Literatura

Donald Ray Pollock por Guillermo Saccomanno: un predicador en la noche oscura

La publicación de «Knockemstiff» (2011), el debut literario de un desconocido que había pasado los 50 años, fue una iluminación: un éxito de crítica instantáneo y la celebración de una voz nueva, corrosiva y a la vez piadosa, para narrar una nueva Norteamérica profunda hecha de religión, pobreza y drogas. En los años siguientes llegaron las traducciones a más de 20 idiomas, las novelas «El diablo a todas horas» (2011) y «El banquete celestial» (2016) y una adaptación por parte de Netflix. Con esta película como excusa, el escritor argentino Guillermo Saccomanno se adentra en los libros de Donald Ray Pollock, obras (todas editadas por Literatura Random House) que conjuran los espectros más oscuros y las redenciones más incandescentes de la literatura norteamericana.

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En los a\u00f1os siguientes llegaron las traducciones a m\u00e1s de 20 idiomas, las novelas \u00abEl diablo a todas horas\u00bb (2011) y \u00abEl banquete celestial\u00bb (2016) y una adaptaci\u00f3n por parte de Netflix. 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En su antebrazo izquierdo, un tatuaje: <em>Carpe Diem.<\/em> Pertenece a un tipo rudo, que trabaj\u00f3 fuerte. Curtido, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4519-donald-ray-pollock\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Donald Ray Pollock<\/a><\/span>, t\u00edpico<em> working class hero,<\/em> cuenta: \u00abViv\u00ed parte de una vida <em>trash<\/em> cuando era joven\u00bb. Ahora, cerca de los setenta, escritor consagrado, con anteojos, el pelo corto, camisa clara y saco azul, el ce\u00f1o adusto, tiene el aspecto de un pastor austero, pero tambi\u00e9n puede aparecer con jean y borcegos, un aire <em>country<\/em> que lo define. No sonr\u00ede f\u00e1cil, pero se le nota la iron\u00eda. Si se le pregunta de d\u00f3nde viene su <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">literatura<\/a><\/span>, una narrativa depredadora de los abismos de las clases m\u00e1s bajas sofocadas por la injusticia y la sordidez, explica: \u00abHasta los treinta y dos estuve trabajando, bebiendo y coloc\u00e1ndome. Trabajaba en un frigor\u00edfico y despu\u00e9s en una f\u00e1brica de papel durante a\u00f1os. Ten\u00eda much\u00edsimos problemas. Siempre al borde del despido. Hasta que me propuse una limpieza y fui a rehabilitaci\u00f3n. A partir de los cuarenta y cinco, fui a un taller de escritura creativa y empec\u00e9 a escribir. Mirando lo que hab\u00eda vivido, descubr\u00ed que ten\u00eda bastante material literario. En verdad, ese material que recordaba, lo vivido, era la realidad 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\u00abMi padre me ense\u00f1\u00f3 a hacer da\u00f1o a la gente una noche de agosto en el autocine Torch cuando yo ten\u00eda siete a\u00f1os\u00bb, se acuerda Bobby en <em>La vida real, el cuento de apertura de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/36984-libro-knockemstiff-9788439732440\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Knockemstiff<\/a><\/em> (Literatura Random House, 2011). En el ba\u00f1o del autocine padre e hijo se agarran a trompadas contra otro padre con su hijo. La sangre salpica a todos. Si es verdad que en las l\u00edneas iniciales de lo que uno escribe, en ese principio, ya se preanuncia lo que vendr\u00e1 despu\u00e9s, que en Pollock ser\u00e1 un descenso cada vez m\u00e1s pronunciado hacia las cat\u00e1strofes en la cotidianeidad de un pueblo que no figuraba en ninguna cartograf\u00eda hasta los a\u00f1os 40 y del que ahora, si se sabe, es gracias a que el escritor lo enfoc\u00f3 en su primer libro de cuentos. En la primera p\u00e1gina hay una postal, se ve la entrada de un pueblito rural que podr\u00eda ser Peyton Place o Twin Peaks, pero menos cosm\u00e9tico. La traducci\u00f3n aproximada de <em>Knockemstiff<\/em> es \u00abGolp\u00e9alo, d\u00e9jalo duro\u00bb, toda una consigna de supervivencia. M\u00e1s de una vez, quisieron cambiarle el nombre como si se pudiera cambiar algo que es imposible. Situado al sur del estado de Ohio, seg\u00fan el \u00faltimo censo, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Knockemstiff,_Ohio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Knockemstiff<\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Knockemstiff,_Ohio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a>no pasa de los doscientos habitantes. Despu\u00e9s de la postal viene el mapa donde est\u00e1n se\u00f1alados los bares, las serpientes, el basurero y sitios como El hoyo de la dinamita. El mapa, en su af\u00e1n de verosimilitud, tiene antecedentes y uno de los primeros puede ser el que traz\u00f3 Sherwood Anderson en Winnesburg, Ohio, una colecci\u00f3n de relatos ubicados no muy lejos de Knockemstiff. \u00abTodos los americanos vienen de Ohio, a\u00fan brevemente\u00bb, reza el ac\u00e1pite que Pollock eligi\u00f3 como introducci\u00f3n su colecci\u00f3n de cuentos. El condado de Yoknaphathawpa, donde ancla la narrativa de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/414-william-faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">William Faulkner<\/a><\/span>, tambi\u00e9n presenta su mapa en <em>\u00a1Absal\u00f3n, Absal\u00f3n!<\/em> aunque Yoknaphahawpa no queda en Ohio sino en el condado de Lafayette en el sur de Mississippi, originariamente tierra <em>chickashaw.<\/em> El mapa tiene escrito a mano: \u00abPropiedad exclusiva de William Faulkner\u00bb. El nombre en lengua india es ficcional, traducible como \u00abtierra dividida\u00bb. El lector de estas anotaciones puede preguntarse a qu\u00e9 vienen estas derivas. Pues bien, si al poner un mapa al comienzo de una ficci\u00f3n un autor intenta probar su existencia -as\u00ed sea imaginaria-, a la vez demuestra ser \u00fanico y absoluto due\u00f1o tir\u00e1nico de bosques, pantanos y habitantes desgraciados. Faulkner fue visionario al referirse a una \u00abtierra dividida\u00bb. El espacio de estos territorios narrativos est\u00e1 partido por una fisura social extrema: \u00abCuesta creer que haya gente tan pobre en este pa\u00eds siendo el m\u00e1s rico del mundo\u00bb, reflexiona un personaje de <em>Knockemstiff.<\/em> Otro, uno que se encurda con alcohol barato, concluye: \u00abA la mayor\u00eda nos pasa lo mismo. Puede que olvidar nuestras vidas sea lo mejor que hagamos nunca\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zv112y7\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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\u00abMientras escrib\u00eda los cuentos trat\u00e9 de ser fiel a ciertas cosas, especialmente a la pobreza y la fama de lugar amenazador que ten\u00eda mi pueblo\u00bb, dice Pollock. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4519-donald-ray-pollock\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEscrib\u00ed de lo que sab\u00eda\u00bb<\/a><\/span>. Y esta es una premisa que cumple gran parte de la literatura norteamericana, muchas veces con la convicci\u00f3n de que lo narrado, si pas\u00f3 en la realidad, habr\u00e1 de funcionar como si las contingencias de forma y contenido no tuvieran nada que ver. No obstante, Pollock responde a la premisa s\u00f3lo en parte, cuenta las cosas tal como las contar\u00eda un rumor de pueblo y sin pelos en la lengua, pero en su po\u00e9tica predomina una habilidad poco frecuente para la jerga y las observaciones, las salidas metaf\u00f3ricas, aut\u00e9nticos exabruptos en el habla coloquial de sus personajes.