Literatura

Por qué todas las historias de familia que narra Elena Ferrante son también historias de dinero

Las novelas que conforman «Crónicas del desamor» y la saga Dos Amigas, todas firmadas por Elena Ferrante, son textos que tratan sobre la violencia, el cuerpo y el deseo. Aloma Rodríguez, además, encuentra en ellas otro hilo narrativo que las une: el ascenso social y la desigualdad de clase. Lo explica al detalle en el artículo que sigue.

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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Esto no es una historia de amor. Tampoco de desamor, como eran las tres novelas de Elena Ferrante recogidas en un mismo volumen bajo el t\u00edtulo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/21839-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cr\u00f3nicas del desamor<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(Lumen, 2011) con las que se dio a conocer. Esas eran sobre todo historias de relaciones personales y familiares: <strong>una separaci\u00f3n, una desaparici\u00f3n y madres e hijas que no se entienden.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Entonces,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4500-elena-ferrante\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Elena Ferrante<\/a> todav\u00eda no era la autora de la saga aclamada en todas partes de Dos Amigas, la tetralog\u00eda napolitana cuya columna central est\u00e1 en dos amigas, una de las cuales recibe el aviso del hijo de la otra de que esta ha desaparecido. <strong>A partir de ah\u00ed, la narradora, que es escritora, decide contar todo lo que sabe de su amiga.<\/strong> Y todo lo que sabe es la historia que las une, que es a la vez el retrato de un barrio miserable de una ciudad nada amable, N\u00e1poles. La saga, compuesta por <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30905-la-amiga-estupenda-dos-amigas-1-9788426420787\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La amiga estupenda<\/a>,<\/span> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30936-un-mal-nombre-dos-amigas-2-9788426421739\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un mal nombre<\/a><\/span><\/em>,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30449-las-deudas-del-cuerpo-dos-amigas-3-9788426401489\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Las deudas del cuerpo<\/a><\/em>\u00a0y<em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30483-la-nina-perdida-dos-amigas-4-9788426402158\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La ni\u00f1a perdida<\/a><\/em><\/span>, tiene mucho de familias y de amor\u00edos y de relaciones cruzadas, la trama es importante y hay l\u00edos amorosos y sentimentales, s\u00ed: sigue las vidas de los chicos y chicas del barrio a lo largo de d\u00e9cadas mientras los matrimonios se hacen y se deshacen, antes est\u00e1 el despertar sexual, y casi a la vez la vida adulta, los hijos y, en algunos casos, el compromiso pol\u00edtico. 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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Muy pronto Dos Amigas se convirti\u00f3 en objeto de largos art\u00edculos en los que se comparaba con otra saga que tambi\u00e9n gozaba de bastante aceptaci\u00f3n de manera global: <em>Mi Lucha,<\/em> del noruego Karl Ove Knausg\u00e5rd. Compart\u00edan la violencia y la intimidad, un protagonista y narrador al que se segu\u00eda a lo largo del tiempo; pero una era ficci\u00f3n y la otra se presentaba como autobiogr\u00e1fica. <strong>Mientras Knausg\u00e5rd se expon\u00eda, Elena Ferrante era un pseud\u00f3nimo<\/strong> y todo el mundo quer\u00eda destapar la verdadera identidad de Ferrante, como si eso importara m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de lo noticiable.