Literatura

Cuando Shakespeare conoció al Quijote

Cada año, el Día Internacional del Libro se celebra el 23 de abril en conmemoración de la muerte de Miguel de Cervantes y de William Shakespeare (y del Inca Garcilaso) ese día en 1616. Pero debajo de esta coincidencia, se escondería un encuentro aún mayor: el hecho de que Shakespeare habría leído «Don Quijote de la Mancha» y escrito una obra protagonizada por uno de los personajes de la novela de Cervantes. El escritor y crítico argentino Carlos Gamerro, especialista en la materia, despliega los fascinantes rastros que la literatura española de entonces fue dejando en la inglesa -adaptaciones, citas, homenajes, traducciones, versiones, personajes-, y que llevarían al «Cardenio», ese Santo Grial literario que eruditos, devotos y detectives literarios todavía se empecinan en encontrar en alguna biblioteca europea.

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Pero debajo de esta coincidencia, se esconder\u00eda un encuentro a\u00fan mayor: el hecho de que Shakespeare habr\u00eda le\u00eddo \u00abDon Quijote de la Mancha\u00bb y escrito una obra protagonizada por uno de los personajes de la novela de Cervantes. El escritor y cr\u00edtico argentino Carlos Gamerro, especialista en la materia, despliega los fascinantes rastros que la literatura espa\u00f1ola de entonces fue dejando en la inglesa -adaptaciones, citas, homenajes, traducciones, versiones, personajes-, y que llevar\u00edan al \u00abCardenio\u00bb, ese Santo Grial literario que eruditos, devotos y detectives literarios todav\u00eda se empecinan en encontrar en alguna biblioteca europea.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"k6y471t\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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se conocieron en vida que sepamos, aunque fueron tan estrictamente contempor\u00e1neos que murieron en la misma fecha, el 23 de abril de 1616, pero no en el mismo d\u00eda, ya que Inglaterra y Espa\u00f1a se reg\u00edan por calendarios distintos, el juliano y el gregoriano respectivamente:\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1020-william-shakespeare\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el m\u00e1s celebrado de los escritores ingleses<\/a><\/span> muri\u00f3 diez d\u00edas despu\u00e9s de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/532-miguel-de-cervantes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su contraparte espa\u00f1ola<\/a><\/span>. Aun as\u00ed, esta casi perfecta contemporaneidad ha dado pie a numerosas recreaciones imaginarias de la anhelada reuni\u00f3n cumbre: en su <em>Encuentro en Valladolid<\/em>, Anthony Burgess imagina que William Shakespeare viaja a esa ciudad espa\u00f1ola en 1605, como integrante de una comitiva encargada de refrendar el acuerdo de paz entre Inglaterra y Espa\u00f1a, y asiste a una corrida de toros, donde salen al ruedo un viejo caballero en armadura de cart\u00f3n, montado sobre un caballo escu\u00e1lido, y un gordito chupand\u00edn cabalgando un asno, y se llena de envidia al enterarse que han salido de las p\u00e1ginas de una novela reciente (\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 es una novela?\u00bb, pregunta Dick Burbage, el tr\u00e1gico de la compa\u00f1\u00eda). Shakespeare tendr\u00e1 luego una larga discusi\u00f3n con su autor, un tal Miguel de Cervantes, que critica severamente su\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/cl\/tematicas\/89415-libro-tragedias-obra-completa-2-9789588925578\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Tito Andr\u00f3nico<\/a><\/span><\/em> y a los ingleses en general: vaya uno a saber por qu\u00e9, Burgess presenta al amigable y afablemente ir\u00f3nico autor que dejan adivinar sus pr\u00f3logos y otros escritos en primera persona como un severo y muy literal Torquemada. Pero su relato tiene al menos el decoro de no imponernos una relaci\u00f3n que vaya m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del com\u00fan oficio y sus t\u00f3picos; menos circunspecta, en su film <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film321322.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Miguel y William<\/em><\/a><\/span> (2007) In\u00e9s Par\u00eds imagina un encuentro de juventud y una rivalidad que excede lo literario para adentrarse en el terreno amoroso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ffvbhrf\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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los encuentros personales entre grandes escritores (u otros grandes artistas, para el caso) tienen muchas veces la saludable virtud de ser absolutamente decepcionantes; tal vez el caso m\u00e1s famoso \u2013e ilustrativo\u2013 fue el de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/un-inedito-de-proust\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Marcel Proust<\/a><\/span> y James Joyce, que tuvo lugar en el H\u00f4tel Majestic de Par\u00eds, en mayo de 1922: frente a los \u00e1vidos o\u00eddos de los presentes, que no quer\u00edan perderse palabra del di\u00e1logo literario del siglo, no fueron m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de confesarse un gusto compartido por las trufas o, seg\u00fan otras versiones, quejarse de sus respectivas dolencias, de est\u00f3mago el local, de la vista el visitante.<\/p><p>Los contactos tal vez menos espectaculares, pero muchas veces m\u00e1s significativos, y productivos, son en cambio los que se establecen cuando los escritores se conocen a trav\u00e9s de sus respectivas obras. En el caso que nos ocupa, todo indica que no fue sim\u00e9trico: Shakespeare supo de Cervantes, y escribi\u00f3, en colaboraci\u00f3n con el joven John Fletcher, una obra de teatro, hoy perdida, titulada\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Cardenio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Cardenio<\/em>, o tal vez <em>The History of Cardenio<\/em><\/span>,<\/a> basada en un episodio de la primera parte del Quijote. Para Cervantes, en cambio, Shakespeare nunca existi\u00f3, de ning\u00fan modo.<\/p><p>La historia de este encuentro, que involucra a unos cuantos personajes menos famosos que los dos m\u00e1s famosos, comienza en 1612, con la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>The History of the Valorous and Wittie Knight-Errant Don-Quixote of the Mancha,<\/em> la primera traducci\u00f3n del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36614-libro-don-quijote-de-la-mancha-9788491050759\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Quijote<\/em><\/a><\/span> al ingl\u00e9s, realizada por el irland\u00e9s Thomas Shelton. Poco o nada se sabe del mismo: puede haber estudiado en Salamanca; puede haber participado en alguna de las muchas rebeliones contra la ocupaci\u00f3n inglesa, lideradas por aquel entonces por Hugh O'Neill de Tyrone; puede haber residido en los Pa\u00edses Bajos Espa\u00f1oles; s\u00ed sabemos con certeza que la edici\u00f3n que utiliz\u00f3 fue la publicada en Bruselas en 1607, y que completar\u00eda su tarea con la traducci\u00f3n de la Segunda parte en 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la novela de Cervantes ya era conocida con anterioridad en Londres. Es posible que la traducci\u00f3n de Shelton haya circulado en forma manuscrita, algo muy habitual en la \u00e9poca; y tambi\u00e9n que algunos