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o69ve6i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Winnesburg, Peyton Place, Twin Peaks\u2026 Situado al sur del estado de Ohio, seg\u00fan el \u00faltimo censo, Knockemstiff no pasa de los doscientos habitantes. \u00abTodos los americanos vienen de Ohio, a\u00fan brevemente\u00bb, reza el ac\u00e1pite que Pollock eligi\u00f3 como introducci\u00f3n su colecci\u00f3n de cuentos.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dozuaic\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>4. Pollock no s\u00f3lo practica una literatura con nervio sino que consigue poner nervioso al lector m\u00e1s templado. <em>Knockenstiff,<\/em> al igual que en sus novelas posteriores, est\u00e1 m\u00e1s cerca de Jim Thompson que de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/672-flannery-o-connor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Flannery O'Connor<\/a><\/span> y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/602-cormac-mccarthy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cormac McCarthy<\/a><\/span>, con quienes se lo ha comparado. Por ejemplo, en el mencionado Hoyo de la Dinamita un chico cuenta que viene de cazar una serpiente cuando encuentra otro chico mont\u00e1ndose a su propia hermana \u00abpor estos pagos de la tierra malvada del Se\u00f1or\u00bb. 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Pero c\u00f3mo es que se desarrollan las historias en esta caldera del Diablo \u2013y al decir caldera y decir Diablo, entramos en la cuesti\u00f3n religiosa, la autoridad de la Biblia y su interpretaci\u00f3n protestante, subjetiva, que permite que cada uno entienda a su gusto y antojo los evangelios legitimando sus intereses m\u00e1s espurios. Las tramas se urden en una endogamia rural: todos los personajes corresponden a la iglesia acudan con frecuencia o no a la misa dominical. La voz narradora de Pollock, ya sea en primera o segunda o tercera persona, alude a los protagonistas como conocidos, referidos por el tono confidente de un vecino curioso, lo que impregna de cercan\u00eda cada historia. \u00abCuando empec\u00e9 a escribir\u00bb, dice Pollock, \u00ab\u00fanicamente copiaba a otros escritores. Despu\u00e9s fui escribiendo sobre cosas que le hab\u00edan pasado a la gente que conoc\u00eda. Quiz\u00e1 no fuesen grandes historias, pero eran mucho mejores que lo que hab\u00eda escrito antes\u00bb. A todos y a cada uno, aun cuando no digan presente el domingo, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-papa-francisco-a-las-neurosis-hay-que-cebarles-mate\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la mirada del Se\u00f1or, omnipresente<\/a><\/span>, los persigue y sus destinos est\u00e1n signados por el calvario. Si bien todas y todos padecen la pobreza extrema y el revuelco en un chiquero de pasiones, todas y todos son absolutamente individualistas y s\u00f3lo les importa la salvaci\u00f3n personal cualquiera sea la v\u00eda y el precio a pagar. \u00abEl cielo h\u00famedo y gris cubr\u00eda el sur de Ohio como si fuera la piel de un cad\u00e1ver\u00bb, recuerda un tipo derrotado en <em>Bendecido.<\/em> Est\u00e1 pasado de oxicodona. Se rompi\u00f3 los huesos en la ca\u00edda de un techo durante un robo y su compinche le propone que le preste su mujer por unos d\u00f3lares. A todo esto, la mujer se la pasa enganchada en la tele y entre ellos se pasea un hijo mudo. Poco m\u00e1s tarde, despu\u00e9s de un atrac\u00f3n en un McDonald's al tipo lo asalta una descompostura, se caga literalmente en un callej\u00f3n, la polic\u00eda lo sorprende, lo sacude a bastonazos, y la noche no puede terminar peor: el tipo termina drogado con las pastillas que le quedan \u00absumergido en un oc\u00e9ano dulce y c\u00e1lido. Durante los minutos siguientes me plante\u00e9 somnolientamente cambiar mi vida.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/memorias-hunter-biden-cosas-bonitas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Decid\u00ed que iba a dejar la oxicodona<\/a><\/span> en cuanto se me acabara la receta que estaba usando. Con la terapia adecuada, podr\u00eda conseguir un trabajo decente. Me imagin\u00e9 de capataz de la construcci\u00f3n, e incluso de orientador para drogadictos. Nos largar\u00edamos de la caravana apestosa y nos instalar\u00edamos en una casa bonita. Nos imagin\u00e9 yendo a la iglesia los domingos y a nuestro hijo cantando en el coro. Y me qued\u00e9 dormido\u00bb. Pero ning\u00fan personaje est\u00e1 libre de los mandatos del Se\u00f1or ni de las leyes de Murphy. El tipo descubre que su hijo no es mudo sino que habla con su madre, excepto en su presencia. \u00abDe pronto me acord\u00e9 del frasco de oxicodona que hab\u00eda en el botiqu\u00edn y me detuve. Levant\u00e9 las manos inmundas y me embadurn\u00e9 de mierda primero la cara y despu\u00e9s el pelo. Di media vuelta, agarr\u00e9 el pomo de la puerta y met\u00ed la llave en la cerradura. O\u00ed que dentro de la caravana todo quedaba triste y en silencio mientras abr\u00eda la puerta, pero no me import\u00f3. Solamente una vez m\u00e1s, solamente una m\u00e1s antes de macharme, necesitaba sentirme bendecido\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t2olhst\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todas las aberraciones y fechor\u00edas que cometen los hombres, mujeres, viejos y chicos de Knockemstiff las concretan sin dejar de ser creyentes \u2013unos m\u00e1s, otros menos\u2013, siempre pendientes de la ayuda milagrosa del 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Willard Russell, un muchacho veterano de la guerra del Pacifico, retorna a casa, despu\u00e9s de despenar a un marine torturado por los japoneses y liquidar impiadosamente a sus verdugos que imploran perd\u00f3n. Se casa, tiene un hijo, Arvin. En el bosque cercano levanta una cruz de madera a la cual acude a rogar por el perd\u00f3n de sus pecados. En la b\u00fasqueda de redenci\u00f3n y rogando por la cura del c\u00e1ncer de su mujer, arrastra a Arvin a un ritual en el que sacrifica desde cerdos al perro de su hijo. La violencia se constituye en lecci\u00f3n para Arvin al igual que la gresca en el autocine para el citado Bobby de<em> La vida real.<\/em> Dos cazadores furtivos comentan, al pasar por la cruz, lo buena que est\u00e1 su mujer y lo que har\u00edan con ella. Willard los busca luego en una borracher\u00eda miserable: uno alcanza a huir, el otro termina destrozado a trompadas. Poco despu\u00e9s, su mujer muere. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Bill Skarsg\u00e5rd como Willard y Michael Banks como Arvin (con 9 a\u00f1os) en la adaptaci\u00f3n f\u00edlmica de <em>El diablo a todas horas.<\/em> Cr\u00e9dito: cortes\u00eda de 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Hay una explicaci\u00f3n en la pormenorizaci\u00f3n morosa de perversiones y sordideces: la formaci\u00f3n literaria de Pollock proviene de lecturas poco prestigiosas. \u00abCuando era chico no hab\u00eda libros en mi casa\u00bb, dice. \u00abMis padres estaban m\u00e1s interesados en los peri\u00f3dicos y las revistas basura. Con siete a\u00f1os le\u00eda las secciones de<em> confesiones<\/em> o <em>cr\u00edmenes\u00bb<\/em>. Y no poco de ese material que subyugaba\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4519-donald-ray-pollock\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">al joven Pollock<\/a><\/span> se trasluce en el registro de comportamientos patol\u00f3gicos que, una lectura sociol\u00f3gica, puede atribuir a la exclusi\u00f3n de los blancos pobres hundidos en la desesperaci\u00f3n y el alcohol, y sus mujeres denigradas y prostituidas, que reciben el mismo trato que la poblaci\u00f3n negra. Si es verdad que este desfile de horrores puede espantar, Pollock no se cansa de hurgar ni se queda atr\u00e1s al reflejar el grado de machismo, la homofobia y el racismo de esta vasta clase de marginados anhelantes de un rescate, esperando oportunidades que nunca llegan mientras la religi\u00f3n amansa y sanciona, dicta puritanismo y encubre. La religi\u00f3n es entonces en Pollock una cuesti\u00f3n que no se puede pasar por alto.