en su propia obra.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 quedaba de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova? \u00bfDe aquella mujer de belleza enigm\u00e1tica, que en San Petersburgo hab\u00eda participado con alegr\u00eda y pasi\u00f3n en la tumultuosa vida cultural de los a\u00f1os previos a la Revoluci\u00f3n? Mantenerse entera deber\u00eda haberle secado el alma y, sin embargo, a pesar de que hubo periodos en los que no escrib\u00eda, cuando volv\u00eda a coger la pluma resonaba con fuerza su talento.\u00a0<\/p><p>En noviembre de 1945 tuvo un encuentro con Isaiah Berlin que ninguno de los dos olvidar\u00eda nunca. A veces es m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil desnudar el alma a un desconocido, y es lo que hizo Anna Ajm\u00e1tova.<\/p><p>Isaiah Berlin la escuchaba casi noqueado por cuanto le contaba. Anna fue desgranando los hilos de su vida: Modigliani, Mandelshtam, Gumiliov, Pasternak, Punin\u2026<\/p><p>El impacto que provoc\u00f3 en Berl\u00edn fue absoluto. Monika Zgustov\u00e1 nos recuerda las palabras de este intelectual sobre su conversaci\u00f3n con Anna: \u00abEl relato de la tragedia absoluta de su vida super\u00f3 todo lo que jam\u00e1s hab\u00eda o\u00eddo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>La admiraci\u00f3n fue mutua, puesto que ella le dedicar\u00eda algunos poemas, aunque el encuentro fue causa de m\u00e1s sufrimiento para su hijo porque fue brutalmente interrogado sobre lo que hablaron su madre y el profesor ingl\u00e9s.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna permanentemente vigilada, con micr\u00f3fonos en cada rinc\u00f3n de su casa, su obra proscrita, y cada vez que la quer\u00edan golpear, golpeaban a su hijo convencidos de que as\u00ed la vencer\u00edan.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y entre ellos, entre madre e hijo, la distancia y la incomprensi\u00f3n. Se puede querer sin comprender, y Anna y Lev no sab\u00edan comprenderse. \u00c9l luchaba por ser \u00e9l, por ser reconocido por s\u00ed mismo y no por ser hijo de Gumiliov y de Ajm\u00e1tova, y as\u00ed fue creciendo un abismo que les llevaba a pasar largas temporadas sin verse. Ni un solo d\u00eda se dejaron de querer, pero les era m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil la lejan\u00eda que compartir el tiempo y el lugar. Ella achacaba la actitud de su hijo a los a\u00f1os de c\u00e1rcel y de Gulag, y \u00e9l nunca termin\u00f3 de comprender el sufrimiento interno de su madre, a la que ve\u00eda como un gigante. No les permitieron compartir la vida, y aunque lucharon el uno por el otro, la separaci\u00f3n les pes\u00f3 en el alma a los dos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Anna, declarada enemiga del pueblo sovi\u00e9tico. Anna, condenada a malvivir. Anna, soportando las humillaciones de un r\u00e9gimen perverso. Anna, por cuya vida pasaron hombres como Modigliani, Gumiliov, Punin, Mandelshtam, Brodsky, Berlin, Pasternak\u2026 contempor\u00e1nea de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/313326-ebook-maiakovski-punk-y-otras-figuras-del-siglo-xxi-9786073819886\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Maiakovski<\/a><\/span>, Gorki, Bulg\u00e1kov, B\u00e1bel\u2026 y de Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva, que aunque nunca se encontraron, ambas reconocieron su mutua admiraci\u00f3n. Vidas marcadas por la tragedia. Anna muri\u00f3 enferma en Mosc\u00fa mientras que Marina puso fin a su vida, una vida que siente que ya le han arrebatado y, por tanto, no es suya.\u00a0<\/p><p>Quien quiera saber m\u00e1s de ambas deber\u00eda leer a Lidia Chuk\u00f3vskaia. Las conoci\u00f3, las escuch\u00f3, las defendi\u00f3.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"e3r17dt\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Tsvet\u00e1ieva circa 1910. Autor desconocido. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"axej9rr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva circa 1910. Autor desconocido. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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Tsvet\u00e1ieva<br \/><br \/><\/strong><\/p><p>Hay un hilo muy tenue, casi invisible, entre la vida de Marina y Anna. Las dos son grandes poetas, las dos son eternas sospechosas, pero tambi\u00e9n son muy diferentes. Su actitud ante la vida, sobre todo el amor de Marina por el amor. Amar no importa a qui\u00e9n es parte de su naturaleza y as\u00ed pasan por su vida, adem\u00e1s de su marido, Sergu\u00e9i Efron, Bor\u00eds Pasternak, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/474-rainer-maria-rilke\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rainer Maria Rilke<\/a><\/span>, Nikol\u00e1i Gronski, Sof\u00eda Parnok\u2026 Sin embargo, sus bi\u00f3grafos aseguran que siempre mantuvo un v\u00ednculo irrompible con su marido, con el que tuvo tres hijos: Ariadna, Irina, que muere de inanici\u00f3n a los tres a\u00f1os en un asilo, y Gueorgui.\u00a0<\/p><p>Mientras Anna es una poeta que mira hacia dentro, Marina mira hacia fuera. La de Anna es una poes\u00eda fruto de la \u00e9tica, de la espiritualidad. La de Marina es una poes\u00eda carnal, quiere vivir, sentir, disfrutar. Su actitud ante la adversidad es diferente a la de Anna. Ambas sufren y ven c\u00f3mo encarcelan a sus hijos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero quiz\u00e1 es mejor empezar por su fecha de nacimiento: Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva naci\u00f3 el 8 de octubre de 1892. Sus primeros a\u00f1os transcurren en San Petersburgo, en una familia en la que nunca logr\u00f3 encontrar su lugar. Su madre era la segunda mujer de su padre; la primera hab\u00eda fallecido dejando dos hijos, a los que se sumaron Marina y su hermana.