Literatura

Emilia Pardo Bazán regresa del olvido

Hija de una familia gallega noble, obligada por la época a ser autodidacta, feroz defensora del acceso a la educación para las mujeres, autora de intervenciones periodísticas y políticas de gran influencia, en sus novelas abordó temas como la separación matrimonial y el trabajo de las mujeres en las fábricas, a la vez que se codeaba con la élite intelectual española. Escritora, dramaturga, editora, periodista, crítica, poeta, conferencista, quizá la más ilustre de una generación de mujeres precursoras de sus derechos y del feminismo, y, sin duda, una de las novelistas más importantes de fines de siglo XIX. A cien años de su muerte, María Montesinos (actual ganadora del premio de novela histórica Pozuelo de Alarcón y autora de «Una pasión escrita», retrato ficcional de aquella generación) recuerda todos los motivos correctos por los que Emilia Pardo Bazán regresa hoy del olvido.

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style=\\\"text-align: center;\\\">Retrato de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1311-emilia-pardo-bazan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Emilia Pardo Baz\u00e1n<\/a><\/span> por Joaqu\u00edn Vaamonde Cornide (1896). Museo de Belas Artes, A 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un esbozo autobiogr\u00e1fico escrito a modo de pr\u00f3logo para <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/26094-los-pazos-de-ulloa-los-mejores-clasicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los pazos de Ulloa<\/a><\/em><\/span>,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1311-emilia-pardo-bazan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Emilia Pardo Baz\u00e1n<\/a><\/span> contaba que un d\u00eda se top\u00f3 en A Coru\u00f1a con varios grupos de cigarreras que sal\u00edan de la f\u00e1brica de tabaco y se pregunt\u00f3 si habr\u00eda alguna novela bajo los trajes de percal y los ra\u00eddos mantones. Me la imagino a ella en ese momento, muy tiesa y peripuesta, observando a distancia la escena con esos ojos negros e incisivos que ten\u00eda, mientras una idea comenzaba a abrirse paso en su cabeza. S\u00ed, le respondi\u00f3 el instinto: <strong>\u00abDonde hay cuatro mil mujeres hay cuatro mil novelas de seguro: el caso es buscarlas\u00bb.<\/strong> Y con la misma curiosidad y determinaci\u00f3n que la llevaron a estudiar a los grandes autores de filosof\u00eda y de la literatura europea para cubrir las enormes lagunas de su formaci\u00f3n autodidacta <strong>\u2014\u00abApenas pueden los hombres hacerse idea de lo dif\u00edcil que es para una mujer adquirir cultura y llenar los claros de su educaci\u00f3n\u00bb, dec\u00eda\u2014<\/strong> se dedic\u00f3 durante dos meses a visitar a diario la f\u00e1brica de tabaco para estudiar a esas mujeres, escuchar sus conversaciones, \u00abcazar al vuelo frases y modos de sentir\u00bb.<\/p><p>De ah\u00ed nacer\u00eda su tercera novela, <em>La Tribuna,<\/em> publicada en 1882, que levant\u00f3 casi el mismo revuelo en los c\u00edrculos literarios de Madrid que su serie de art\u00edculos <em>La cuesti\u00f3n palpitante,<\/em> por defender con buen sentido y desparpajo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/29003-la-obra-9788439720782\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el naturalismo de Zola<\/a><\/span>, que muchos tachaban de inmoral y nauseabundo. Ten\u00eda treinta y un a\u00f1os, dos hijos todav\u00eda peque\u00f1os y un marido, Jos\u00e9 Quiroga, con el que se hab\u00eda casado a los diecis\u00e9is y que no entend\u00eda<strong> ese af\u00e1n intelectual suyo que la llevaba a encerrarse en el despacho a estudiar, leer, escribir y cartearse con numerosos se\u00f1ores del mundo acad\u00e9mico y cultural del momento.<\/strong> \u00bfD\u00f3nde se hab\u00eda visto eso? Y ahora, por si fuera poco, se enteraba de que su mujer estaba en boca de todos por esas cosas escandalosas que se empe\u00f1aba en publicar. No s\u00e9 si don Jos\u00e9 le llegar\u00eda a prohibir que siguiera escribiendo \u2014sinceramente, lo dudo; a poco que conociera a su mujer, sabr\u00eda que era in\u00fatil\u2014, pero lo cierto es que dos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s el matrimonio se separ\u00f3 y Emilia Pardo Baz\u00e1n se dedic\u00f3 a desarrollar su ambici\u00f3n literaria sin m\u00e1s trabas que las que sufr\u00eda por su condici\u00f3n de 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reflejo en mi novela\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/11219-una-pasion-escrita-9788466668712\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Una pasi\u00f3n escrita<\/span><\/em>,<\/a> hubo otras muchas mujeres de la \u00e9poca con aspiraciones literarias dedicadas a la escritura, pero pocas se atrevieron a enfrentarse de una forma tan convencida y rompedora como \u00abla condesa\u00bb a la imagen de mujeres virtuosas, entregadas por completo a su papel de esposas y madres, que les exig\u00eda la sociedad. <strong>La mayor\u00eda deb\u00edan ocultarse o fingir y mantener un discurso p\u00fablico muy distinto al que manten\u00edan en privado con el que defender su honor y respetabilidad por encima de su pasi\u00f3n por las letras.