\u00a0<\/p><p>8. Quien dice que el Diablo est\u00e1 en todas partes, dice tambi\u00e9n que Dios lo est\u00e1. Y quien dice Dios, por car\u00e1cter transitivo, dice Padre. El tema del Padre atraviesa la literatura norteamericana de punta a punta desde su novela fundante, <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36563-libro-moby-dick-9788491050209\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Moby Dick<\/a><\/em>: el capit\u00e1n Ahab, ballenero ap\u00f3stata inmol\u00e1ndose contra el Leviat\u00e1n y desafiando a Dios. M\u00e1s ac\u00e1, siglo pasado, encontramos, a modo de ejemplo, el tema en dos relatos ya cl\u00e1sicos: la novela<em> <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/34927-libro-el-ruido-y-la-furia-9788490628188\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El\u00a0ruido y la furia<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0y el cuento <em>Campamento indio.<\/em> M\u00e1s tarde el tema del padre repica en Cheever y Carver, entre otros, alcanza la actualidad y, podr\u00eda afirmarse, sin exagerar, que pas\u00f3 de ser un t\u00f3pico a ser un g\u00e9nero. As\u00ed las cosas, un pensamiento espiritual viril, un vitalismo siempre a prueba, entre parricida y perdonavidas, retorcido por la culpa, es esencial para la comprensi\u00f3n de esta literatura que, aunque practique a veces el laconismo, sermonea moralista por debajo del iceberg narrativo. En este punto, Pollock no est\u00e1 ajeno a la impronta m\u00edstica, que subrayar\u00e1 unos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s en su siguiente novela, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/26351-ebook-el-banquete-celestial\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>El banquete celestial<\/em><\/a><\/span> (Literatura Random House, 2016).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"22t753t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abNo escribo cuentos de hadas. Seamos realistas: aunque muchas personas son amables, son mayor\u00eda las malas. Si alguien piensa que mi trabajo muestra s\u00f3lo los actos m\u00e1s horripilantes, no est\u00e1 al d\u00eda con las noticias. Mis personajes ni siquiera est\u00e1n cerca de lo que los humanos son capaces en sus bajas intenciones. Las cosas que escribo son <em>light<\/em> si las comparamos con la masacre de una escuela en Connecticut\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fjjyz3t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>9. En la segunda d\u00e9cada del siglo XX, el granjero arrendatario Pearl Jewettt \u00absacrific\u00f3 mucho, hasta dej\u00f3 el tabaco para pagar un banco en la Primera Iglesia Baptista de la Justa Revelaci\u00f3n en el pueblo cercano y, todas las ma\u00f1anas de domingo de los a\u00f1os siguientes, sin importar el tiempo que hiciera, su joven familia y \u00e9l recorr\u00edan cinco kil\u00f3metros para ir a sus servicios religiosos. Ya vetusto y deteriorado, Pearl Jewett, el creyente, tiene una mujer d\u00e9bil y sufrida y tres hijos problem\u00e1ticos, ingenuos lectores de un w\u00e9stern, <em>Vida y \u00e9poca del sanguinario Bill Bucket.<\/em> El hambre los arrincona. Su mujer tiene una enfermedad letal en el aparato digestivo y, al agonizar, le sale de la boca un gusano de varios cent\u00edmetros, \u00abno m\u00e1s ancho que un dedo anular y no m\u00e1s grueso que unas cuantas hojas de papel\u00bb. Jewett atrapa el gusano, le rompe la cabeza y lo tiende al sol. Una vez disecado lo pone en un frasco bajo la almohada. Y con el frasco bajo la cabeza dormir\u00e1 mientras el tiempo pasa, las penurias econ\u00f3micas lo acosan y sus hijos crecen ingenuos salvajes e ignorantes. Un ermita\u00f1o lo convence al viejo Jewett de que si respeta las leyes del Se\u00f1or y cumple con su voluntad, si sigue el camino recto, al morir participar\u00e1 de un banquete celestial. Pearl se lo toma al pie de la letra. \u00abPor suerte la vida no dura mucho\u00bb, le dice el ermita\u00f1o. Pero la muerte no tiene apuro en llevarse a Jewett: acosado por las deudas, juntando papas en un pantano de sol a sol, terminar\u00e1 por morir en la magra cosecha padeciendo una brutal diarrea s\u00fabita. Poco despu\u00e9s, los hijos decidir\u00e1n que su porvenir est\u00e1 escrito en Bill Buckett. Dispuestos a imitar a su h\u00e9roe se convertir\u00e1n en asaltantes de bancos. En unas semanas ser\u00e1n forajidos temibles cuyas vidas valen una recompensa de 50.000 d\u00f3lares estadounidenses. La recompensa ofrecida es exagerada, pero hay que tener en cuenta que a la banda se le cargan cr\u00edmenes que no cometieron y que muchos, los aportantes, les adjudican por conveniencia. A grandes rasgos, esta es una de las tramas que componen <em>El banquete celestial<\/em> (2016), tan solo una. Porque a Pollock le gusta urdir una abundante colecci\u00f3n esperp\u00e9ntica de criaturas bizarras entre las que figuran tambi\u00e9n banqueros extorsionadores, reclutas de un campo de entrenamiento militar, un muchacho de pene descomunal que asusta a su madre y las putas que se le cruzan, un <em>playboy<\/em> malversador de una herencia bordo de un aeroplano artillado y una pandilla de pistoleros improvisados al mando de un<em> sheriff<\/em> intimidante tras la recompensa de la banda Jewett.\u00a0<\/p><p>10. \u00abNo escribo cuentos de hadas\u00bb, aclara Pollock como si fuera necesario. \u00abSeamos realistas: aunque muchas personas son amables, son mayor\u00eda las malas. Si alguien piensa que mi trabajo muestra s\u00f3lo los actos m\u00e1s horripilantes, no est\u00e1 al d\u00eda con las noticias. Mis personajes ni siquiera est\u00e1n cerca de lo que los humanos son capaces en sus bajas intenciones. Las cosas que escribo son<em> light<\/em> si las comparamos con la masacre de una escuela en Connecticut\u00bb. El argumento de Pollock puede ser v\u00e1lido: lo desarrolla alguien que sabe, como se ha dicho, de lo que habla. Y lo religioso, aunque no lo mencione, llama la atenci\u00f3n sin precisar un lector intr\u00e9pido para subrayarlo. No es desatinado conjeturar entonces que en su adentrarse en las vidas de sus personajes, signadas siempre por la desgracia, Pollock deviene en un predicador literario que filtra con humor negro para ocultar su pietismo: en cada descenso, en \u00abla noche oscura del alma\u00bb, por momentos, pareciera asomar una pedagog\u00eda moral t\u00e1cita y, por qu\u00e9 no, una apenas oculta intenci\u00f3n redentorista.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/fundacion-isaac-asimov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Isaac Asimov por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: en busca del futuro perdido<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/el-ferrocarril-subterraneo-colson-whitehead\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl ferrocarril subterr\u00e1neo\u00bb o el holocausto norteamericano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 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15 minutos