\u00a0<\/p><p>Una enfermedad de su madre la llev\u00f3 a acompa\u00f1arla a Italia, donde abri\u00f3 los ojos a un mundo distinto en el que no le cost\u00f3 nada integrarse.\u00a0<\/p><p>Estudi\u00f3 Historia de la Literatura en Par\u00eds y all\u00ed public\u00f3 su primer libro de poemas. A los 18 a\u00f1os se cas\u00f3 con Sergu\u00e9i Efron, pero su personalidad apasionada y libertaria la llevar\u00eda a poder amar no solo al esposo sino a una poeta reconocida mucho mayor que ella, Sof\u00eda Parnok. Fue una relaci\u00f3n profunda y tumultuosa que sin embargo no la alej\u00f3 de Sergu\u00e9i.\u00a0<\/p><p>De Par\u00eds van a Mosc\u00fa, donde Sergu\u00e9i, oficial del Ej\u00e9rcito Blanco, combatir\u00e1 contra los revolucionarios. Pasan todo tipo de penalidades, y hambre, mucha hambre. Marina dej\u00f3 a sus hijas en un orfanato para que lograran subsistir, pero Irina, la peque\u00f1a Irina, morir\u00e1 de hambre.<\/p><p>En 1922 deciden abandonar su pa\u00eds y se van con su hija Ariadna a Praga, y en esa ciudad ella reencuentra la paz a pesar de que no tienen una vida boyante. Pero al menos Sergu\u00e9i est\u00e1 vivo. Ella se enamora de Konstant\u00edn Rodz\u00e9vich, al que dedica muchos de sus poemas. Rodz\u00e9vich ha luchado junto a Sergu\u00e9i en el Ej\u00e9rcito Blanco y es un exiliado como ellos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zm3g0r6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Llanto de hombre, veta <br \/>que en la cabeza retiembla. <br \/>Llora. Otra te devolver\u00e1 <br \/>la verg\u00fcenza que te hice dejar. <br \/>Somos dos peces <br \/>del mis-m\u00ed-si-mo mar. <br \/>Dos conchas muertas <br \/>labio contra labio. <br \/>Todo l\u00e1grimas. <br \/>Sabor <br \/>a muelle. <br \/>\u2014\u00bfY ma\u00f1ana <br \/>cuando despierte?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fgd3i8w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Sergu\u00e9i la conoce bien y asume que su mujer a quien ama es al amor y que es su cabeza la que desencadena el tumulto que la lleva a creerse ciegamente enamorada.\u00a0<\/p><p>A \u00e9l le asombra la dualidad de Marina, la apasionada y la mujer fr\u00eda y racional.\u00a0<\/p><p>Marina y Sergu\u00e9i tuvieron otro hijo, Gueorgui, al que llamar\u00edan Mur.\u00a0<\/p><p>De Praga se fueron a Par\u00eds y all\u00ed encontraron la manera de ganarse la vida, al principio con la ayuda que el Gobierno checo prestaba a los exiliados rusos, y adem\u00e1s comienzan a colaborar en publicaciones de exiliados.\u00a0<\/p><p>La vida del matrimonio transcurre en paralelo. Las cartas que Marina se intercambia con Rilke son de tal intensidad que este termina agotado de la relaci\u00f3n y decide poner fin a la correspondencia, lo que provoca en ella un cataclismo. Claro que al mismo tiempo Marina se cartea con Bor\u00eds Pasternak, con el que manten\u00eda una correspondencia igualmente apasionada y con el que puso distancia porque los caminos de ambos eran imposibles de mezclar.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando Rilke muere, ella le dedicar\u00e1 uno de sus mejores poemas, que lleva por t\u00edtulo \u00abPor el A\u00f1o Nuevo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfY su marido? \u00bfContin\u00faa ignorando las pasiones de Marina? \u00bfAcaso las sabe imposibles de aplacar? \u00bfQu\u00e9 lleva a Sergu\u00e9i Efron a colaborar con aquellos a los que hab\u00eda combatido?\u00a0<\/p><p>La nostalgia, dicen sus bi\u00f3grafos, la soledad que provoca el exilio, aunque parece que su relaci\u00f3n con Marina siempre permanece firme y no se resiente por los amor\u00edos de ella. Efron sabe que lo que la impulsa no es otra cosa que el amor por el amor.\u00a0<\/p><p>Efron comienza a colaborar con el NKVD, la polic\u00eda secreta de Stalin, y a \u00e9l se une su hija Ariadna. La hija. La hija que no comprende a la madre, a la que siente lejos, puesto que Marina vive obsesionada con el amor y la poes\u00eda. En realidad, enamorarse es una manera de encontrar inspiraci\u00f3n para las palabras que abrasan su cerebro.\u00a0<\/p><p>La hija que se siente pr\u00f3xima a su padre. Le admira y ella tambi\u00e9n se deja arrastrar por el deseo de colmar de emociones su vida, pero sobre todo por la relaci\u00f3n con su padre al que siempre ha sentido cerca, al contrario que a su madre.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfY Marina? Marina sab\u00eda sin saber, bastante ten\u00eda con ella misma. Pero aun sabiendo sin saber, no tiene ning\u00fan aprecio por aquel r\u00e9gimen que oprime a su querida Rusia.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuenta Vitali Shentalinski c\u00f3mo Efron se va enredando cada vez m\u00e1s en las aguas turbias del espionaje y solo hace un alto cuando recae en la enfermedad que viene arrastrando: tuberculosis. Pero se repone y regresa a sus 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distancia entre Marina y Ariadna se va agrandando, son dos caracteres opuestos con intereses imposibles de conciliar. Ariadna trabaja, deja el trabajo, busca qu\u00e9 hacer con su vida, y su padre le propone que regrese a la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, \u00e9l puede abrirle la puerta, conseguirle un pasaporte y un futuro. Le cuenta a su hija que le gustar\u00eda que su hermano la acompa\u00f1ara, pero que Marina no lo permitir\u00eda. Ariadna acepta el consejo de su padre y vuelve a Mosc\u00fa, adonde \u00e9l la seguir\u00e1 un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s, en 1938, habida cuenta de que sus actividades como esp\u00eda le han puesto en el punto de mira de los franceses, que le relacionan con el asesinato de un disidente sovi\u00e9tico que antes tambi\u00e9n hab\u00eda trabajado para el NKVD.