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Pasado el hurac\u00e1n, Ferrante ha publicado dos libros, <em>La Frantumaglia<\/em>\u00a0\u2014un compendio de entrevistas y art\u00edculos\u00a0que explica su idea de la literatura\u2014 y <em>La invenci\u00f3n ocasional<\/em> \u2014donde re\u00fane las columnas que escribi\u00f3 a lo largo de un a\u00f1o para <em>The Guardian<\/em>\u2014, antes de volver a la ficci\u00f3n con una novela que regresa a N\u00e1poles, a los conflictos familiares, al despertar sexual, y que tiene como protagonista a una chica que va descubriendo que 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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El peso de lo material y de lo f\u00edsico, desde el cuerpo hasta las casas con sus muebles, tiene un papel fundamental en las novelas de Ferrante:<strong> el cuerpo y sus veleidades es uno de los temas centrales.<\/strong> En su novela m\u00e1s reciente, el\u00a0detonante de todo es un comentario del padre escuchado al azar por la protagonista: no es guapa. Pero hay un asunto a\u00fan m\u00e1s determinante para los personajes de las novelas de Ferrante y que les preocupa mucho: el dinero. <em>La amiga estupenda<\/em>, la primera entrega de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/39101-saga-dos-amigas-9788426444066\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dos Amigas<\/a>,<\/span> se abr\u00eda con el episodio de la mu\u00f1eca que Lila arrebataba a Len\u00f9. Aquello se resolv\u00eda con don Achile sobornando a las ni\u00f1as: les daba dinero para que se compraran unas mu\u00f1ecas nuevas, pero lo que Lila hac\u00eda era comprar un libro,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/30680-mujercitas-9788426407078\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mujercitas<\/a><\/em><\/span>. <strong>El dinero, o m\u00e1s bien la falta de \u00e9l, est\u00e1 en el coraz\u00f3n de la historia:<\/strong> la madre de Len\u00f9 le reprocha todo el tiempo lo caros que son los libros y las clases particulares que le da la maestra; necesitan dinero para poder dejar de preocuparse por \u00e9l. Las dos amigas quieren huir del barrio, que es sin\u00f3nimo de miseria y violencia, golpes, abusos y una marcada jerarqu\u00eda social que constri\u00f1e las vidas de todos, aunque sean ellas, Lila y Len\u00f9, en quienes se vea de manera m\u00e1s expl\u00edcita. Y eso que ni siquiera son las m\u00e1s pobres, la m\u00e1s pobre es Melina, <strong>\u00aba ella y a sus hijos se los com\u00eda la miseria\u00bb.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El dinero, la falta de \u00e9l, m\u00e1s bien, es un escollo para todo: se necesita tiempo y dinero para hacer las cosas en serio, le dice Lila a Len\u00f9 en la primera novela, cuando Lila dise\u00f1a zapatos. <strong>Desde la visi\u00f3n extremista infantil, salir de la pobreza significa ser rico:<\/strong> \u00abLo que deb\u00eda cambiar, seg\u00fan ella, era siempre lo mismo: de pobres deb\u00edamos llegar a ricas, deb\u00edamos pasar de no tener nada al punto en que lo tendr\u00edamos todo. Trat\u00e9 de se\u00f1alarle el antiguo proyecto de escribir novelas como hab\u00eda hecho la autora de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/clasicos-infantiles\/7220-mujercitas-coleccion-alfaguara-clasicos-9788420452913\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mujercitas<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> Yo me hab\u00eda quedado con esa idea, me gustaba. 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econ\u00f3mica\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cnz4uec\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El peso de lo material y de lo f\u00edsico, desde el cuerpo hasta las casas con sus muebles, tiene un papel fundamental en las novelas de Ferrante<\/span>.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ox9in7c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Buscan la riqueza y tambi\u00e9n llegar a ella de manera limpia, no como sucede con quienes tienen dinero en el barrio: los Solara, que son los m\u00e1s ricos, pero cuya fortuna parece venir del mercado negro. Aqu\u00ed tambi\u00e9n las cosas son algo m\u00e1s que cosas. Por ejemplo, los zapatos dise\u00f1ados por Lila y su hermano Rino que Marcello Solara quiere comprar para cortejarla, como si la \u00fanica manera de conquistarla fuera mostrando su superioridad econ\u00f3mica. O como el descapotable de los Solara. Las cosas (la mu\u00f1eca, unas hojas con un cuento manuscrito, un ejemplar de un libro, una caja roja\u2026) aqu\u00ed <strong>no tienen una carga simb\u00f3lica,<\/strong> son lo que son y lo que cuesta conseguirlas y c\u00f3mo se han logrado.