autores supieran suficiente espa\u00f1ol para leerla en el original: parece haber sido el caso de Fletcher. La relaci\u00f3n entre ambas literaturas era tan intensa como unilateral: los ingleses le\u00edan profusamente a los espa\u00f1oles, los espa\u00f1oles pusieron parejo empe\u00f1o en ignorarlo todo acerca de sus inveterados enemigos. El\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36572-libro-lazarillo-de-tormes-9788491050292\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lazarillo de Tormes<\/a><\/em><\/span> hab\u00eda sido traducido en 1586; las novelas de caballer\u00edas <em>Palmer\u00edn de Oliva<\/em> y <em>Amad\u00eds de Gaula<\/em> en 1588 y 1589; Shakespeare incorpor\u00f3 personajes y situaciones de la primera novela pastoril espa\u00f1ola, la <em>Diana<\/em> de Jorge de Montemayor, a su <em>Los dos caballeros de Verona;<\/em> m\u00e1s cerca de nuestro tema, la obra de Francis Beaumont, <em>El caballero de la maza ardiente,<\/em> estrenada hacia 1608, incluye la figura de un aprendiz de almacenero que decide hacerse caballero andante y espectadores que transgreden los l\u00edmites entre realidad y ficci\u00f3n al abandonar sus asientos para subir a escena y alterar el curso de la obra, evocando a Cervantes y anticipando a Pirandello. <em>The Second Maiden's Tragedy,<\/em> una tragedia de venganza de 1611, toma su trama secundaria de la \u00abNovela del curioso impertinente\u00bb incluida en la primera parte del <em>Quijote;<\/em> y hay referencias expl\u00edcitas a la novela de Cervantes en obras de Ben Jonson, como <em>Epiceno<\/em> (1609) y <em>El alquimista<\/em> (1610), y en varias de las obras teatrales escritas a d\u00fao por Beaumont y Fletcher.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"niydmsi\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Shakespeare supo de Cervantes, y escribi\u00f3, en colaboraci\u00f3n con el joven John Fletcher, una obra de teatro, hoy perdida, titulada <em>Cardenio,<\/em> o tal vez <em>The History of Cardenio,<\/em> basada en un episodio de la primera parte del <em>Quijote.<\/em> Para Cervantes, en cambio, Shakespeare nunca 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de la existencia de <em>Cardenio<\/em> por los registros de cuentas del tesoro real de Inglaterra: la obra fue representada en la corte por los <em>King's Men<\/em> en mayo de 1613, en el contexto de los festejos de la boda de la princesa Isabel, hija de Jacobo I, y Federico, pr\u00edncipe elector del Palatinado; y luego ante el duque de Saboya, en julio del mismo a\u00f1o. Fue, con toda probabilidad, la primera colaboraci\u00f3n entre Shakespeare y Fletcher; ambos trabajar\u00edan luego en <em>Enrique VIII<\/em> y <em>Dos nobles de la misma sangre,<\/em> tras lo cual Shakespeare se retir\u00f3 definitivamente del teatro, dejando el puesto de autor principal en manos de Fletcher. \u00abUna ma\u00f1ana lo sobrecogieron el hast\u00edo y el horror de ser tantos reyes que mueren por la espada y tantos desdichados amantes que convergen, divergen y melodiosamente agonizan. Aquel mismo d\u00eda resolvi\u00f3 la venta de su teatro\u00bb, evoca\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Borges<\/a><\/span> aquel momento en su <em>Everything and Nothing.<\/em> Sin \u00e1nimo de profanar su deslumbrante texto con pedestres consideraciones materiales, hay que decir que \u00e9stas no fueron del todo ajenas a su decisi\u00f3n: la total destrucci\u00f3n del Globe, en un incendio ocurrido durante una representaci\u00f3n de <em>Enrique VIII,<\/em> cuando el disparo del ca\u00f1oncito encendi\u00f3 el techo de paja, y la necesidad de financiar la reconstrucci\u00f3n del mismo (esta vez con techo de tejas) puede haberlo inducido a dedicarse a negocios m\u00e1s rentables: regresado a Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare \u00abfue un empresario retirado que ha hecho fortuna y a quien le interesan los pr\u00e9stamos, los litigios y la peque\u00f1a usura\u00bb (nuevamente Borges, ahora tambi\u00e9n \u00e9l resignado a la veta materialista del excelso 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00abDon Quijote de la Mancha\u00bb por Walter Crane (1900). La escena muestra a Don Quijote y Sancho Panza viendo a Cardenio saltar de roca en roca. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/25956-ebook-romances-obra-completa-shakespeare-4\/fragmento\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">John Fletcher<\/a><\/span>\u00a0no era lo que se dice un gran dramaturgo, y hoy en d\u00eda es infrecuente, y tal vez inconcebible, ver representada a ninguna de sus obras, aunque <em>El domador domado,<\/em> una secuela de <em>La fierecilla domada<\/em> en la cual Mar\u00eda, la segunda mujer de Petrucho, le pone los puntos y encabeza una rebeli\u00f3n de mujeres a lo Lis\u00edstrata, podr\u00eda resultar atractiva para los p\u00fablicos actuales, que aplaudir\u00edan sin duda versos como estos: \u00ab[Los hombres] no deben ser los tiranos de sus esposas \/ ni tampoco deben las mujeres tras ver esta obra, \/ insultar o subyugar, pues su objetivo \/ es ense\u00f1ar a ambos sexos la debida igualdad \/ y, como corresponde, amarse mutuamente\u00bb. Las revisiones pol\u00edticamente correctas de los cl\u00e1sicos, se ve, no son un invento tan reciente como creemos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero las obras que escribi\u00f3 con Beaumont conocieron un \u00e9xito fenomenal, popularizando el g\u00e9nero de los romances o tragicomedias, que tambi\u00e9n abrazar\u00eda Shakespeare en sus \u00faltimas piezas, de <em>Pericles<\/em> a <em>La tempestad,<\/em> tal vez por influjo de la popularidad de las de estos dos j\u00f3venes \u2013 la influencia no siempre viaja de los m\u00e1s mejores a los menos mejores, y el Shakespeare de entonces no era el dios del Parnaso que hoy veneramos sino un empresario que ten\u00eda que llenar teatros, y en eso la moda, ayer como hoy, es la que dicta. Por lo mismo, no hay que asombrarse del hecho de que el gran William escribiera a d\u00fao con dramaturgos que hoy consideramos muy inferiores: en la escritura teatral la colaboraci\u00f3n no era la excepci\u00f3n sino la norma; no se trataba de un g\u00e9nero literario prestigioso, como lo es hoy. El estatuto de la obra teatral se parec\u00eda mucho m\u00e1s al que tienen en la actualidad el guion de cine o de televisi\u00f3n: el autor la vend\u00eda y ya dejaba de pertenecerle, y el empresario o la compa\u00f1\u00eda que la compraba pod\u00edan hacer con ella lo que quisieran; recortarla, ampliarla, hacerla pasar por varias manos\u2026\u00a0<\/p><p><span style=\\\"white-space: pre;\\\"> <\/span>La colaboraci\u00f3n entre Shakespeare y Fletcher nunca fue tan estrecha como la de Fletcher y Beaumont, que no s\u00f3lo escrib\u00edan juntos sino que viv\u00edan en la misma casa, compartiendo adem\u00e1s los vestidos y la mujer, una joven llamada Joan que sigui\u00f3 junto a Fletcher cuando Beaumont abandon\u00f3 esta sociedad tan completa para casarse con una rica heredera (no le fue tan bien: la riqueza fue menor de la esperada y tal vez por la decepci\u00f3n sufri\u00f3 un derrame que lo llevar\u00eda a la muerte a sus tempranos treintai\u00fan a\u00f1os). Fue justamente cuando Beaumont lo abandon\u00f3 que Fletcher inici\u00f3, tal vez sin demasiado entusiasmo y no pocos reparos, su colaboraci\u00f3n con Shakespeare. No deja de ser interesante que la primera historia que acometieron juntos fuera la de dos j\u00f3venes de parecida edad y condici\u00f3n, y una amistad que se termina, intercalada en la historia mayor de una amistad que se construye entre dos personajes diferentes en todo, como lo son don Quijote y Sancho. Es probable que fuera Fletcher quien llevara a Shakespeare la idea de adaptar una parte del <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/25933-ebook-don-quijote-de-la-mancha-los-mejores-clasicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Quijote<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0para la escena: hay, como se\u00f1alamos, numerosas remisiones a la novela de Cervantes en sus anteriores piezas, y todo parece indicar que sab\u00eda suficiente espa\u00f1ol para leerla en el original; mientras que no hay referencia alguna al<em> Quijote<\/em> en la obra previa de Shakespeare.