\u00a0<\/p><p>El esc\u00e1ndalo provoca que Marina pierda la confianza de los c\u00edrculos de exiliados. Hay quien desconf\u00eda de ella por su admiraci\u00f3n incondicional hacia Maiakovski, el gran poeta mimado de la era sovi\u00e9tica.\u00a0<\/p><p>En 1939 decide reunirse con Sergu\u00e9i y Ariadna, sin imaginar las dificultades a las que se tendr\u00e1 que enfrentar.\u00a0<\/p><p>El NKVD no se f\u00eda de Efron, no se f\u00eda de Ariadna, no se f\u00eda de ella, no se f\u00eda de ning\u00fan ciudadano ni de los comunistas m\u00e1s devotos del r\u00e9gimen sovi\u00e9tico. Todos son sospechosos, todos pueden tener un mal pensamiento, una duda.<\/p><p>Detienen al padre, detienen a la hija, los torturan, quieren que confiesen.\u00a0<\/p><p>Marina siente el rechazo de los escritores sovi\u00e9ticos, pues no es como ellos, a ella le interesaba el amor, la pasi\u00f3n, incluso Dios.\u00a0<\/p><p>Escribe a Lavrenti Beria, el todopoderoso jefe de la polic\u00eda pol\u00edtica, solicitando la libertad de Sergu\u00e9i y de Ariadna. La hija ha sido condenada a ocho a\u00f1os de prisi\u00f3n, mientras el padre aguarda la decisi\u00f3n de si le arrebatan o no la vida. Pero no hay respuesta de Beria. Mientras tanto, ella va naufragando entre los avatares de la vida cotidiana.\u00a0<\/p><p>Efron, condenado a muerte, aguarda al pelot\u00f3n en la prisi\u00f3n de Butirka. Para ella y su hijo Mur, el destierro a Yel\u00e1buga, en la lejan\u00edsima Tartarist\u00e1n. All\u00ed decidir\u00e1 poner fin a su vida, pero antes ordenar\u00e1 sus poemas y coloca en primer lugar uno escrito en 1920 que dedica a Sergu\u00e9i.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lb3zxs5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Y por fin \u00a1para que todos lo supieran! <br \/>\u00a1Que eres mi amado! \u00a1Amado! \u00a1Amado! \u00a1Amado! <br \/>Firmaba con un arco\u00edris en el cielo. <br \/>\u00a1Quer\u00eda que cada palabra floreciera <br \/>para siempre conmigo! \u00a1Bajo mis dedos! <br \/>Despu\u00e9s bajando mi frente hasta la mesa <br \/>tachar\u00eda tu nombre con una gran cruz. <br \/>Y t\u00fa, preso en las manos de un escriba <br \/>\u00a1corrupto! T\u00fa que hurtas el coraz\u00f3n <br \/>\u00a1que no te vend\u00ed! \u00a1Dentro del anillo! <br \/>Seguir\u00e1s perviviendo en las tablas de la Ley.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"40\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"od1vv7p\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tambi\u00e9n deja una carta a su hijo pidi\u00e9ndole perd\u00f3n. La poeta del amor deja la vida porque all\u00ed, en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, no cabe la vida ni, por tanto, el amor.\u00a0<\/p><p>Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva est\u00e1 considerada una de las grandes poetas del siglo XX, y ciertamente lo es, aunque yo no me siento tan cerca de sus poemas como de los de Ajm\u00e1tova.\u00a0<\/p><p>El mundo de Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva casi se circunscribe a la pasi\u00f3n, al amor, mientras que el de Ajm\u00e1tova se ampl\u00eda a todos los registros de la vida misma. Los poemas de Anna Ajm\u00e1tova son una cr\u00f3nica de su \u00e9poca, del dolor de un pueblo maltratado por un r\u00e9gimen criminal. En los poemas de Ajm\u00e1tova hay un compromiso con sus conciudadanos, un sentido \u00e9tico para caminar por la vida. En los de Tsvet\u00e1ieva relumbra sobre todo la pasi\u00f3n, esa que siempre busca y que va sustituyendo por otra en cuanto se agota.\u00a0<\/p><p>A m\u00ed me sacuden el alma los poemas de Ajm\u00e1tova, mientras que me siento m\u00e1s lejana de esa pasi\u00f3n desatada en el coraz\u00f3n de Marina Tsvet\u00e1ieva. Pero s\u00e9 que es fruto de la edad, y que acaso cuando ten\u00eda entre 15 y 20 a\u00f1os me habr\u00eda sentido m\u00e1s cerca del apasionamiento vital de Marina.\u00a0<\/p><p>Si existe el Parnaso, seguro que ambas est\u00e1n all\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kgfm77q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-mariana-enriquez-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sylvia Plath por Mariana Enr\u00edquez: la mujer que lo ha sido todo para todos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/katherine-mansfield-por-virginia-woolf-una-inteligencia-terriblemente-sensible\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Katherine Mansfield por Virginia Woolf: una inteligencia terriblemente sensible<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deborah-levy-por-nuria-labari-la-escritora-que-rompio-el-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Deborah Levy por Nuria Labari: la escritora que rompi\u00f3 el tiempo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/irene-nemirovsky-la-vida-de-chejov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Las vidas paralelas de Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky y Anton Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/anne-sexton-en-tres-poemas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abVive o muere pero no envenenes cada cosa\u2026\u00bb: Anne Sexton en tres poemas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jzhiu0a\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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25 minutos
«Retrato de Anna Ajmátova» (1922). De la colección del Museo Estatal Ruso, San Petersburgo. Crédito: Getty Images.