Donald Ray Pollock en una imagen de 2012. Crédito: Getty Images.

1. En su antebrazo izquierdo, un tatuaje: Carpe Diem. Pertenece a un tipo rudo, que trabajó fuerte. Curtido, Donald Ray Pollock, típico working class hero, cuenta: «Viví parte de una vida trash cuando era joven». Ahora, cerca de los setenta, escritor consagrado, con anteojos, el pelo corto, camisa clara y saco azul, el ceño adusto, tiene el aspecto de un pastor austero, pero también puede aparecer con jean y borcegos, un aire country que lo define. No sonríe fácil, pero se le nota la ironía. Si se le pregunta de dónde viene su literatura, una narrativa depredadora de los abismos de las clases más bajas sofocadas por la injusticia y la sordidez, explica: «Hasta los treinta y dos estuve trabajando, bebiendo y colocándome. Trabajaba en un frigorífico y después en una fábrica de papel durante años. Tenía muchísimos problemas. Siempre al borde del despido. Hasta que me propuse una limpieza y fui a rehabilitación. A partir de los cuarenta y cinco, fui a un taller de escritura creativa y empecé a escribir. Mirando lo que había vivido, descubrí que tenía bastante material literario. En verdad, ese material que recordaba, lo vivido, era la realidad cruda».