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m2vbgmn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 hicieron Fletcher y Shakespeare con el episodio de Cardenio incluido en el <em>Quijote?<\/em> No sabemos. La \u00fanica pista que tenemos es una obra titulada <em>Double Falsehood (Doble enga\u00f1o),<\/em> estrenada en Londres en 1727. Su autor, Lewis Theobald, asegur\u00f3 que estaba basada en el original de Shakespeare que \u00e9l conservaba en su biblioteca, pero su biblioteca se incendi\u00f3 y con ella toda prueba de su aserto. Lo cual no deja de ser un alivio, ya que la obra de Theobald es mal\u00edsima.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j2i17s9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En el <em>Quijote,<\/em> la historia de Cardenio comienza cuando el caballero y su escudero se internan en la Sierra Morena, tras el desafortunado incidente de la liberaci\u00f3n de los galeotes; all\u00ed se topan con el tal Cardenio, un joven de buena cuna pero ahora vestido de harapos y enloquecido. En uno de sus momentos de cordura accede a contarles su historia: enamorado desde la edad m\u00e1s temprana de la hermosa Luscinda, titubea a la hora de pedirle a su propio padre su consentimiento para el matrimonio, y mientras se angustia y da vueltas, \u00e9ste recibe una carta del duque local, que se lo pide de compa\u00f1ero para su hijo, don Fernando. Este resulta un joven enamoradizo y no muy escrupuloso, quien tras desvirgar a la bella Dorotea, hija de labradores ricos, con amenazas y una falsa promesa de casamiento, decide hurtarle el bulto a las posibles consecuencias haciendo una visita a las tierras de Cardenio, en Andaluc\u00eda. Por el camino se entera por boca de su incauto amigo de las muchas bondades de Luscinda, alguna de las cuales tendr\u00e1 oportunidad de apreciar por s\u00ed mismo cuando el propio Cardenio se la muestre a trav\u00e9s de una ventana, dormida y medio desnuda. Al punto se lo saca de encima con la excusa de buscar dinero para comprar unos caballos, y pide la mano de Luscinda al padre de \u00e9sta, el cual advirtiendo las ventajas del nuevo candidato y medio harto de las vueltas de Cardenio, asiente con vehemencia. No as\u00ed Luscinda, que logra hacerle llegar una carta a su prometido, y cuando este llega, para encontrarla ya vestida de boda, le muestra el pu\u00f1al con el que piensa darse muerte antes de darle el s\u00ed a su traidor amigo. Lejos de disuadirla, Cardenio asiente entusiasta, y promete secundarla desenvainando contra el p\u00e9rfido, o contra s\u00ed mismo si la suerte no lo favorece. Pero despu\u00e9s se esconde tras un tapiz, convertido en mero espectador pasivo y algo perverso de la tragedia de su vida, y cuando Luscinda en lugar de matarse da un s\u00ed desmayado, se siente traicionado, se aleja del lugar alelado y se interna en el bosque donde lo encontrar\u00e1n, seis meses despu\u00e9s, don Quijote y Sancho. Inspirado por las cuitas del joven Cardenio, y por los libros de caballer\u00edas que ha le\u00eddo, don Quijote decide hacer penitencia de amor por Dulcinea, y env\u00eda a Sancho al Toboso para que se lo cuente, pero en el camino \u00e9ste se topa con el cura y el barbero que buscan a su amo, y juntos vuelven a la sierra donde se encuentran a la enga\u00f1ada Dorotea vestida de muchacho, que les cuenta, a ellos y a Cardenio que tambi\u00e9n se aparece por ah\u00ed, que la boda nunca tuvo lugar, pues Luscinda ocultaba en el pecho un papel donde afirmaba ser esposa de Cardenio, junto con la daga con la que el mosqueado don Fernando trat\u00f3 de apu\u00f1alarla. Para sacar a don Quijote de la sierra, Dorotea acepta hacerse pasar por la princesa Micomicona, despojada por un malvado gigante de su reino, y todos terminan en una venta, adonde tambi\u00e9n llegan don Fernando y Luscinda, secuestrada por \u00e9ste de un convento. Caen las m\u00e1scaras que todos llevaban, Dorotea recuerda a don Fernando su promesa, Luscinda se abraza a Cardenio, y todo se arregla. Don Quijote, que previamente hab\u00eda entrado en batalla son\u00e1mbula con unos cueros de vino tinto, creyendo que se trataba del gigante que ten\u00eda que matar, es encerrado en una jaula como por encantamiento y conducido de regreso a su aldea.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m808yw1\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Sancho Panza abatido por el reencuentro de Cardenio y Luscinda y de Dorotea y Don Fernando. Grabado de Gustave Dor\u00e9 para el Volumen I de la edici\u00f3n 1880-1881 de \u00abDon Quijote de la Mancha\u00bb. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"aqd8ozf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 hicieron Fletcher y Shakespeare con todo esto? Lo cierto es que no sabemos. La \u00fanica pista que tenemos es una obra titulada <em>Double Falsehood (Doble enga\u00f1o),<\/em> estrenada en el Theatre Royal de Londres en 1727. Su autor, Lewis Theobald, uno de los grandes nombres de la cr\u00edtica shakesperiana (Su <em>Shakespeare Restored<\/em> tuvo la osad\u00eda de criticar y corregir la edici\u00f3n de Alexander Pope, que le devolvi\u00f3 el favor convirti\u00e9ndolo en protagonista de su <em>Dunciad,<\/em> que podr\u00eda traducirse como <em>La idiot\u00edada<\/em> o <em>La asn\u00edada)<\/em> asegur\u00f3 que estaba basada en el original de Shakespeare que \u00e9l conservaba en su biblioteca, pero su biblioteca se incendi\u00f3 y con ella toda prueba de su aserto. <em>Double Falsehood,<\/em> hoy editada en la prestigiosa The Arden Shakespeare, aunque con prudente escamoteo de autor\u00eda, est\u00e1 indudablemente basada en la historia de Cardenio del <em>Quijote<\/em>, pero nada nos garantiza que haya estado basada tambi\u00e9n en la perdida pieza de Fletcher y Shakespeare, y que poco o mucho de \u00e9sta haya sobrevivido en aquella. El siglo XVIII y el temprano siglo XIX no compart\u00edan la superstici\u00f3n actual que hace de cualquier alteraci\u00f3n del texto del Bardo un sacrilegio, incluso en las adaptaciones cinematogr\u00e1ficas (ning\u00fan otro autor puede alardear de semejante privilegio, ni siquiera Dios, cuyas Escrituras suelen alterarse libremente al pasar de boca del Esp\u00edritu Santo a la pantalla grande o chica): por dar s\u00f3lo un ejemplo, la m\u00e1s intransigente y desolada de sus tragedias,\u00a0<em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36644-libro-el-rey-lear-edicion-bilingue-9788491051503\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Rey Lear<\/span>,<\/a><\/em> entre 1680 y 1840 era representada en la sentimental adaptaci\u00f3n de Nahum Tate, que inclu\u00eda un romance entre Cordelia y Edgar y un final feliz en el que \u00e9sta sobreviv\u00eda y su padre recuperaba la corona. La pieza de Theobald, entonces, bien puede estar basada en la perdida<em> Cardenio,<\/em> y al mismo tiempo ser tan diferente que anule toda esperanza de guiarnos de regreso a ella.