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Len\u00f9 se agarra a los estudios para salir del barrio; Lila tratar\u00e1 de buscar atajos y le funcionar\u00e1n, al menos una temporada. \u00abLlegaba a las dos de la tarde, dejaba los libros por ah\u00ed. Ella me preparaba un bocadillo de jam\u00f3n, queso, salami, lo que yo quisiera. En casa de mis padres nunca se hab\u00eda visto semejante abundancia: qu\u00e9 rico el olor del pan fresco y los sabores del companaje, sobre todo el del jam\u00f3n rojo intenso, todo entreverado de blanco. Com\u00eda con avidez mientras Lila me preparaba caf\u00e9. [\u2026] Una tarde de especial desgana, le ped\u00ed a Lila si me pod\u00eda ba\u00f1ar, yo que segu\u00eda lav\u00e1ndome debajo del chorro del grifo o en la palangana de cobre\u00bb, cuenta Len\u00f9 en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/30936-un-mal-nombre-dos-amigas-2-9788426421739\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un mal nombre<\/a><\/span><\/em>, la segunda entrega de la saga napolitana. Y un poco m\u00e1s adelante: \u00abLa riqueza que anhel\u00e1bamos cuando \u00e9ramos ni\u00f1as tal vez sea esto, pens\u00e9; no los cofres con monedas de oro y diamantes, sino una ba\u00f1era, estar as\u00ed en remojo todos los d\u00edas, comer pan, salami, disponer de mucho espacio incluso en el retrete, tener tel\u00e9fono, despensa y nevera llenas de comida, la foto en un marco de plata encima del aparador en la que sales con traje de novia [\u2026]. D\u00eda tras d\u00eda la casa de mi amiga me fascinaba cada vez m\u00e1s, <strong>se convirti\u00f3 en un lugar m\u00e1gico donde pod\u00eda tenerlo todo, muy lejos de la miserable mediocridad de los viejos edificios donde nos hab\u00edamos criado,<\/strong> con paredes cochambrosas, puertas surcadas de ara\u00f1azos, objetos eternos, siempre iguales, abollados, desportillados\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Pero las cosas no se quedar\u00e1n as\u00ed, Len\u00f9 ascender\u00e1 y Lila lo perder\u00e1 todo. Y mientras Len\u00f9 se remueve como un gato en la etiqueta de su nueva clase social, a la que asciende primero por la v\u00eda del matrimonio y luego gracias a sus libros, Lila cree que la movilidad social es imposible: <strong>\u00abLos que est\u00e1n abajo quieren subir, los que est\u00e1n arriba quieren seguir donde est\u00e1n, y hagas lo que hagas, siempre se acaba a escupitajos y a patadas en la cara\u00bb.<\/strong> Por otro lado, Len\u00f9 no llega a creerse su nueva condici\u00f3n y el dinero siempre tiene un origen sospechoso. Por mucho que sea una escritora a la que le pagan hotel y viaje, para Nadia, por ejemplo, la hija de la maestra, Lila y Len\u00f9 son \u00abdos mierdas que no pueden cambiar nada, dos ejemplares de escoria lumpenproletaria\u00bb.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Como explica la escritora francesa Annie Ernaux sobre su propio ascenso, a Len\u00f9 parece pesarle un sentimiento de traici\u00f3n de clase.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4500-elena-ferrante\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La narradora de Ferrante<\/a><\/span> no es tan obsesiva como Ernaux y opera de manera diferente: mientras la francesa horada el mismo cerco una y otra vez de manera cada vez m\u00e1s profunda, Ferrante dispone los temas de manera mucho menos enf\u00e1tica; los libros de Ernaux tienen muy pocos personajes, las novelas de Ferrante tienen tantos que hace falta un <em>dramatis personae<\/em>, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/39101-saga-dos-amigas-9788426444066\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">al menos en la tetralog\u00eda<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"iqsoogm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_image\":\"\",\"image\":{\"url\":\"\/es\/img\/cms\/la_amiga_estupenda_hbo_0.jpg\",\"id\":1},\"align\":\"center\",\"align_tablet\":\"center\",\"align_mobile\":\"center\",\"caption\":\"\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r63c53r\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">En <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/13756-la-vida-mentirosa-de-los-adultos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La vida mentirosa de los adultos<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0esa desubicaci\u00f3n, esa especie de desclasamiento hacia arriba prosigue, se prolonga en la generaci\u00f3n posterior. Aqu\u00ed, es el padre de la protagonista quien tiene un origen m\u00e1s que humilde y padece una versi\u00f3n del s\u00edndrome del impostor: <strong>\u00abNo ten\u00eda nada de nada, tuvo que escalar una monta\u00f1a a pulso, y a\u00fan no ha terminado, no se termina nunca, siempre hay alguna tormenta que te hace caer, y despu\u00e9s vuelta a empezar\u00bb.<\/strong> Esta novela sucede tambi\u00e9n en N\u00e1poles y las distancias sociales aparecen se\u00f1aladas tambi\u00e9n por las zonas de la ciudad. Giovanna, la protagonista y narradora, siente curiosidad por el mundo del que su padre huye y trata de descubrir qu\u00e9 esconde exactamente: lo que averigua tiene que ver con el dinero y la herencia y est\u00e1 cifrado, de nuevo, en un objeto, en este caso una pulsera que va de mano en mano y cuyo poder est\u00e1 en revelar comportamientos de los dem\u00e1s.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Hace unos meses,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.letraslibres.com\/espana-mexico\/politica\/nacio-y-murio-la-novela-la-vez-que-la-sociedad-burguesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el economista Branko Milanovic escribi\u00f3 en su blog un texto<\/a><\/span> donde relacionaba las novelas con la sociedad burguesa. Se preguntaba, de hecho, si la novela naci\u00f3 y muri\u00f3 a la vez que la sociedad burguesa. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.letraslibres.com\/espana-mexico\/economia\/literatura-y-desigualdad\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Milanovic<\/a>,<\/span> como otros economistas, ha usado algunas novelas para analizar desde el punto de vista econ\u00f3mico las sociedades que describen. Ese enfoque es fruct\u00edfero en escritores como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/230678-obra-completa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jane Austen<\/a><\/span>: los detalles que da en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36544-orgullo-y-prejuicio-9788491050018\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Orgullo y prejuicio<\/em><\/a><\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36544-orgullo-y-prejuicio-9788491050018\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a>sobre las rentas y las herencias permiten hacer c\u00e1lculos precisos sobre la desigualdad. Pero Milanovic lo hizo tambi\u00e9n con <em>Ana Karenina<\/em>. Recomendaba un libro de Dan Shaviro en el que se acerca a la desigualdad en tres \u00e9pocas a trav\u00e9s de nueve libros, prolongando el enfoque de <em>Los que tienen y los que no<\/em>. <strong>Milanovic dec\u00eda que le cuesta encontrar en las novelas contempor\u00e1neas muestras que permitan analizar la desigualdad social y otros asuntos relacionados con la clase social.<\/strong> Cuando lo le\u00ed, pens\u00e9 inmediatamente en las novelas de Ferrante, porque son sobre todo libros sobre el ascensor social y la desigualdad, aunque es verdad que son novelas que todav\u00eda hablan de la sociedad burguesa. Cuando una amiga me pidi\u00f3 que le recomendara novelas que contaran historias sobre gente que se sobrepone a sus condiciones de partida, tambi\u00e9n pens\u00e9 en las de Ferrante. Es curioso, porque hasta ese momento ese aspecto de sus novelas estaba enmara\u00f1ado en mi lectura con todos los dem\u00e1s: <strong>la violencia, el cuerpo, el deseo y los cambios sociales, pero no los que operan en el lapso de una vida.<\/strong> Supongo que por eso Elena Ferrante es una buena novelista: las capas con las que construye sus libros siempre esconden algo 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10 minutos