2. «Mi padre me enseñó a hacer daño a la gente una noche de agosto en el autocine Torch cuando yo tenía siete años», se acuerda Bobby en La vida real, el cuento de apertura de Knockemstiff (Literatura Random House, 2011). En el baño del autocine padre e hijo se agarran a trompadas contra otro padre con su hijo. La sangre salpica a todos. Si es verdad que en las líneas iniciales de lo que uno escribe, en ese principio, ya se preanuncia lo que vendrá después, que en Pollock será un descenso cada vez más pronunciado hacia las catástrofes en la cotidianeidad de un pueblo que no figuraba en ninguna cartografía hasta los años 40 y del que ahora, si se sabe, es gracias a que el escritor lo enfocó en su primer libro de cuentos. En la primera página hay una postal, se ve la entrada de un pueblito rural que podría ser Peyton Place o Twin Peaks, pero menos cosmético. La traducción aproximada de Knockemstiff es «Golpéalo, déjalo duro», toda una consigna de supervivencia. Más de una vez, quisieron cambiarle el nombre como si se pudiera cambiar algo que es imposible. Situado al sur del estado de Ohio, según el último censo, Knockemstiff no pasa de los doscientos habitantes. Después de la postal viene el mapa donde están señalados los bares, las serpientes, el basurero y sitios como El hoyo de la dinamita. El mapa, en su afán de verosimilitud, tiene antecedentes y uno de los primeros puede ser el que trazó Sherwood Anderson en Winnesburg, Ohio, una colección de relatos ubicados no muy lejos de Knockemstiff. «Todos los americanos vienen de Ohio, aún brevemente», reza el acápite que Pollock eligió como introducción su colección de cuentos. El condado de Yoknaphathawpa, donde ancla la narrativa de William Faulkner, también presenta su mapa en ¡Absalón, Absalón! aunque Yoknaphahawpa no queda en Ohio sino en el condado de Lafayette en el sur de Mississippi, originariamente tierra chickashaw. El mapa tiene escrito a mano: «Propiedad exclusiva de William Faulkner». El nombre en lengua india es ficcional, traducible como «tierra dividida». El lector de estas anotaciones puede preguntarse a qué vienen estas derivas. Pues bien, si al poner un mapa al comienzo de una ficción un autor intenta probar su existencia -así sea imaginaria-, a la vez demuestra ser único y absoluto dueño tiránico de bosques, pantanos y habitantes desgraciados. Faulkner fue visionario al referirse a una «tierra dividida». El espacio de estos territorios narrativos está partido por una fisura social extrema: «Cuesta creer que haya gente tan pobre en este país siendo el más rico del mundo», reflexiona un personaje de Knockemstiff. Otro, uno que se encurda con alcohol barato, concluye: «A la mayoría nos pasa lo mismo. Puede que olvidar nuestras vidas sea lo mejor que hagamos nunca».