<\/strong> Ser\u00eda injusto juzgarlas ahora: es muy probable que no gozaran de solvencia econ\u00f3mica para sostenerse por s\u00ed mismas ni contaran con el apoyo incondicional de unos padres que alentaran sus inquietudes intelectuales, como s\u00ed le ocurri\u00f3 a do\u00f1a Emilia. Sobre ese apoyo, ella construy\u00f3 una autoestima a prueba de bombas. Ten\u00eda tal confianza en sus capacidades, en su criterio y en su val\u00eda como escritora y como mujer, que jam\u00e1s dud\u00f3 de que pudiera medirse intelectualmente en un plano de absoluta igualdad con los hombres de su tiempo que ella admiraba. Al rev\u00e9s, tal era su ansia de conocimiento, que buscaba esas compa\u00f1\u00edas masculinas sin detenerse a pensar en si era apropiado o no para su buen nombre. <strong>Era inteligente, afectuosa, alegre, espont\u00e1nea, muy segura de s\u00ed misma y tan ambiciosa en su carrera literaria como cualquiera de sus colegas varones.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Pocas veces se quej\u00f3 de las cr\u00edticas que vert\u00edan sobre ella por su condici\u00f3n de mujer. Por supuesto que era consciente, pero las combati\u00f3 con m\u00e1s obras, m\u00e1s argumentos, m\u00e1s esfuerzo por lograr el reconocimiento que se merec\u00eda. <strong>No exist\u00eda todav\u00eda en Espa\u00f1a ni el menor atisbo de un movimiento feminista, aunque s\u00ed corr\u00eda un runr\u00fan entre algunas literatas que comenzaban a reivindicar en sus art\u00edculos la igualdad con los hombres<\/strong> \u2014sobre todo en la educaci\u00f3n tan escasa que recib\u00edan\u2014. Aun as\u00ed, no pasaban de ser palabras sobre el papel, casi ninguna se pod\u00eda permitir el llevarlas a la pr\u00e1ctica en su vida cotidiana.\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/38793-emilia-pardo-bazan-coleccion-espanoles-eminentes-9788430618385\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Do\u00f1a Emilia<\/span>,<\/a> sin embargo, hac\u00eda lo contrario: practicaba la igualdad con los hombres a diario porque no conceb\u00eda que fuera de otra manera.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"crtxbbc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pocas veces se quej\u00f3 de las cr\u00edticas que vert\u00edan sobre ella por su condici\u00f3n de mujer. Por supuesto que era consciente, pero las combati\u00f3 con m\u00e1s obras, m\u00e1s argumentos, m\u00e1s esfuerzo por lograr el reconocimiento que se merec\u00eda. No exist\u00eda todav\u00eda en Espa\u00f1a ni el menor atisbo de un movimiento feminista, aunque s\u00ed corr\u00eda un runr\u00fan entre algunas literatas que comenzaban a reivindicar en sus art\u00edculos la igualdad con los hombres \u2014sobre todo en la educaci\u00f3n tan escasa que recib\u00edan.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tzgi7cl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Por eso en la \u00faltima d\u00e9cada del XIX\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.rae.es\/acto\/emilia-pardo-bazan-en-la-rae\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">se postul\u00f3 para entrar en la Real Academia de la Lengua<\/a><\/span> (la rechazaron, por supuesto) y, unos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, solicit\u00f3 hacerse socia en el Ateneo de Madrid (no lo consigui\u00f3 hasta 1906, aunque en mi novela narro el acontecimiento que supuso que dicha instituci\u00f3n accediera a que Rosario Acu\u00f1a presentara all\u00ed sus poemas en 1884); por eso la condesa de Pardo Baz\u00e1n acud\u00eda a tertulias, conferencias, reuniones literarias en las que se codeaba con otros literatos, sin temor a que la calificaran de mujer p\u00fablica; no le preocupaba. Por eso durante su relaci\u00f3n amorosa con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/967-benito-perez-galdos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gald\u00f3s<\/a><\/span>, ella justific\u00f3 su desliz sexual con el joven L\u00e1zaro Galdiano, equipar\u00e1ndolo a las aventurillas que tambi\u00e9n manten\u00eda don Benito durante las temporadas que ella pasaba en A Coru\u00f1a. Por eso viaj\u00f3 con frecuencia a Par\u00eds \u00a1sola!, animada por el deseo de estudiar y conocer, y se introdujo por s\u00ed misma en los c\u00edrculos literarios de aquella ciudad donde conocer\u00eda a su admirado V\u00edctor Hugo, que tanto le decepcion\u00f3 en persona. <strong>Hizo de su prol\u00edfica actividad literaria e intelectual, su vida; public\u00f3 una veintena de novelas, m\u00e1s de seiscientos cuentos e incontables art\u00edculos period\u00edsticos;<\/strong> imparti\u00f3 numerosos cursos y conferencias en Espa\u00f1a y fuera de Espa\u00f1a. Y a pesar de las cr\u00edticas que nunca faltaron, fue una de las novelistas m\u00e1s populares y respetadas de la \u00e9poca \u2014junto con Benito P\u00e9rez Gald\u00f3s.\u00a0<\/p><p>Fue una avanzada a su tiempo.\u00a0Una mujer excepcional que, en cualquier otro pa\u00eds, habr\u00eda ocupado un lugar prominente en su cultura y su historia. Al menos ahora que se cumple el centenario de su muerte, tengo la sensaci\u00f3n de que comenzamos a recuperar y valorar lo inmensa que fue su figura y su labor cultural.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong><br \/><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/inedito\/Alice-Munro-El-perdon-en-las-familias-Algo-que-queria-contarte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl perd\u00f3n en las familias\u00bb, un relato original de Alice Munro<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Los documentos de Aspern<\/em>: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la cancelaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo est\u00e1 guardado en la memoria de Edna 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10 minutos