Fotograma de La amiga estupenda, la serie de HBO que adapta la obra de Elena Ferrante. Crédito: cortesía de HBO España.

Escuche este artículo en el podcast de LENGUA:


Por ALOMA RODRÍGUEZ

Esto no es una historia de amor. Tampoco de desamor, como eran las tres novelas de Elena Ferrante recogidas en un mismo volumen bajo el título Crónicas del desamor (Lumen, 2011) con las que se dio a conocer. Esas eran sobre todo historias de relaciones personales y familiares: una separación, una desaparición y madres e hijas que no se entienden. 

Entonces, Elena Ferrante todavía no era la autora de la saga aclamada en todas partes de Dos Amigas, la tetralogía napolitana cuya columna central está en dos amigas, una de las cuales recibe el aviso del hijo de la otra de que esta ha desaparecido. A partir de ahí, la narradora, que es escritora, decide contar todo lo que sabe de su amiga. Y todo lo que sabe es la historia que las une, que es a la vez el retrato de un barrio miserable de una ciudad nada amable, Nápoles. La saga, compuesta por La amiga estupenda, Un mal nombre, Las deudas del cuerpo y La niña perdida, tiene mucho de familias y de amoríos y de relaciones cruzadas, la trama es importante y hay líos amorosos y sentimentales, sí: sigue las vidas de los chicos y chicas del barrio a lo largo de décadas mientras los matrimonios se hacen y se deshacen, antes está el despertar sexual, y casi a la vez la vida adulta, los hijos y, en algunos casos, el compromiso político. Dos Amigas era un friso, una historia demasiado grande para ser una película y con personajes suficientes para convertirse en una serie, como de hecho sucedió con resultados que no estaban a la altura de las novelas: allí donde Ferrante era sutil, la serie caía en subrayados innecesarios. Las novelas retrataban la violencia latente y la evidente sin regodeos, y la miseria sin complacencia. No puede decirse lo mismo de la serie. 

Muy pronto Dos Amigas se convirtió en objeto de largos artículos en los que se comparaba con otra saga que también gozaba de bastante aceptación de manera global: Mi Lucha, del noruego Karl Ove Knausgård. Compartían la violencia y la intimidad, un protagonista y narrador al que se seguía a lo largo del tiempo; pero una era ficción y la otra se presentaba como autobiográfica. Mientras Knausgård se exponía, Elena Ferrante era un pseudónimo y todo el mundo quería destapar la verdadera identidad de Ferrante, como si eso importara más allá de lo noticiable.

Pasado el huracán, Ferrante ha publicado dos libros, La Frantumaglia —un compendio de entrevistas y artículos que explica su idea de la literatura— y La invención ocasional —donde reúne las columnas que escribió a lo largo de un año para The Guardian—, antes de volver a la ficción con una novela que regresa a Nápoles, a los conflictos familiares, al despertar sexual, y que tiene como protagonista a una chica que va descubriendo que las cosas no siempre son como se las han contado, algo que anuncia el título, La vida mentirosa de los adultos.

«Elena Ferrante era un pseudónimo y todo el mundo quería destapar la verdadera identidad de Ferrante, como si eso importara más allá de lo noticiable.»

El peso de lo material y de lo físico, desde el cuerpo hasta las casas con sus muebles, tiene un papel fundamental en las novelas de Ferrante: el cuerpo y sus veleidades es uno de los temas centrales. En su novela más reciente, el detonante de todo es un comentario del padre escuchado al azar por la protagonista: no es guapa. Pero hay un asunto aún más determinante para los personajes de las novelas de Ferrante y que les preocupa mucho: el dinero. La amiga estupenda, la primera entrega de Dos Amigas, se abría con el episodio de la muñeca que Lila arrebataba a Lenù. Aquello se resolvía con don Achile sobornando a las niñas: les daba dinero para que se compraran unas muñecas nuevas, pero lo que Lila hacía era comprar un libro, Mujercitas. El dinero, o más bien la falta de él, está en el corazón de la historia: la madre de Lenù le reprocha todo el tiempo lo caros que son los libros y las clases particulares que le da la maestra; necesitan dinero para poder dejar de preocuparse por él. Las dos amigas quieren huir del barrio, que es sinónimo de miseria y violencia, golpes, abusos y una marcada jerarquía social que constriñe las vidas de todos, aunque sean ellas, Lila y Lenù, en quienes se vea de manera más explícita. Y eso que ni siquiera son las más pobres, la más pobre es Melina, «a ella y a sus hijos se los comía la miseria». 