3. «Mientras escribía los cuentos traté de ser fiel a ciertas cosas, especialmente a la pobreza y la fama de lugar amenazador que tenía mi pueblo», dice Pollock. «Escribí de lo que sabía». Y esta es una premisa que cumple gran parte de la literatura norteamericana, muchas veces con la convicción de que lo narrado, si pasó en la realidad, habrá de funcionar como si las contingencias de forma y contenido no tuvieran nada que ver. No obstante, Pollock responde a la premisa sólo en parte, cuenta las cosas tal como las contaría un rumor de pueblo y sin pelos en la lengua, pero en su poética predomina una habilidad poco frecuente para la jerga y las observaciones, las salidas metafóricas, auténticos exabruptos en el habla coloquial de sus personajes.

Winnesburg, Peyton Place, Twin Peaks… Situado al sur del estado de Ohio, según el último censo, Knockemstiff no pasa de los doscientos habitantes. «Todos los americanos vienen de Ohio, aún brevemente», reza el acápite que Pollock eligió como introducción su colección de cuentos. 

4. Pollock no sólo practica una literatura con nervio sino que consigue poner nervioso al lector más templado. Knockenstiff, al igual que en sus novelas posteriores, está más cerca de Jim Thompson que de Flannery O'Connor y Cormac McCarthy, con quienes se lo ha comparado. Por ejemplo, en el mencionado Hoyo de la Dinamita un chico cuenta que viene de cazar una serpiente cuando encuentra otro chico montándose a su propia hermana «por estos pagos de la tierra malvada del Señor». Y acá nos encontramos con el Diablo, porque todas las aberraciones y fechorías que cometen los hombres, mujeres, viejos y chicos de Knockemstiff las concretan sin dejar de ser creyentes –unos más, otros menos–, siempre pendientes de la ayuda milagrosa del Cielo.

Robert Pattinson como el reverendo Preston Teagardin en la adaptación fílmica de El diablo a todas horas. Crédito: cortesía de Netflix.