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo cual no deja de ser un alivio, ya que la obra de Theobald es mal\u00edsima, y seria doloroso imaginar que la obra surgida del magno encuentro de Cervantes y Shakespeare pueda serlo en igual medida. Cardenio se llama ahora Julio, Luscinda es Leonora, don Fernando Henr\u00edquez y Dorotea Violante, pero eso no ser\u00eda grave si se conservaran o intensificaran los rasgos que los defin\u00edan en el original de Cervantes y, qui\u00e9n sabe, en la adaptaci\u00f3n de Fletcher y Shakespeare. El momento m\u00e1s interesante, psicol\u00f3gicamente hablando, cuando Cardenio se esconde tras el tapiz para contemplar c\u00f3mo le birlan la novia en sus narices, que tan bien captura la fascinaci\u00f3n paralizante de esas situaciones que hacen de nosotros testigos temblequeantes de nuestra propia vida, se vuelve aqu\u00ed, de modo mucho m\u00e1s banal, acci\u00f3n frustrada y melodrama berreta: Julio interrumpe la boda y es echado a patadas por los secuaces de Henr\u00edquez. La ausencia m\u00e1s sentida, de todos modos, es la de don Quijote y Sancho, que son quir\u00fargicamente extirpados de la trama, y junto con ellos el deleite que generan en el original de Cervantes: los mejores momentos de la historia de Cardenio, son sin duda aquellos en que los dos est\u00e1n presentes: la penitencia de amor de don Quijote, hecha a imitaci\u00f3n de Amad\u00eds y de Orlando; la misiva a Dulcinea que se le pierde a Sancho junto con la \u00ablibranza pollinesca\u00bb; la descomunal batalla contra los cueros de vino tinto. \u00bfLos habr\u00e1n condenado al mismo exilio Fletcher y Shakespeare? Es posible, aunque s\u00ed se hab\u00edan hecho presentes en una adaptaci\u00f3n teatral a\u00fan m\u00e1s temprana, <em>Don Quijote de la Mancha<\/em> (c. 1606-1608) de Guill\u00e9n de Castro (tambi\u00e9n autor de <em>Las mocedades del Cid)<\/em> y recuperada para la cr\u00edtica y la historia por Roger Chartier en lo que es hasta hoy el estudio m\u00e1s pormenorizado de nuestro asunto,<em> <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.casadellibro.com\/libro-cardenio-entre-cervantes-y-shakespeare\/9788497846752\/2034294\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cardenio entre Cervantes y Shakespeare<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(Gallimard, 2011; Gedisa, 2012).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gt73vhi\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Es probable que fuera Fletcher quien llevara a Shakespeare la idea de adaptar una parte del <em>Quijote<\/em> para la escena: hay numerosas remisiones a la novela de Cervantes en sus anteriores piezas, y todo parece indicar que sab\u00eda suficiente espa\u00f1ol para leerla en el original; mientras que no hay referencia alguna al <em>Quijote<\/em> en la obra previa de Shakespeare.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8t26gl1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pero hay otros momentos en que se cuela sugestiva, por las grietas del revoque presumiblemente aplicado por Theobald, la luz potencialmente shakesperiana: \u00ab\u00bfHas visto alguna vez al f\u00e9nix de este mundo, \/ el ave del para\u00edso?... \/ Yo s\u00ed, y descubr\u00ed sus dominios, y la sede \/ de su especiado nido; hasta que, como un tonto cr\u00e9dulo, \/ mostr\u00e9 el tesoro a un amigo en que confiaba, \/ y \u00e9l me la rob\u00f3\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Fragmentos como \u00e9ste han tentado y seguir\u00e1n tentando a detectives literarios; pero en tanto esperamos que aparezca, en alguna remota biblioteca europea o americana, el improbable manuscrito, o la desconocida edici\u00f3n en folio o <em>quarto,<\/em> deberemos contentarnos con reconstrucciones m\u00e1s o menos imaginarias, como la de Gary Taylor de 2009, que <em>desadapta Double Falsehood<\/em> para llevar a cabo una reconstrucci\u00f3n conjetural lo que pudo haber sido la pieza de Fletcher y Shakespeare, reincorporando a don Quijote y Sancho; Taylor fue tambi\u00e9n co-editor, junto con David Carnegie, de <em>The Quest for Cardenio: Shakespeare, Fletcher, Cervantes and the Lost Play,<\/em> 2012. Bernard Richards, tambi\u00e9n en 2009, estren\u00f3 una versi\u00f3n titulada <em>Cardenio,<\/em> que pone en escena la violaci\u00f3n de Dorotea\/Violante, y tambi\u00e9n escenifica el secuestro de Luscinda\/Leonora, que lleva a cabo don Fernando\/Henr\u00edquez vestido de fraile. El cr\u00edtico shakesperiano Stephen Greenblatt escribi\u00f3, junto con Charles Mee, una obra tambi\u00e9n titulada Cardenio, que trae la acci\u00f3n al presente, incluye partes de <em>Double Falsehood<\/em> como obra dentro de la obra (a la manera de la \u00abmuy lamentable comedia\u00bb sobre P\u00edramo y Tisbe en <em>Sue\u00f1o de una noche de verano<\/em> y \u00abLa ratonera\u00bb en <em>Hamlet)<\/em> y se apoya, m\u00e1s que en la historia de Cardenio, en \u00abLa novela del curioso impertinente\u00bb, como ya hab\u00eda hecho el an\u00f3nimo autor de <em>The Second Maiden's Tragedy.<\/em> La reconstrucci\u00f3n m\u00e1s ambiciosa ha sido hasta ahora la encarada por Gregory Doran, director de la Royal Shakespeare Company, quien en 2011 estren\u00f3 en el Swan Theatre de Stratford-upon-Avon una versi\u00f3n titulada <em>Cardenio. Shakespeare's 'Lost Play' Re-imagined.<\/em> El m\u00e9todo seguido por Doran, co-autor de la adaptaci\u00f3n junto con el dramaturgo espa\u00f1ol Antonio \u00c1lamo, fue el de <em>reparar<\/em> las partes <em>da\u00f1adas<\/em> (por Theobald, presumiblemente) de la obra original de Fletcher y Shakespeare recurriendo al tejido verbal del original de Cervantes, un poco como el cient\u00edfico de <em>Jurassic Park<\/em> repara las secuencias incompletas del ADN de dinosaurio con material gen\u00e9tico de especies actuales; pero una vez m\u00e1s dejando fuera a don Quijote y Sancho. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"http:\/\/www.carlosgamerro.com\/cardenio\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mi propia novela<em> Cardenio<\/em> (2016)<\/a><\/span> trata de imaginar, antes que la obra en s\u00ed, el proceso creativo de Fletcher y Shakespeare, la gradual y no siempre arm\u00f3nica gestaci\u00f3n de ese <em>tercer hombre<\/em> que, seg\u00fan Borges, debe ser el desider\u00e1tum de la colaboraci\u00f3n literaria y que incluye, en esta recreaci\u00f3n ficcional, no s\u00f3lo a los dos dramaturgos ingleses y al novelista espa\u00f1ol, sino tambi\u00e9n a la joven Joan y amigos como Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton y (desde la muerte) Christopher Marlowe.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n imperturbable<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abUlises\u00bb en su laberinto castellano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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25 minutos