«Retrato de Anna Ajmátova» (1922). De la colección del Museo Estatal Ruso, San Petersburgo. Crédito: Getty Images.

Anna Ajmátova


La vida de Anna Ajmátova es una vida digna de haber sido escrita por Tolstói o por Chéjov

Nacida en Odesa, lo que hoy es Ucrania, Ajmátova fue una mujer de una belleza singular, única, con un punto de exotismo quizá heredado de una abuela tártara de quien utilizó su apellido ya que el suyo era Gorenko. Pero si singular era su belleza, su inteligencia y su sensibilidad todavía lo eran mucho más.

La tentación es referirme a algunos de los hombres que pasaron por la vida de Anna, pero en realidad es Anna la que pasa por la vida de ellos dejándolos marcados para siempre. 

Escribió su primer poema con 11 años mientras se recuperaba de una enfermedad, momento en que le asaltó la pasión de escribir. 

No se puede contar la vida de Anna Ajmátova sin hablar de Nikolái Gumiliov, su primer marido, padre de su hijo Lev, un hombre presente en su vida hasta después de muerto. Pero tampoco sin el gran pintor Amedeo Modigliani, con quien mantuvo una intensa relación amorosa en París en 1911. Se conocieron en un café de Montparnasse un año antes, cuando estaba de visita en la ciudad junto a su marido. Modigliani era tan solo un aspirante a pintor que soñaba con que se le reconociera una obra que apenas le daba para comer. Un año después se reencontrarían, Anna ya sin Gumiliov y cuando él empezaba a tener cierto reconocimiento. La poeta y el pintor y escultor se amarían apasionadamente y no se olvidarían nunca. 

Modigliani le enseñó a Anna el París bohemio y creativo, donde a nadie le importaba quién se acostaba con quién. Pasaron un tiempo juntos, el suficiente para que el rostro de Anna nunca se borrara de la retina de aquel genio de la pintura que murió pobre, y para que en ella fructificara en poemas toda la experiencia de aquel amor libre y desinhibido que había vivido en París. Su experiencia parisina fue un interludio en su vida, quizá los meses más felices y despreocupados de cuantos vivió. Tengo el pálpito de que aquel fue el mejor de los amores que mantuvo Anna, no solo el más apasionado, sino también el más gratificante para su alma. Ella abandonó París y regresó a Rusia ya para siempre, pero dejando sus respectivas huellas, en el caso de Anna en sus poemas y en el de Amedeo Modigliani en muchos cuadros y esculturas. 

Para entonces Anna ya había publicado su primer poemario en 1912, que llevó por título La tarde, el segundo fue El rosario y se publicó en 1914, y el tercero, La bandada blanca, vería la luz en 1917. 

Con Nikolái Gumiliov, con el que estuvo casada entre 1910 y 1918, no solo compartió matrimonio sino también militancia en el movimiento acmeísta, en el que también participó Ósip Mandelshtam, y que rompía con el lenguaje simbolista de la generación anterior, proponiendo una renovación del lenguaje poético con una mirada sobre la vida cotidiana. También aparejaba un distanciamiento sobre lo que significó la Revolución de 1917, que acabó siendo una guadaña para los intelectuales. 

Nikolái fue un hombre de personalidad exuberante que empezó a escribir con ocho años. Viajero amante de África, tanto que al día siguiente de casarse con Anna le dio un beso de despedida y puso rumbo al continente africano para cazar leones. Duelista y héroe de la guerra de 1914, en la que fue condecorado por su valor. Ese era el compañero de vida que eligió Ajmátova: el hombre que a nadie dejaba indiferente, tal era la fuerza que de él emanaba. Y también era un gran poeta. Sus poemas «La duda», «Ella», «Columna de fuego», «La palabra» y tantos otros supusieron un soplo de aire fresco en el panorama literario de la Rusia de su tiempo. 

Gumiliov y Ajmátova tenían personalidades distintas, pero estaban repletos de pasión por la vida, que él manifestaba a través de la acción y ella, de la introspección. 

Él fue un personaje que merecería protagonizar una gran novela, la cual debería empezar por su último día de vida en San Petersburgo, donde le detuvieron acusándole de enemigo del pueblo, de monárquico antirrevolucionario. Gorki intercedió por Gumiliov ante el mismísimo Stalin, pero fue inútil, estaba condenado de antemano, acusado de conspiración, de manera que no pudo esquivar la cita con la muerte. La sentencia la ejecutó un pelotón de bolcheviques en un bosque a las afueras de Moscú. Nikolái Gumiliov murió como había vivido y, de acuerdo con la leyenda que se había construido, como el hombre valiente que era: se colocó el sombrero, aspiró el humo del cigarrillo, clavó la mirada en sus verdugos y aguardó los disparos. Mientras caía, seguramente pensó en aquella estrofa de uno de sus poemas:

No moriré en una cama
ante un médico y un notario,
sino en alguna trinchera salvaje
hundida en una felpa espesa

Ese fue el marido de Anna Ajmátova, el hombre con el que estuvo casada ocho años tan intensos que fue como si hubieran vivido una larga vida. 

Creo que para conocer a alguien es importante saber de quiénes se ha rodeado a lo largo de su vida. La figura aparentemente hierática de Anna Ajmátova parecería disentir de la exuberante de Nikolái Gumiliov, pero quizá sea una apreciación engañosa. La diferencia entre ambos era la manera de manifestar la pasión por la vida, pero por lo demás coincidían en la valentía de afrontar cualquier desafío, aunque no les debió de resultar fácil combinar personalidades tan distintas. Se reconocían el uno en el otro, se admiraban y quizá por eso se amaban. Ninguno se rindió nunca y mantuvieron la cabeza alta hasta el final. Stalin les hizo aún más grandes con su encarnizada persecución.