5. Pero cómo es que se desarrollan las historias en esta caldera del Diablo –y al decir caldera y decir Diablo, entramos en la cuestión religiosa, la autoridad de la Biblia y su interpretación protestante, subjetiva, que permite que cada uno entienda a su gusto y antojo los evangelios legitimando sus intereses más espurios. Las tramas se urden en una endogamia rural: todos los personajes corresponden a la iglesia acudan con frecuencia o no a la misa dominical. La voz narradora de Pollock, ya sea en primera o segunda o tercera persona, alude a los protagonistas como conocidos, referidos por el tono confidente de un vecino curioso, lo que impregna de cercanía cada historia. «Cuando empecé a escribir», dice Pollock, «únicamente copiaba a otros escritores. Después fui escribiendo sobre cosas que le habían pasado a la gente que conocía. Quizá no fuesen grandes historias, pero eran mucho mejores que lo que había escrito antes». A todos y a cada uno, aun cuando no digan presente el domingo, la mirada del Señor, omnipresente, los persigue y sus destinos están signados por el calvario. Si bien todas y todos padecen la pobreza extrema y el revuelco en un chiquero de pasiones, todas y todos son absolutamente individualistas y sólo les importa la salvación personal cualquiera sea la vía y el precio a pagar. «El cielo húmedo y gris cubría el sur de Ohio como si fuera la piel de un cadáver», recuerda un tipo derrotado en Bendecido. Está pasado de oxicodona. Se rompió los huesos en la caída de un techo durante un robo y su compinche le propone que le preste su mujer por unos dólares. A todo esto, la mujer se la pasa enganchada en la tele y entre ellos se pasea un hijo mudo. Poco más tarde, después de un atracón en un McDonald's al tipo lo asalta una descompostura, se caga literalmente en un callejón, la policía lo sorprende, lo sacude a bastonazos, y la noche no puede terminar peor: el tipo termina drogado con las pastillas que le quedan «sumergido en un océano dulce y cálido. Durante los minutos siguientes me planteé somnolientamente cambiar mi vida. Decidí que iba a dejar la oxicodona en cuanto se me acabara la receta que estaba usando. Con la terapia adecuada, podría conseguir un trabajo decente. Me imaginé de capataz de la construcción, e incluso de orientador para drogadictos. Nos largaríamos de la caravana apestosa y nos instalaríamos en una casa bonita. Nos imaginé yendo a la iglesia los domingos y a nuestro hijo cantando en el coro. Y me quedé dormido». Pero ningún personaje está libre de los mandatos del Señor ni de las leyes de Murphy. El tipo descubre que su hijo no es mudo sino que habla con su madre, excepto en su presencia. «De pronto me acordé del frasco de oxicodona que había en el botiquín y me detuve. Levanté las manos inmundas y me embadurné de mierda primero la cara y después el pelo. Di media vuelta, agarré el pomo de la puerta y metí la llave en la cerradura. Oí que dentro de la caravana todo quedaba triste y en silencio mientras abría la puerta, pero no me importó. Solamente una vez más, solamente una más antes de macharme, necesitaba sentirme bendecido».

Todas las aberraciones y fechorías que cometen los hombres, mujeres, viejos y chicos de Knockemstiff las concretan sin dejar de ser creyentes –unos más, otros menos–, siempre pendientes de la ayuda milagrosa del Cielo.

6. Si Knockemstiff le valió a Pollock un valioso reconocimiento de la crítica, la novela El diablo a todas horas (Literatura Random House, 2011) le reportó popularidad, además de por su destreza en construir una feria de atrocidades, por la adaptación fílmica de Antonio Campos producida por Netflix, un producto Disney si se la mide con el texto base. A consignar: la narración en off del protagonista corre por parte de Pollock, quien vuelve a su lugar natal, ese Knockemstiff que conoce como la palma de su mano. Willard Russell, un muchacho veterano de la guerra del Pacifico, retorna a casa, después de despenar a un marine torturado por los japoneses y liquidar impiadosamente a sus verdugos que imploran perdón. Se casa, tiene un hijo, Arvin. En el bosque cercano levanta una cruz de madera a la cual acude a rogar por el perdón de sus pecados. En la búsqueda de redención y rogando por la cura del cáncer de su mujer, arrastra a Arvin a un ritual en el que sacrifica desde cerdos al perro de su hijo. La violencia se constituye en lección para Arvin al igual que la gresca en el autocine para el citado Bobby de La vida real. Dos cazadores furtivos comentan, al pasar por la cruz, lo buena que está su mujer y lo que harían con ella. Willard los busca luego en una borrachería miserable: uno alcanza a huir, el otro termina destrozado a trompadas. Poco después, su mujer muere. Este es el contexto de la iniciación de Arvin, un entorno siniestro y sórdido en el que van y vienen, además de predicadores poseídos y violadores, una pareja de asesinos seriales que se dedica a fotografiar escenas de sexo con quienes serán sus víctimas.

Bill Skarsgård como Willard y Michael Banks como Arvin (con 9 años) en la adaptación fílmica de El diablo a todas horas. Crédito: cortesía de Netflix.

7. Hay una explicación en la pormenorización morosa de perversiones y sordideces: la formación literaria de Pollock proviene de lecturas poco prestigiosas. «Cuando era chico no había libros en mi casa», dice. «Mis padres estaban más interesados en los periódicos y las revistas basura. Con siete años leía las secciones de confesiones o crímenes». Y no poco de ese material que subyugaba al joven Pollock se trasluce en el registro de comportamientos patológicos que, una lectura sociológica, puede atribuir a la exclusión de los blancos pobres hundidos en la desesperación y el alcohol, y sus mujeres denigradas y prostituidas, que reciben el mismo trato que la población negra. Si es verdad que este desfile de horrores puede espantar, Pollock no se cansa de hurgar ni se queda atrás al reflejar el grado de machismo, la homofobia y el racismo de esta vasta clase de marginados anhelantes de un rescate, esperando oportunidades que nunca llegan mientras la religión amansa y sanciona, dicta puritanismo y encubre. La religión es entonces en Pollock una cuestión que no se puede pasar por alto. 