Crédito: Max Rompo.

Nunca se conocieron en vida que sepamos, aunque fueron tan estrictamente contemporáneos que murieron en la misma fecha, el 23 de abril de 1616, pero no en el mismo día, ya que Inglaterra y España se regían por calendarios distintos, el juliano y el gregoriano respectivamente: el más celebrado de los escritores ingleses murió diez días después de su contraparte española. Aun así, esta casi perfecta contemporaneidad ha dado pie a numerosas recreaciones imaginarias de la anhelada reunión cumbre: en su Encuentro en Valladolid, Anthony Burgess imagina que William Shakespeare viaja a esa ciudad española en 1605, como integrante de una comitiva encargada de refrendar el acuerdo de paz entre Inglaterra y España, y asiste a una corrida de toros, donde salen al ruedo un viejo caballero en armadura de cartón, montado sobre un caballo escuálido, y un gordito chupandín cabalgando un asno, y se llena de envidia al enterarse que han salido de las páginas de una novela reciente («¿Qué es una novela?», pregunta Dick Burbage, el trágico de la compañía). Shakespeare tendrá luego una larga discusión con su autor, un tal Miguel de Cervantes, que critica severamente su Tito Andrónico y a los ingleses en general: vaya uno a saber por qué, Burgess presenta al amigable y afablemente irónico autor que dejan adivinar sus prólogos y otros escritos en primera persona como un severo y muy literal Torquemada. Pero su relato tiene al menos el decoro de no imponernos una relación que vaya más allá del común oficio y sus tópicos; menos circunspecta, en su film Miguel y William (2007) Inés París imagina un encuentro de juventud y una rivalidad que excede lo literario para adentrarse en el terreno amoroso.