El segundo marido de Anna, Vladímir Shileiko, apenas ocupa media línea en su biografía, como si la relación entre ambos hubiera sido poco menos que un paréntesis en sus vidas. Poeta, traductor de lenguas orientales, tradujo al ruso el Gilgamesh, una narración en verso que relata la epopeya de este rey mítico de la región de Mesopotamia. Vladímir Shileiko murió en Moscú a consecuencia de la tuberculosis. Por lo escueto de su biografía oficial es difícil calibrar por qué Anna se casó con él, si el suyo fue un matrimonio por amor o como consecuencia del devenir de la vida. Solo duraron juntos cuatro años, de 1918 a 1922. 

Anna siempre eligió a hombres con los que había compartido sus años de juventud, los de San Petersburgo, donde se reunían en los cafés y en las casas a hablar de lo divino y lo humano, del arte, de la poesía, de la Revolución. Gumiliov, Shileiko y, después, Nikolái Punin. ¿Se enamoraba de ellos o su relación, más que fruto del amor, era consecuencia de la afinidad intelectual? 

Shileiko murió joven, pero no parece que dejara una huella imborrable en Anna, es como si con las paladas de tierra sobre su cuerpo también se hubiera enterrado su espíritu y la parte de su biografía en común. 

Nikolái Punin fue su tercer marido y el hombre con el que compartió dieciséis años de su vida, de 1922 a 1938. Punin había nacido en el Gran Ducado de Finlandia, estudió Historia del Arte en San Petersburgo y formó parte de los nuevos movimientos artísticos rusos en aquellos primeros años del siglo XX. Escritor también y editor de revistas, formaba parte del grupo de Gumiliov y Anna, la «inteligencia» de la época, además de compartir con ellos la nueva renovación poética del acmeísmo con una mirada puesta en el constructivismo en materia de arte. 

A Nikolái Punin le consideraban un buen revolucionario, un hombre de izquierdas; de hecho, fue jefe del comité de Educación de Petrogrado y Comisario del Pueblo del Hermitage y los Museos Rusos, lo que le permitió salvar de la destrucción muchos cuadros de pintores occidentales considerados contrarrevolucionarios por los nuevos amos de Rusia: Lenin, Trotski, Stalin y compañía

De modo que tenían mucho en común. O eso parecía. Sin embargo, su unión no estuvo exenta de altibajos, sobre todo para Anna, quizá porque ella vivía bajo el peso de la culpa por la situación de su hijo Lev, encarcelado, enviado al Gulag, con su vida siempre pendiente de un hilo. Acaso Anna gastaba lo mejor de sí misma en ese sufrimiento y en sus poesías, o simplemente el amigo de juventud no era el marido que esperaba. 

Tampoco le debió de resultar fácil, aunque lo aceptó, compartir vivienda con Anna Arens, la exesposa de Nikolái Punin. A él le pareció que era buena idea, puesto que carecía de medios materiales para mantener a su anterior esposa con la que había tenido otros hijos. 

De manera que la Casa del Fontanka donde vivieron en San Petersburgo nunca la sintió como suya, y sin embargo esa casa quedó impregnada de ella pues allí vivió muchos de los más dolorosos acontecimientos de su vida. 

Anna Ajmátova. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

Anna Ajmátova. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

¿Cómo fue la relación de Anna y Nikolái Punin? Monika Zgustová, en El canto y la ceniza, afirma que una amiga de ambos contaba que Nikolái Punin «no podía soportar la idea de que Anna fuera poeta». Sin embargo, él la conoció poeta, habían compartido sus años de juventud junto a otros integrantes del movimiento acmeísta, así que sabía que esa era una parte intrínseca de ella. Acaso, añado yo, lo que no pudo soportar era el interés que Anna despertaba en los demás, el reconocimiento que recibía, la dignidad con la que se conducía pese a su sufrimiento. Quizá eran celos o quizá él creía en su superioridad intelectual respecto a ella. Resulta incomprensible esta escena que relata Monika Zgustová: «Una tarde, en el invierno de 1936, Ajmátova invitó a su casa a unos amigos escritores para leerles sus poemas. Una vez empezada la lectura, Nikolái Punin irrumpió en la habitación hecho un basilisco: "Anna Ajmátova —gritó desaforado—, usted es una poeta digna como mucho de la atención de una aldea de provincias"». Según Zgustová, esa fue la razón por la que Ajmátova estuvo diez años sin escribir. Sin embargo, yo creo que lo que la llevó a guardar la pluma fue el tener que afrontar cada vez más circunstancias adversas que convertían cada día en un reto por sobrevivir, incluso a los celos poéticos de su propio marido. 

De hecho, la detención de Nikolái Punin y su encarcelamiento en Siberia supuso otro revés que tuvo que encajar aun sin saber que durante su detención la acusó de actividades antisoviéticas, lo mismo que a su primer marido Gumiliov y al hijo de ambos, Lev. En La palabra arrestada, uno de los libros más impresionantes que relata la persecución de los intelectuales llevada a cabo por Stalin, su autor, Vitali Shentalinski, publica una carta que encontró en los archivos y que contiene la declaración de Nikolái Punin durante su detención. No le juzguemos, al menos yo no juzgaré a Punin, porque no hay por qué esperar que los hombres sean héroes cuando solo son hombres. ¿Acaso se puede exigir a un ser humano que no se quiebre ante la tortura? 

Punin les explica cuándo y cómo conoció a Anna Ajmátova y a su primer marido, Nikolái Gumiliov, y se acusa a sí mismo de haber participado en reuniones antisoviéticas.

Nikolái Punin morirá —por torturas, por agotamiento y desesperanza— en el Gulag, en el Círculo Polar Ártico.

Anna Ajmátova era extremadamente exigente con su escritura y, si los poemas de su primera etapa ya habían obtenido la admiración de sus contemporáneos, no será hasta que el sufrimiento le arranque la última lágrima cuando sus poemas alcancen la plenitud de la grandeza. «Réquiem» es el poema que aprenderán de memoria sus coetáneos, el poema prohibido por Stalin, el poema que arranca las lágrimas y remueve conciencias. Porque Anna Ajmátova es una poeta no solo del dolor sino también de la ética, de ese compromiso contra la opresión y en defensa de la verdad.