Retrato de Emilia Pardo Bazán por Joaquín Vaamonde Cornide (1896). Museo de Belas Artes, A Coruña.

Escucha este artículo en el podcast de LENGUA:


En un esbozo autobiográfico escrito a modo de prólogo para Los pazos de UlloaEmilia Pardo Bazán contaba que un día se topó en A Coruña con varios grupos de cigarreras que salían de la fábrica de tabaco y se preguntó si habría alguna novela bajo los trajes de percal y los raídos mantones. Me la imagino a ella en ese momento, muy tiesa y peripuesta, observando a distancia la escena con esos ojos negros e incisivos que tenía, mientras una idea comenzaba a abrirse paso en su cabeza. Sí, le respondió el instinto: «Donde hay cuatro mil mujeres hay cuatro mil novelas de seguro: el caso es buscarlas». Y con la misma curiosidad y determinación que la llevaron a estudiar a los grandes autores de filosofía y de la literatura europea para cubrir las enormes lagunas de su formación autodidacta —«Apenas pueden los hombres hacerse idea de lo difícil que es para una mujer adquirir cultura y llenar los claros de su educación», decía— se dedicó durante dos meses a visitar a diario la fábrica de tabaco para estudiar a esas mujeres, escuchar sus conversaciones, «cazar al vuelo frases y modos de sentir».

De ahí nacería su tercera novela, La Tribuna, publicada en 1882, que levantó casi el mismo revuelo en los círculos literarios de Madrid que su serie de artículos La cuestión palpitante, por defender con buen sentido y desparpajo el naturalismo de Zola, que muchos tachaban de inmoral y nauseabundo. Tenía treinta y un años, dos hijos todavía pequeños y un marido, José Quiroga, con el que se había casado a los dieciséis y que no entendía ese afán intelectual suyo que la llevaba a encerrarse en el despacho a estudiar, leer, escribir y cartearse con numerosos señores del mundo académico y cultural del momento. ¿Dónde se había visto eso? Y ahora, por si fuera poco, se enteraba de que su mujer estaba en boca de todos por esas cosas escandalosas que se empeñaba en publicar. No sé si don José le llegaría a prohibir que siguiera escribiendo —sinceramente, lo dudo; a poco que conociera a su mujer, sabría que era inútil—, pero lo cierto es que dos años después el matrimonio se separó y Emilia Pardo Bazán se dedicó a desarrollar su ambición literaria sin más trabas que las que sufría por su condición de mujer.