Pero los encuentros personales entre grandes escritores (u otros grandes artistas, para el caso) tienen muchas veces la saludable virtud de ser absolutamente decepcionantes; tal vez el caso más famoso –e ilustrativo– fue el de Marcel Proust y James Joyce, que tuvo lugar en el Hôtel Majestic de París, en mayo de 1922: frente a los ávidos oídos de los presentes, que no querían perderse palabra del diálogo literario del siglo, no fueron más allá de confesarse un gusto compartido por las trufas o, según otras versiones, quejarse de sus respectivas dolencias, de estómago el local, de la vista el visitante.

Los contactos tal vez menos espectaculares, pero muchas veces más significativos, y productivos, son en cambio los que se establecen cuando los escritores se conocen a través de sus respectivas obras. En el caso que nos ocupa, todo indica que no fue simétrico: Shakespeare supo de Cervantes, y escribió, en colaboración con el joven John Fletcher, una obra de teatro, hoy perdida, titulada Cardenio, o tal vez The History of Cardenio, basada en un episodio de la primera parte del Quijote. Para Cervantes, en cambio, Shakespeare nunca existió, de ningún modo.

La historia de este encuentro, que involucra a unos cuantos personajes menos famosos que los dos más famosos, comienza en 1612, con la publicación de The History of the Valorous and Wittie Knight-Errant Don-Quixote of the Mancha, la primera traducción del Quijote al inglés, realizada por el irlandés Thomas Shelton. Poco o nada se sabe del mismo: puede haber estudiado en Salamanca; puede haber participado en alguna de las muchas rebeliones contra la ocupación inglesa, lideradas por aquel entonces por Hugh O'Neill de Tyrone; puede haber residido en los Países Bajos Españoles; sí sabemos con certeza que la edición que utilizó fue la publicada en Bruselas en 1607, y que completaría su tarea con la traducción de la Segunda parte en 1620.

Pero la novela de Cervantes ya era conocida con anterioridad en Londres. Es posible que la traducción de Shelton haya circulado en forma manuscrita, algo muy habitual en la época; y también que algunos autores supieran suficiente español para leerla en el original: parece haber sido el caso de Fletcher. La relación entre ambas literaturas era tan intensa como unilateral: los ingleses leían profusamente a los españoles, los españoles pusieron parejo empeño en ignorarlo todo acerca de sus inveterados enemigos. El Lazarillo de Tormes había sido traducido en 1586; las novelas de caballerías Palmerín de Oliva y Amadís de Gaula en 1588 y 1589; Shakespeare incorporó personajes y situaciones de la primera novela pastoril española, la Diana de Jorge de Montemayor, a su Los dos caballeros de Verona; más cerca de nuestro tema, la obra de Francis Beaumont, El caballero de la maza ardiente, estrenada hacia 1608, incluye la figura de un aprendiz de almacenero que decide hacerse caballero andante y espectadores que transgreden los límites entre realidad y ficción al abandonar sus asientos para subir a escena y alterar el curso de la obra, evocando a Cervantes y anticipando a Pirandello. The Second Maiden's Tragedy, una tragedia de venganza de 1611, toma su trama secundaria de la «Novela del curioso impertinente» incluida en la primera parte del Quijote; y hay referencias explícitas a la novela de Cervantes en obras de Ben Jonson, como Epiceno (1609) y El alquimista (1610), y en varias de las obras teatrales escritas a dúo por Beaumont y Fletcher.

Shakespeare supo de Cervantes, y escribió, en colaboración con el joven John Fletcher, una obra de teatro, hoy perdida, titulada Cardenio, o tal vez The History of Cardenio, basada en un episodio de la primera parte del Quijote. Para Cervantes, en cambio, Shakespeare nunca existió.

Sabemos de la existencia de Cardenio por los registros de cuentas del tesoro real de Inglaterra: la obra fue representada en la corte por los King's Men en mayo de 1613, en el contexto de los festejos de la boda de la princesa Isabel, hija de Jacobo I, y Federico, príncipe elector del Palatinado; y luego ante el duque de Saboya, en julio del mismo año. Fue, con toda probabilidad, la primera colaboración entre Shakespeare y Fletcher; ambos trabajarían luego en Enrique VIII y Dos nobles de la misma sangre, tras lo cual Shakespeare se retiró definitivamente del teatro, dejando el puesto de autor principal en manos de Fletcher. «Una mañana lo sobrecogieron el hastío y el horror de ser tantos reyes que mueren por la espada y tantos desdichados amantes que convergen, divergen y melodiosamente agonizan. Aquel mismo día resolvió la venta de su teatro», evoca Borges aquel momento en su Everything and Nothing. Sin ánimo de profanar su deslumbrante texto con pedestres consideraciones materiales, hay que decir que éstas no fueron del todo ajenas a su decisión: la total destrucción del Globe, en un incendio ocurrido durante una representación de Enrique VIII, cuando el disparo del cañoncito encendió el techo de paja, y la necesidad de financiar la reconstrucción del mismo (esta vez con techo de tejas) puede haberlo inducido a dedicarse a negocios más rentables: regresado a Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare «fue un empresario retirado que ha hecho fortuna y a quien le interesan los préstamos, los litigios y la pequeña usura» (nuevamente Borges, ahora también él resignado a la veta materialista del excelso poeta).

«Don Quijote de la Mancha» por Walter Crane (1900). La escena muestra a Don Quijote y Sancho Panza viendo a Cardenio saltar de roca en roca. Crédito: Getty Images.

John Fletcher no era lo que se dice un gran dramaturgo, y hoy en día es infrecuente, y tal vez inconcebible, ver representada a ninguna de sus obras, aunque El domador domado, una secuela de La fierecilla domada en la cual María, la segunda mujer de Petrucho, le pone los puntos y encabeza una rebelión de mujeres a lo Lisístrata, podría resultar atractiva para los públicos actuales, que aplaudirían sin duda versos como estos: «[Los hombres] no deben ser los tiranos de sus esposas / ni tampoco deben las mujeres tras ver esta obra, / insultar o subyugar, pues su objetivo / es enseñar a ambos sexos la debida igualdad / y, como corresponde, amarse mutuamente». Las revisiones políticamente correctas de los clásicos, se ve, no son un invento tan reciente como creemos. 