Es un poema que salta de las entrañas de Anna, quien ha sido testigo del encarcelamiento de sus amigos, del fusilamiento de su primer marido y de la detención de su hijo Lev, condenado a Siberia, al Gulag, el mismo camino que seguirá poco después su tercer marido, Nikolái Punin.

De ese desgarro, de esa rabia contenida, de esa desolación, nace uno de los poemas más extraordinarios de la historia de la poesía. 

La propia Anna Ajmátova relatará en 1957 qué la llevó a escribirlo. Este es su testimonio, el testimonio de una madre que vive atenazada por el miedo a lo que pueda sucederle a su hijo, injustamente encarcelado varias veces por oponerse al criminal régimen soviético: 

Diecisiete meses pasé haciendo cola a las puertas de la cárcel, en Leningrado, en los terribles años del terror de Yezhov. Un día alguien me reconoció. Detrás de mí, una mujer —los labios morados por el frío— que nunca había oído mi nombre salió del acorchamiento en que todos estábamos y me preguntó al oído (allí se hablaba solo en susurros): 

—¿Y usted puede dar cuenta de esto? 

Yo le dije: 

—Puedo. 

Y así germina «Réquiem», un poema que a mí me sacude el alma, que me arranca lágrimas, que me parece el más sublime de todos los poemas:

En aquel tiempo sonreían
solo los muertos, deleitándose en su paz,
y vagaba ante las cárceles
el alma errante de Leningrado.

Partían locos de dolor los regimientos 
de condenados en hilera y era
el silbido de las locomotoras
su breve canción de despedida.
Nos vigilaban estrellas de la muerte,
e, inocente y convulsa, se estremecía Rusia
bajo botas ensangrentadas,
bajo las ruedas de negros furgones.

De madrugada vinieron a buscarte.
Yo fui detrás de ti como en un duelo.
Lloraban los niños en la habitación oscura
y el cirio bendito se extinguió.
Tenías los labios fríos del icono
y un sudor mortal en la frente. No olvidaré.
Me quedaré, como las viudas de los soldados del zar Pedro,
aullando al pie de las torres del Kremlin.

Este poema está dedicado a su amigo Ósip Maldelshtam, uno de los más grandes poetas contemporáneos que sufrió el infierno del Gulag. 

Anna renuncia al exilio. No puede, no quiere abandonar a su hijo, a sus amigos, a los hombres que amó o que la amaron. No quiere separarse de su pueblo, se empeña en correr su misma suerte. 

En «Réquiem» se resume el dolor de todo un pueblo que se aprendió los versos de memoria, y la transmisión oral salvó muchos de los poemas de los poetas rusos contrarios al régimen soviético. 

Anna decidió sufrir. Quizá podría haber abandonado la Unión Soviética, pero no lo hizo. Habría sido tanto como traicionarse a sí misma. Allí estaban sus amigos y allí estaba Lev, su hijo, ese hijo que vivió siempre con el peso de unos padres cuyas vidas y obras sobrepasaban la de cualquiera que intentara medirse con ellos. 

Y sin embargo, Lev tenía la misma pasión por la vida que había tenido su padre; era un estudioso, un intelectual que desafió el manto de oscuridad y sinrazón del régimen soviético. Al igual que su padre, Nikolái Gumiliov, y que su madre, Anna Ajmátova, nunca se rindió. 

La poeta afronta el horror del estalinismo con dignidad, consciente de que su dolor no era superior al de los demás:

Diecisiete meses hace que grito 
llamándote a casa.
Me he postrado a los pies del verdugo,
hijo mío, terror mío.
El mundo entero es confusión
y yo ya no sé distinguir quién es la bestia
y quién el hombre.
¿Cuánto falta para tu final?
Quedan solo flores polvorientas,
el rumor de la lámpara de incienso,
y huellas que no llevan a ninguna parte.
Directa a los ojos me mira,
mal augurio de una muerte cercana,
una inmensa estrella.

Anna escribía a Stalin suplicando por la vida de su hijo; no se sentía humillada por hacerlo, poco le importaba postrarse «a los pies del verdugo» si de esa manera salvaba a Lev. 

Su hijo entra y sale de las cárceles soviéticas, sufre el terror del Gulag, pero en todas las declaraciones a sus torturadores se defiende con brillantez, y defiende sin dudarlo a su madre, a la que admira al igual que a su padre. Puede que cuando era niño la sintiera lejana, ensimismada en la poesía y en su propia vida, pero la sabe incondicional. No hay nada que Anna no esté dispuesta a hacer por su hijo. 

Anna tampoco abandonaba a los amigos o a cualquiera que acudiera a ella buscando una brizna de esperanza. 

Pero si «Réquiem» es la expresión del dolor provocado por el estalinismo, «Poema sin héroe» es un recorrido por su propia vida al tiempo que de él emerge la de la propia Rusia. La conciencia, los amigos, la supervivencia, el arte, todo pasa por el poema. 

No es de extrañar que el premio Nobel de Literatura Joseph Brodsky confesara no solo la admiración sino la influencia de Anna Ajmátova en su propia obra. 

¿Qué quedaba de Anna Ajmátova? ¿De aquella mujer de belleza enigmática, que en San Petersburgo había participado con alegría y pasión en la tumultuosa vida cultural de los años previos a la Revolución? Mantenerse entera debería haberle secado el alma y, sin embargo, a pesar de que hubo periodos en los que no escribía, cuando volvía a coger la pluma resonaba con fuerza su talento. 

En noviembre de 1945 tuvo un encuentro con Isaiah Berlin que ninguno de los dos olvidaría nunca. A veces es más fácil desnudar el alma a un desconocido, y es lo que hizo Anna Ajmátova.

Isaiah Berlin la escuchaba casi noqueado por cuanto le contaba. Anna fue desgranando los hilos de su vida: Modigliani, Mandelshtam, Gumiliov, Pasternak, Punin…

El impacto que provocó en Berlín fue absoluto. Monika Zgustová nos recuerda las palabras de este intelectual sobre su conversación con Anna: «El relato de la tragedia absoluta de su vida superó todo lo que jamás había oído». 