El dinero, la falta de él, más bien, es un escollo para todo: se necesita tiempo y dinero para hacer las cosas en serio, le dice Lila a Lenù en la primera novela, cuando Lila diseña zapatos. Desde la visión extremista infantil, salir de la pobreza significa ser rico: «Lo que debía cambiar, según ella, era siempre lo mismo: de pobres debíamos llegar a ricas, debíamos pasar de no tener nada al punto en que lo tendríamos todo. Traté de señalarle el antiguo proyecto de escribir novelas como había hecho la autora de Mujercitas. Yo me había quedado con esa idea, me gustaba. Estaba aprendiendo latín expresamente y, en el fondo, estaba convencida de que ella sacaba muchos libros de la biblioteca circulante del maestro Ferraro porque, aunque ya no fuera al colegio, aunque ahora tuviera la obsesión de los zapatos, quería escribir una novela conmigo y ganar muchísimo dinero. Sin embargo, se encogió de hombros con ese gesto de indiferencia tan suyo, había dado otro valor a Mujercitas.  —Ahora —me explicó— para que lleguemos a ser realmente ricas hace falta una actividad económica».

«El peso de lo material y de lo físico, desde el cuerpo hasta las casas con sus muebles, tiene un papel fundamental en las novelas de Ferrante

Buscan la riqueza y también llegar a ella de manera limpia, no como sucede con quienes tienen dinero en el barrio: los Solara, que son los más ricos, pero cuya fortuna parece venir del mercado negro. Aquí también las cosas son algo más que cosas. Por ejemplo, los zapatos diseñados por Lila y su hermano Rino que Marcello Solara quiere comprar para cortejarla, como si la única manera de conquistarla fuera mostrando su superioridad económica. O como el descapotable de los Solara. Las cosas (la muñeca, unas hojas con un cuento manuscrito, un ejemplar de un libro, una caja roja…) aquí no tienen una carga simbólica, son lo que son y lo que cuesta conseguirlas y cómo se han logrado. 

Lenù se agarra a los estudios para salir del barrio; Lila tratará de buscar atajos y le funcionarán, al menos una temporada. «Llegaba a las dos de la tarde, dejaba los libros por ahí. Ella me preparaba un bocadillo de jamón, queso, salami, lo que yo quisiera. En casa de mis padres nunca se había visto semejante abundancia: qué rico el olor del pan fresco y los sabores del companaje, sobre todo el del jamón rojo intenso, todo entreverado de blanco. Comía con avidez mientras Lila me preparaba café. […] Una tarde de especial desgana, le pedí a Lila si me podía bañar, yo que seguía lavándome debajo del chorro del grifo o en la palangana de cobre», cuenta Lenù en Un mal nombre, la segunda entrega de la saga napolitana. Y un poco más adelante: «La riqueza que anhelábamos cuando éramos niñas tal vez sea esto, pensé; no los cofres con monedas de oro y diamantes, sino una bañera, estar así en remojo todos los días, comer pan, salami, disponer de mucho espacio incluso en el retrete, tener teléfono, despensa y nevera llenas de comida, la foto en un marco de plata encima del aparador en la que sales con traje de novia […]. Día tras día la casa de mi amiga me fascinaba cada vez más, se convirtió en un lugar mágico donde podía tenerlo todo, muy lejos de la miserable mediocridad de los viejos edificios donde nos habíamos criado, con paredes cochambrosas, puertas surcadas de arañazos, objetos eternos, siempre iguales, abollados, desportillados». 