Pero las obras que escribió con Beaumont conocieron un éxito fenomenal, popularizando el género de los romances o tragicomedias, que también abrazaría Shakespeare en sus últimas piezas, de Pericles a La tempestad, tal vez por influjo de la popularidad de las de estos dos jóvenes – la influencia no siempre viaja de los más mejores a los menos mejores, y el Shakespeare de entonces no era el dios del Parnaso que hoy veneramos sino un empresario que tenía que llenar teatros, y en eso la moda, ayer como hoy, es la que dicta. Por lo mismo, no hay que asombrarse del hecho de que el gran William escribiera a dúo con dramaturgos que hoy consideramos muy inferiores: en la escritura teatral la colaboración no era la excepción sino la norma; no se trataba de un género literario prestigioso, como lo es hoy. El estatuto de la obra teatral se parecía mucho más al que tienen en la actualidad el guion de cine o de televisión: el autor la vendía y ya dejaba de pertenecerle, y el empresario o la compañía que la compraba podían hacer con ella lo que quisieran; recortarla, ampliarla, hacerla pasar por varias manos… 

La colaboración entre Shakespeare y Fletcher nunca fue tan estrecha como la de Fletcher y Beaumont, que no sólo escribían juntos sino que vivían en la misma casa, compartiendo además los vestidos y la mujer, una joven llamada Joan que siguió junto a Fletcher cuando Beaumont abandonó esta sociedad tan completa para casarse con una rica heredera (no le fue tan bien: la riqueza fue menor de la esperada y tal vez por la decepción sufrió un derrame que lo llevaría a la muerte a sus tempranos treintaiún años). Fue justamente cuando Beaumont lo abandonó que Fletcher inició, tal vez sin demasiado entusiasmo y no pocos reparos, su colaboración con Shakespeare. No deja de ser interesante que la primera historia que acometieron juntos fuera la de dos jóvenes de parecida edad y condición, y una amistad que se termina, intercalada en la historia mayor de una amistad que se construye entre dos personajes diferentes en todo, como lo son don Quijote y Sancho. Es probable que fuera Fletcher quien llevara a Shakespeare la idea de adaptar una parte del Quijote para la escena: hay, como señalamos, numerosas remisiones a la novela de Cervantes en sus anteriores piezas, y todo parece indicar que sabía suficiente español para leerla en el original; mientras que no hay referencia alguna al Quijote en la obra previa de Shakespeare.

¿Qué hicieron Fletcher y Shakespeare con el episodio de Cardenio incluido en el Quijote? No sabemos. La única pista que tenemos es una obra titulada Double Falsehood (Doble engaño), estrenada en Londres en 1727. Su autor, Lewis Theobald, aseguró que estaba basada en el original de Shakespeare que él conservaba en su biblioteca, pero su biblioteca se incendió y con ella toda prueba de su aserto. Lo cual no deja de ser un alivio, ya que la obra de Theobald es malísima.

En el Quijote, la historia de Cardenio comienza cuando el caballero y su escudero se internan en la Sierra Morena, tras el desafortunado incidente de la liberación de los galeotes; allí se topan con el tal Cardenio, un joven de buena cuna pero ahora vestido de harapos y enloquecido. En uno de sus momentos de cordura accede a contarles su historia: enamorado desde la edad más temprana de la hermosa Luscinda, titubea a la hora de pedirle a su propio padre su consentimiento para el matrimonio, y mientras se angustia y da vueltas, éste recibe una carta del duque local, que se lo pide de compañero para su hijo, don Fernando. Este resulta un joven enamoradizo y no muy escrupuloso, quien tras desvirgar a la bella Dorotea, hija de labradores ricos, con amenazas y una falsa promesa de casamiento, decide hurtarle el bulto a las posibles consecuencias haciendo una visita a las tierras de Cardenio, en Andalucía. Por el camino se entera por boca de su incauto amigo de las muchas bondades de Luscinda, alguna de las cuales tendrá oportunidad de apreciar por sí mismo cuando el propio Cardenio se la muestre a través de una ventana, dormida y medio desnuda. Al punto se lo saca de encima con la excusa de buscar dinero para comprar unos caballos, y pide la mano de Luscinda al padre de ésta, el cual advirtiendo las ventajas del nuevo candidato y medio harto de las vueltas de Cardenio, asiente con vehemencia. No así Luscinda, que logra hacerle llegar una carta a su prometido, y cuando este llega, para encontrarla ya vestida de boda, le muestra el puñal con el que piensa darse muerte antes de darle el sí a su traidor amigo. Lejos de disuadirla, Cardenio asiente entusiasta, y promete secundarla desenvainando contra el pérfido, o contra sí mismo si la suerte no lo favorece. Pero después se esconde tras un tapiz, convertido en mero espectador pasivo y algo perverso de la tragedia de su vida, y cuando Luscinda en lugar de matarse da un sí desmayado, se siente traicionado, se aleja del lugar alelado y se interna en el bosque donde lo encontrarán, seis meses después, don Quijote y Sancho. Inspirado por las cuitas del joven Cardenio, y por los libros de caballerías que ha leído, don Quijote decide hacer penitencia de amor por Dulcinea, y envía a Sancho al Toboso para que se lo cuente, pero en el camino éste se topa con el cura y el barbero que buscan a su amo, y juntos vuelven a la sierra donde se encuentran a la engañada Dorotea vestida de muchacho, que les cuenta, a ellos y a Cardenio que también se aparece por ahí, que la boda nunca tuvo lugar, pues Luscinda ocultaba en el pecho un papel donde afirmaba ser esposa de Cardenio, junto con la daga con la que el mosqueado don Fernando trató de apuñalarla. Para sacar a don Quijote de la sierra, Dorotea acepta hacerse pasar por la princesa Micomicona, despojada por un malvado gigante de su reino, y todos terminan en una venta, adonde también llegan don Fernando y Luscinda, secuestrada por éste de un convento. Caen las máscaras que todos llevaban, Dorotea recuerda a don Fernando su promesa, Luscinda se abraza a Cardenio, y todo se arregla. Don Quijote, que previamente había entrado en batalla sonámbula con unos cueros de vino tinto, creyendo que se trataba del gigante que tenía que matar, es encerrado en una jaula como por encantamiento y conducido de regreso a su aldea.

Sancho Panza abatido por el reencuentro de Cardenio y Luscinda y de Dorotea y Don Fernando. Grabado de Gustave Doré para el Volumen I de la edición 1880-1881 de «Don Quijote de la Mancha». Crédito: Getty Images.