La admiración fue mutua, puesto que ella le dedicaría algunos poemas, aunque el encuentro fue causa de más sufrimiento para su hijo porque fue brutalmente interrogado sobre lo que hablaron su madre y el profesor inglés. 

Anna permanentemente vigilada, con micrófonos en cada rincón de su casa, su obra proscrita, y cada vez que la querían golpear, golpeaban a su hijo convencidos de que así la vencerían. 

Y entre ellos, entre madre e hijo, la distancia y la incomprensión. Se puede querer sin comprender, y Anna y Lev no sabían comprenderse. Él luchaba por ser él, por ser reconocido por sí mismo y no por ser hijo de Gumiliov y de Ajmátova, y así fue creciendo un abismo que les llevaba a pasar largas temporadas sin verse. Ni un solo día se dejaron de querer, pero les era más fácil la lejanía que compartir el tiempo y el lugar. Ella achacaba la actitud de su hijo a los años de cárcel y de Gulag, y él nunca terminó de comprender el sufrimiento interno de su madre, a la que veía como un gigante. No les permitieron compartir la vida, y aunque lucharon el uno por el otro, la separación les pesó en el alma a los dos. 

Anna, declarada enemiga del pueblo soviético. Anna, condenada a malvivir. Anna, soportando las humillaciones de un régimen perverso. Anna, por cuya vida pasaron hombres como Modigliani, Gumiliov, Punin, Mandelshtam, Brodsky, Berlin, Pasternak… contemporánea de Maiakovski, Gorki, Bulgákov, Bábel… y de Marina Tsvetáieva, que aunque nunca se encontraron, ambas reconocieron su mutua admiración. Vidas marcadas por la tragedia. Anna murió enferma en Moscú mientras que Marina puso fin a su vida, una vida que siente que ya le han arrebatado y, por tanto, no es suya. 

Quien quiera saber más de ambas debería leer a Lidia Chukóvskaia. Las conoció, las escuchó, las defendió.

Marina Tsvetáieva circa 1910. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

Marina Tsvetáieva circa 1910. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

Marina Tsvetáieva

Hay un hilo muy tenue, casi invisible, entre la vida de Marina y Anna. Las dos son grandes poetas, las dos son eternas sospechosas, pero también son muy diferentes. Su actitud ante la vida, sobre todo el amor de Marina por el amor. Amar no importa a quién es parte de su naturaleza y así pasan por su vida, además de su marido, Serguéi Efron, Borís Pasternak, Rainer Maria Rilke, Nikolái Gronski, Sofía Parnok… Sin embargo, sus biógrafos aseguran que siempre mantuvo un vínculo irrompible con su marido, con el que tuvo tres hijos: Ariadna, Irina, que muere de inanición a los tres años en un asilo, y Gueorgui. 

Mientras Anna es una poeta que mira hacia dentro, Marina mira hacia fuera. La de Anna es una poesía fruto de la ética, de la espiritualidad. La de Marina es una poesía carnal, quiere vivir, sentir, disfrutar. Su actitud ante la adversidad es diferente a la de Anna. Ambas sufren y ven cómo encarcelan a sus hijos. 

Pero quizá es mejor empezar por su fecha de nacimiento: Marina Tsvetáieva nació el 8 de octubre de 1892. Sus primeros años transcurren en San Petersburgo, en una familia en la que nunca logró encontrar su lugar. Su madre era la segunda mujer de su padre; la primera había fallecido dejando dos hijos, a los que se sumaron Marina y su hermana. 

Una enfermedad de su madre la llevó a acompañarla a Italia, donde abrió los ojos a un mundo distinto en el que no le costó nada integrarse. 

Estudió Historia de la Literatura en París y allí publicó su primer libro de poemas. A los 18 años se casó con Serguéi Efron, pero su personalidad apasionada y libertaria la llevaría a poder amar no solo al esposo sino a una poeta reconocida mucho mayor que ella, Sofía Parnok. Fue una relación profunda y tumultuosa que sin embargo no la alejó de Serguéi. 

De París van a Moscú, donde Serguéi, oficial del Ejército Blanco, combatirá contra los revolucionarios. Pasan todo tipo de penalidades, y hambre, mucha hambre. Marina dejó a sus hijas en un orfanato para que lograran subsistir, pero Irina, la pequeña Irina, morirá de hambre.

En 1922 deciden abandonar su país y se van con su hija Ariadna a Praga, y en esa ciudad ella reencuentra la paz a pesar de que no tienen una vida boyante. Pero al menos Serguéi está vivo. Ella se enamora de Konstantín Rodzévich, al que dedica muchos de sus poemas. Rodzévich ha luchado junto a Serguéi en el Ejército Blanco y es un exiliado como ellos.

Llanto de hombre, veta
que en la cabeza retiembla.
Llora. Otra te devolverá
la vergüenza que te hice dejar.
Somos dos peces
del mis-mí-si-mo mar.
Dos conchas muertas
labio contra labio.
Todo lágrimas.
Sabor
a muelle.
—¿Y mañana
cuando despierte?

Serguéi la conoce bien y asume que su mujer a quien ama es al amor y que es su cabeza la que desencadena el tumulto que la lleva a creerse ciegamente enamorada. 

A él le asombra la dualidad de Marina, la apasionada y la mujer fría y racional. 

Marina y Serguéi tuvieron otro hijo, Gueorgui, al que llamarían Mur. 

De Praga se fueron a París y allí encontraron la manera de ganarse la vida, al principio con la ayuda que el Gobierno checo prestaba a los exiliados rusos, y además comienzan a colaborar en publicaciones de exiliados. 

La vida del matrimonio transcurre en paralelo. Las cartas que Marina se intercambia con Rilke son de tal intensidad que este termina agotado de la relación y decide poner fin a la correspondencia, lo que provoca en ella un cataclismo. Claro que al mismo tiempo Marina se cartea con Borís Pasternak, con el que mantenía una correspondencia igualmente apasionada y con el que puso distancia porque los caminos de ambos eran imposibles de mezclar. 