8. Quien dice que el Diablo está en todas partes, dice también que Dios lo está. Y quien dice Dios, por carácter transitivo, dice Padre. El tema del Padre atraviesa la literatura norteamericana de punta a punta desde su novela fundante, Moby Dick: el capitán Ahab, ballenero apóstata inmolándose contra el Leviatán y desafiando a Dios. Más acá, siglo pasado, encontramos, a modo de ejemplo, el tema en dos relatos ya clásicos: la novela El ruido y la furia y el cuento Campamento indio. Más tarde el tema del padre repica en Cheever y Carver, entre otros, alcanza la actualidad y, podría afirmarse, sin exagerar, que pasó de ser un tópico a ser un género. Así las cosas, un pensamiento espiritual viril, un vitalismo siempre a prueba, entre parricida y perdonavidas, retorcido por la culpa, es esencial para la comprensión de esta literatura que, aunque practique a veces el laconismo, sermonea moralista por debajo del iceberg narrativo. En este punto, Pollock no está ajeno a la impronta mística, que subrayará unos años después en su siguiente novela, El banquete celestial (Literatura Random House, 2016).

«No escribo cuentos de hadas. Seamos realistas: aunque muchas personas son amables, son mayoría las malas. Si alguien piensa que mi trabajo muestra sólo los actos más horripilantes, no está al día con las noticias. Mis personajes ni siquiera están cerca de lo que los humanos son capaces en sus bajas intenciones. Las cosas que escribo son light si las comparamos con la masacre de una escuela en Connecticut».

9. En la segunda década del siglo XX, el granjero arrendatario Pearl Jewettt «sacrificó mucho, hasta dejó el tabaco para pagar un banco en la Primera Iglesia Baptista de la Justa Revelación en el pueblo cercano y, todas las mañanas de domingo de los años siguientes, sin importar el tiempo que hiciera, su joven familia y él recorrían cinco kilómetros para ir a sus servicios religiosos. Ya vetusto y deteriorado, Pearl Jewett, el creyente, tiene una mujer débil y sufrida y tres hijos problemáticos, ingenuos lectores de un wéstern, Vida y época del sanguinario Bill Bucket. El hambre los arrincona. Su mujer tiene una enfermedad letal en el aparato digestivo y, al agonizar, le sale de la boca un gusano de varios centímetros, «no más ancho que un dedo anular y no más grueso que unas cuantas hojas de papel». Jewett atrapa el gusano, le rompe la cabeza y lo tiende al sol. Una vez disecado lo pone en un frasco bajo la almohada. Y con el frasco bajo la cabeza dormirá mientras el tiempo pasa, las penurias económicas lo acosan y sus hijos crecen ingenuos salvajes e ignorantes. Un ermitaño lo convence al viejo Jewett de que si respeta las leyes del Señor y cumple con su voluntad, si sigue el camino recto, al morir participará de un banquete celestial. Pearl se lo toma al pie de la letra. «Por suerte la vida no dura mucho», le dice el ermitaño. Pero la muerte no tiene apuro en llevarse a Jewett: acosado por las deudas, juntando papas en un pantano de sol a sol, terminará por morir en la magra cosecha padeciendo una brutal diarrea súbita. Poco después, los hijos decidirán que su porvenir está escrito en Bill Buckett. Dispuestos a imitar a su héroe se convertirán en asaltantes de bancos. En unas semanas serán forajidos temibles cuyas vidas valen una recompensa de 50.000 dólares estadounidenses. La recompensa ofrecida es exagerada, pero hay que tener en cuenta que a la banda se le cargan crímenes que no cometieron y que muchos, los aportantes, les adjudican por conveniencia. A grandes rasgos, esta es una de las tramas que componen El banquete celestial (2016), tan solo una. Porque a Pollock le gusta urdir una abundante colección esperpéntica de criaturas bizarras entre las que figuran también banqueros extorsionadores, reclutas de un campo de entrenamiento militar, un muchacho de pene descomunal que asusta a su madre y las putas que se le cruzan, un playboy malversador de una herencia bordo de un aeroplano artillado y una pandilla de pistoleros improvisados al mando de un sheriff intimidante tras la recompensa de la banda Jewett. 

10. «No escribo cuentos de hadas», aclara Pollock como si fuera necesario. «Seamos realistas: aunque muchas personas son amables, son mayoría las malas. Si alguien piensa que mi trabajo muestra sólo los actos más horripilantes, no está al día con las noticias. Mis personajes ni siquiera están cerca de lo que los humanos son capaces en sus bajas intenciones. Las cosas que escribo son light si las comparamos con la masacre de una escuela en Connecticut». El argumento de Pollock puede ser válido: lo desarrolla alguien que sabe, como se ha dicho, de lo que habla. Y lo religioso, aunque no lo mencione, llama la atención sin precisar un lector intrépido para subrayarlo. No es desatinado conjeturar entonces que en su adentrarse en las vidas de sus personajes, signadas siempre por la desgracia, Pollock deviene en un predicador literario que filtra con humor negro para ocultar su pietismo: en cada descenso, en «la noche oscura del alma», por momentos, pareciera asomar una pedagogía moral tácita y, por qué no, una apenas oculta intención redentorista.





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