Pero las cosas no se quedarán así, Lenù ascenderá y Lila lo perderá todo. Y mientras Lenù se remueve como un gato en la etiqueta de su nueva clase social, a la que asciende primero por la vía del matrimonio y luego gracias a sus libros, Lila cree que la movilidad social es imposible: «Los que están abajo quieren subir, los que están arriba quieren seguir donde están, y hagas lo que hagas, siempre se acaba a escupitajos y a patadas en la cara». Por otro lado, Lenù no llega a creerse su nueva condición y el dinero siempre tiene un origen sospechoso. Por mucho que sea una escritora a la que le pagan hotel y viaje, para Nadia, por ejemplo, la hija de la maestra, Lila y Lenù son «dos mierdas que no pueden cambiar nada, dos ejemplares de escoria lumpenproletaria».

Como explica la escritora francesa Annie Ernaux sobre su propio ascenso, a Lenù parece pesarle un sentimiento de traición de clase. La narradora de Ferrante no es tan obsesiva como Ernaux y opera de manera diferente: mientras la francesa horada el mismo cerco una y otra vez de manera cada vez más profunda, Ferrante dispone los temas de manera mucho menos enfática; los libros de Ernaux tienen muy pocos personajes, las novelas de Ferrante tienen tantos que hace falta un dramatis personae, al menos en la tetralogía

En La vida mentirosa de los adultos esa desubicación, esa especie de desclasamiento hacia arriba prosigue, se prolonga en la generación posterior. Aquí, es el padre de la protagonista quien tiene un origen más que humilde y padece una versión del síndrome del impostor: «No tenía nada de nada, tuvo que escalar una montaña a pulso, y aún no ha terminado, no se termina nunca, siempre hay alguna tormenta que te hace caer, y después vuelta a empezar». Esta novela sucede también en Nápoles y las distancias sociales aparecen señaladas también por las zonas de la ciudad. Giovanna, la protagonista y narradora, siente curiosidad por el mundo del que su padre huye y trata de descubrir qué esconde exactamente: lo que averigua tiene que ver con el dinero y la herencia y está cifrado, de nuevo, en un objeto, en este caso una pulsera que va de mano en mano y cuyo poder está en revelar comportamientos de los demás. 

Hace unos meses, el economista Branko Milanovic escribió en su blog un texto donde relacionaba las novelas con la sociedad burguesa. Se preguntaba, de hecho, si la novela nació y murió a la vez que la sociedad burguesa. Milanovic, como otros economistas, ha usado algunas novelas para analizar desde el punto de vista económico las sociedades que describen. Ese enfoque es fructífero en escritores como Jane Austen: los detalles que da en Orgullo y prejuicio sobre las rentas y las herencias permiten hacer cálculos precisos sobre la desigualdad. Pero Milanovic lo hizo también con Ana Karenina. Recomendaba un libro de Dan Shaviro en el que se acerca a la desigualdad en tres épocas a través de nueve libros, prolongando el enfoque de Los que tienen y los que no. Milanovic decía que le cuesta encontrar en las novelas contemporáneas muestras que permitan analizar la desigualdad social y otros asuntos relacionados con la clase social. Cuando lo leí, pensé inmediatamente en las novelas de Ferrante, porque son sobre todo libros sobre el ascensor social y la desigualdad, aunque es verdad que son novelas que todavía hablan de la sociedad burguesa. Cuando una amiga me pidió que le recomendara novelas que contaran historias sobre gente que se sobrepone a sus condiciones de partida, también pensé en las de Ferrante. Es curioso, porque hasta ese momento ese aspecto de sus novelas estaba enmarañado en mi lectura con todos los demás: la violencia, el cuerpo, el deseo y los cambios sociales, pero no los que operan en el lapso de una vida. Supongo que por eso Elena Ferrante es una buena novelista: las capas con las que construye sus libros siempre esconden algo debajo. 

Fotograma de La amiga estupenda, la serie de HBO que adapta la obra de Elena Ferrante. Crédito: cortesía de HBO España.

Más libros de Elena Ferrante

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