Cuando Rilke muere, ella le dedicará uno de sus mejores poemas, que lleva por título «Por el Año Nuevo». 

¿Y su marido? ¿Continúa ignorando las pasiones de Marina? ¿Acaso las sabe imposibles de aplacar? ¿Qué lleva a Serguéi Efron a colaborar con aquellos a los que había combatido? 

La nostalgia, dicen sus biógrafos, la soledad que provoca el exilio, aunque parece que su relación con Marina siempre permanece firme y no se resiente por los amoríos de ella. Efron sabe que lo que la impulsa no es otra cosa que el amor por el amor. 

Efron comienza a colaborar con el NKVD, la policía secreta de Stalin, y a él se une su hija Ariadna. La hija. La hija que no comprende a la madre, a la que siente lejos, puesto que Marina vive obsesionada con el amor y la poesía. En realidad, enamorarse es una manera de encontrar inspiración para las palabras que abrasan su cerebro. 

La hija que se siente próxima a su padre. Le admira y ella también se deja arrastrar por el deseo de colmar de emociones su vida, pero sobre todo por la relación con su padre al que siempre ha sentido cerca, al contrario que a su madre. 

¿Y Marina? Marina sabía sin saber, bastante tenía con ella misma. Pero aun sabiendo sin saber, no tiene ningún aprecio por aquel régimen que oprime a su querida Rusia. 

Cuenta Vitali Shentalinski cómo Efron se va enredando cada vez más en las aguas turbias del espionaje y solo hace un alto cuando recae en la enfermedad que viene arrastrando: tuberculosis. Pero se repone y regresa a sus actividades. 

Marina Tsvetáieva. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

Marina Tsvetáieva. Autor desconocido. Crédito: Getty Images.

La distancia entre Marina y Ariadna se va agrandando, son dos caracteres opuestos con intereses imposibles de conciliar. Ariadna trabaja, deja el trabajo, busca qué hacer con su vida, y su padre le propone que regrese a la Unión Soviética, él puede abrirle la puerta, conseguirle un pasaporte y un futuro. Le cuenta a su hija que le gustaría que su hermano la acompañara, pero que Marina no lo permitiría. Ariadna acepta el consejo de su padre y vuelve a Moscú, adonde él la seguirá un año después, en 1938, habida cuenta de que sus actividades como espía le han puesto en el punto de mira de los franceses, que le relacionan con el asesinato de un disidente soviético que antes también había trabajado para el NKVD. 

El escándalo provoca que Marina pierda la confianza de los círculos de exiliados. Hay quien desconfía de ella por su admiración incondicional hacia Maiakovski, el gran poeta mimado de la era soviética. 

En 1939 decide reunirse con Serguéi y Ariadna, sin imaginar las dificultades a las que se tendrá que enfrentar. 

El NKVD no se fía de Efron, no se fía de Ariadna, no se fía de ella, no se fía de ningún ciudadano ni de los comunistas más devotos del régimen soviético. Todos son sospechosos, todos pueden tener un mal pensamiento, una duda.

Detienen al padre, detienen a la hija, los torturan, quieren que confiesen. 

Marina siente el rechazo de los escritores soviéticos, pues no es como ellos, a ella le interesaba el amor, la pasión, incluso Dios. 

Escribe a Lavrenti Beria, el todopoderoso jefe de la policía política, solicitando la libertad de Serguéi y de Ariadna. La hija ha sido condenada a ocho años de prisión, mientras el padre aguarda la decisión de si le arrebatan o no la vida. Pero no hay respuesta de Beria. Mientras tanto, ella va naufragando entre los avatares de la vida cotidiana. 

Efron, condenado a muerte, aguarda al pelotón en la prisión de Butirka. Para ella y su hijo Mur, el destierro a Yelábuga, en la lejanísima Tartaristán. Allí decidirá poner fin a su vida, pero antes ordenará sus poemas y coloca en primer lugar uno escrito en 1920 que dedica a Serguéi.

Y por fin ¡para que todos lo supieran!
¡Que eres mi amado! ¡Amado! ¡Amado! ¡Amado!
Firmaba con un arcoíris en el cielo.
¡Quería que cada palabra floreciera
para siempre conmigo! ¡Bajo mis dedos!
Después bajando mi frente hasta la mesa
tacharía tu nombre con una gran cruz.
Y tú, preso en las manos de un escriba
¡corrupto! Tú que hurtas el corazón
¡que no te vendí! ¡Dentro del anillo!
Seguirás perviviendo en las tablas de la Ley.

También deja una carta a su hijo pidiéndole perdón. La poeta del amor deja la vida porque allí, en la Unión Soviética, no cabe la vida ni, por tanto, el amor. 

Marina Tsvetáieva está considerada una de las grandes poetas del siglo XX, y ciertamente lo es, aunque yo no me siento tan cerca de sus poemas como de los de Ajmátova. 

El mundo de Marina Tsvetáieva casi se circunscribe a la pasión, al amor, mientras que el de Ajmátova se amplía a todos los registros de la vida misma. Los poemas de Anna Ajmátova son una crónica de su época, del dolor de un pueblo maltratado por un régimen criminal. En los poemas de Ajmátova hay un compromiso con sus conciudadanos, un sentido ético para caminar por la vida. En los de Tsvetáieva relumbra sobre todo la pasión, esa que siempre busca y que va sustituyendo por otra en cuanto se agota. 

A mí me sacuden el alma los poemas de Ajmátova, mientras que me siento más lejana de esa pasión desatada en el corazón de Marina Tsvetáieva. Pero sé que es fruto de la edad, y que acaso cuando tenía entre 15 y 20 años me habría sentido más cerca del apasionamiento vital de Marina. 

Si existe el Parnaso, seguro que ambas están allí. 

Del Imperio a la Unión