Como reflejo en mi novela Una pasión escrita, hubo otras muchas mujeres de la época con aspiraciones literarias dedicadas a la escritura, pero pocas se atrevieron a enfrentarse de una forma tan convencida y rompedora como «la condesa» a la imagen de mujeres virtuosas, entregadas por completo a su papel de esposas y madres, que les exigía la sociedad. La mayoría debían ocultarse o fingir y mantener un discurso público muy distinto al que mantenían en privado con el que defender su honor y respetabilidad por encima de su pasión por las letras. Sería injusto juzgarlas ahora: es muy probable que no gozaran de solvencia económica para sostenerse por sí mismas ni contaran con el apoyo incondicional de unos padres que alentaran sus inquietudes intelectuales, como sí le ocurrió a doña Emilia. Sobre ese apoyo, ella construyó una autoestima a prueba de bombas. Tenía tal confianza en sus capacidades, en su criterio y en su valía como escritora y como mujer, que jamás dudó de que pudiera medirse intelectualmente en un plano de absoluta igualdad con los hombres de su tiempo que ella admiraba. Al revés, tal era su ansia de conocimiento, que buscaba esas compañías masculinas sin detenerse a pensar en si era apropiado o no para su buen nombre. Era inteligente, afectuosa, alegre, espontánea, muy segura de sí misma y tan ambiciosa en su carrera literaria como cualquiera de sus colegas varones. 

Pocas veces se quejó de las críticas que vertían sobre ella por su condición de mujer. Por supuesto que era consciente, pero las combatió con más obras, más argumentos, más esfuerzo por lograr el reconocimiento que se merecía. No existía todavía en España ni el menor atisbo de un movimiento feminista, aunque sí corría un runrún entre algunas literatas que comenzaban a reivindicar en sus artículos la igualdad con los hombres —sobre todo en la educación tan escasa que recibían—. Aun así, no pasaban de ser palabras sobre el papel, casi ninguna se podía permitir el llevarlas a la práctica en su vida cotidiana. Doña Emilia, sin embargo, hacía lo contrario: practicaba la igualdad con los hombres a diario porque no concebía que fuera de otra manera.

Pocas veces se quejó de las críticas que vertían sobre ella por su condición de mujer. Por supuesto que era consciente, pero las combatió con más obras, más argumentos, más esfuerzo por lograr el reconocimiento que se merecía. No existía todavía en España ni el menor atisbo de un movimiento feminista, aunque sí corría un runrún entre algunas literatas que comenzaban a reivindicar en sus artículos la igualdad con los hombres —sobre todo en la educación tan escasa que recibían.

Por eso en la última década del XIX se postuló para entrar en la Real Academia de la Lengua (la rechazaron, por supuesto) y, unos años después, solicitó hacerse socia en el Ateneo de Madrid (no lo consiguió hasta 1906, aunque en mi novela narro el acontecimiento que supuso que dicha institución accediera a que Rosario Acuña presentara allí sus poemas en 1884); por eso la condesa de Pardo Bazán acudía a tertulias, conferencias, reuniones literarias en las que se codeaba con otros literatos, sin temor a que la calificaran de mujer pública; no le preocupaba. Por eso durante su relación amorosa con Galdós, ella justificó su desliz sexual con el joven Lázaro Galdiano, equiparándolo a las aventurillas que también mantenía don Benito durante las temporadas que ella pasaba en A Coruña. Por eso viajó con frecuencia a París ¡sola!, animada por el deseo de estudiar y conocer, y se introdujo por sí misma en los círculos literarios de aquella ciudad donde conocería a su admirado Víctor Hugo, que tanto le decepcionó en persona. Hizo de su prolífica actividad literaria e intelectual, su vida; publicó una veintena de novelas, más de seiscientos cuentos e incontables artículos periodísticos; impartió numerosos cursos y conferencias en España y fuera de España. Y a pesar de las críticas que nunca faltaron, fue una de las novelistas más populares y respetadas de la época —junto con Benito Pérez Galdós. 

Fue una avanzada a su tiempo. Una mujer excepcional que, en cualquier otro país, habría ocupado un lugar prominente en su cultura y su historia. Al menos ahora que se cumple el centenario de su muerte, tengo la sensación de que comenzamos a recuperar y valorar lo inmensa que fue su figura y su labor cultural. 



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