¿Qué hicieron Fletcher y Shakespeare con todo esto? Lo cierto es que no sabemos. La única pista que tenemos es una obra titulada Double Falsehood (Doble engaño), estrenada en el Theatre Royal de Londres en 1727. Su autor, Lewis Theobald, uno de los grandes nombres de la crítica shakesperiana (Su Shakespeare Restored tuvo la osadía de criticar y corregir la edición de Alexander Pope, que le devolvió el favor convirtiéndolo en protagonista de su Dunciad, que podría traducirse como La idiotíada o La asníada) aseguró que estaba basada en el original de Shakespeare que él conservaba en su biblioteca, pero su biblioteca se incendió y con ella toda prueba de su aserto. Double Falsehood, hoy editada en la prestigiosa The Arden Shakespeare, aunque con prudente escamoteo de autoría, está indudablemente basada en la historia de Cardenio del Quijote, pero nada nos garantiza que haya estado basada también en la perdida pieza de Fletcher y Shakespeare, y que poco o mucho de ésta haya sobrevivido en aquella. El siglo XVIII y el temprano siglo XIX no compartían la superstición actual que hace de cualquier alteración del texto del Bardo un sacrilegio, incluso en las adaptaciones cinematográficas (ningún otro autor puede alardear de semejante privilegio, ni siquiera Dios, cuyas Escrituras suelen alterarse libremente al pasar de boca del Espíritu Santo a la pantalla grande o chica): por dar sólo un ejemplo, la más intransigente y desolada de sus tragedias, Rey Lear, entre 1680 y 1840 era representada en la sentimental adaptación de Nahum Tate, que incluía un romance entre Cordelia y Edgar y un final feliz en el que ésta sobrevivía y su padre recuperaba la corona. La pieza de Theobald, entonces, bien puede estar basada en la perdida Cardenio, y al mismo tiempo ser tan diferente que anule toda esperanza de guiarnos de regreso a ella. 

Lo cual no deja de ser un alivio, ya que la obra de Theobald es malísima, y seria doloroso imaginar que la obra surgida del magno encuentro de Cervantes y Shakespeare pueda serlo en igual medida. Cardenio se llama ahora Julio, Luscinda es Leonora, don Fernando Henríquez y Dorotea Violante, pero eso no sería grave si se conservaran o intensificaran los rasgos que los definían en el original de Cervantes y, quién sabe, en la adaptación de Fletcher y Shakespeare. El momento más interesante, psicológicamente hablando, cuando Cardenio se esconde tras el tapiz para contemplar cómo le birlan la novia en sus narices, que tan bien captura la fascinación paralizante de esas situaciones que hacen de nosotros testigos temblequeantes de nuestra propia vida, se vuelve aquí, de modo mucho más banal, acción frustrada y melodrama berreta: Julio interrumpe la boda y es echado a patadas por los secuaces de Henríquez. La ausencia más sentida, de todos modos, es la de don Quijote y Sancho, que son quirúrgicamente extirpados de la trama, y junto con ellos el deleite que generan en el original de Cervantes: los mejores momentos de la historia de Cardenio, son sin duda aquellos en que los dos están presentes: la penitencia de amor de don Quijote, hecha a imitación de Amadís y de Orlando; la misiva a Dulcinea que se le pierde a Sancho junto con la «libranza pollinesca»; la descomunal batalla contra los cueros de vino tinto. ¿Los habrán condenado al mismo exilio Fletcher y Shakespeare? Es posible, aunque sí se habían hecho presentes en una adaptación teatral aún más temprana, Don Quijote de la Mancha (c. 1606-1608) de Guillén de Castro (también autor de Las mocedades del Cid) y recuperada para la crítica y la historia por Roger Chartier en lo que es hasta hoy el estudio más pormenorizado de nuestro asunto, Cardenio entre Cervantes y Shakespeare (Gallimard, 2011; Gedisa, 2012).

Es probable que fuera Fletcher quien llevara a Shakespeare la idea de adaptar una parte del Quijote para la escena: hay numerosas remisiones a la novela de Cervantes en sus anteriores piezas, y todo parece indicar que sabía suficiente español para leerla en el original; mientras que no hay referencia alguna al Quijote en la obra previa de Shakespeare.

Pero hay otros momentos en que se cuela sugestiva, por las grietas del revoque presumiblemente aplicado por Theobald, la luz potencialmente shakesperiana: «¿Has visto alguna vez al fénix de este mundo, / el ave del paraíso?... / Yo sí, y descubrí sus dominios, y la sede / de su especiado nido; hasta que, como un tonto crédulo, / mostré el tesoro a un amigo en que confiaba, / y él me la robó». 

Fragmentos como éste han tentado y seguirán tentando a detectives literarios; pero en tanto esperamos que aparezca, en alguna remota biblioteca europea o americana, el improbable manuscrito, o la desconocida edición en folio o quarto, deberemos contentarnos con reconstrucciones más o menos imaginarias, como la de Gary Taylor de 2009, que desadapta Double Falsehood para llevar a cabo una reconstrucción conjetural lo que pudo haber sido la pieza de Fletcher y Shakespeare, reincorporando a don Quijote y Sancho; Taylor fue también co-editor, junto con David Carnegie, de The Quest for Cardenio: Shakespeare, Fletcher, Cervantes and the Lost Play, 2012. Bernard Richards, también en 2009, estrenó una versión titulada Cardenio, que pone en escena la violación de Dorotea/Violante, y también escenifica el secuestro de Luscinda/Leonora, que lleva a cabo don Fernando/Henríquez vestido de fraile. El crítico shakesperiano Stephen Greenblatt escribió, junto con Charles Mee, una obra también titulada Cardenio, que trae la acción al presente, incluye partes de Double Falsehood como obra dentro de la obra (a la manera de la «muy lamentable comedia» sobre Píramo y Tisbe en Sueño de una noche de verano y «La ratonera» en Hamlet) y se apoya, más que en la historia de Cardenio, en «La novela del curioso impertinente», como ya había hecho el anónimo autor de The Second Maiden's Tragedy. La reconstrucción más ambiciosa ha sido hasta ahora la encarada por Gregory Doran, director de la Royal Shakespeare Company, quien en 2011 estrenó en el Swan Theatre de Stratford-upon-Avon una versión titulada Cardenio. Shakespeare's 'Lost Play' Re-imagined. El método seguido por Doran, co-autor de la adaptación junto con el dramaturgo español Antonio Álamo, fue el de reparar las partes dañadas (por Theobald, presumiblemente) de la obra original de Fletcher y Shakespeare recurriendo al tejido verbal del original de Cervantes, un poco como el científico de Jurassic Park repara las secuencias incompletas del ADN de dinosaurio con material genético de especies actuales; pero una vez más dejando fuera a don Quijote y Sancho. Mi propia novela Cardenio (2016) trata de imaginar, antes que la obra en sí, el proceso creativo de Fletcher y Shakespeare, la gradual y no siempre armónica gestación de ese tercer hombre que, según Borges, debe ser el desiderátum de la colaboración literaria y que incluye, en esta recreación ficcional, no sólo a los dos dramaturgos ingleses y al novelista español, sino también a la joven Joan y amigos como Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton y (desde la muerte) Christopher Marlowe.



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