Literatura

José Agustín por Julián Herbert: un doble filo que vuelve a cortarnos la cabeza

En «El rock de la cárcel», José Agustín presenta una autobiografía de quien se recuerda sabiendo quién fue, pero también de la de quien se recuerda para encontrarse. El resultado de este ejercicio de memoria es un relato lleno de incidentes (un texto que se puede leer como una novela de ficción, pese a no serlo) que culmina en los turbulentos años sesenta: recuerdos que nos permiten asistir a su infancia, a su encuentro con la literatura a través del teatro, a su experiencia como director de cine y como alfabetizador en Cuba, a su exploración con distintos alucinógenos y sicotrópicos y a su paso por Lecumberri. Para celebrar la reedición mexicana de la obra (Debolsillo), a continuación reproducimos el prólogo de Julián Herbert, un texto que destaca la importancia de Agustín como cronista excepcional de la marejada juvenil que revolucionó México en la segunda mitad del siglo XX y como referente para las generaciones posteriores que tanto beben de su literatura.

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El resultado de este ejercicio de memoria es un relato lleno de incidentes (un texto que se puede leer como una novela de ficci\u00f3n, pese a no serlo) que culmina en los turbulentos a\u00f1os sesenta: recuerdos que nos permiten asistir a su infancia, a su encuentro con la literatura a trav\u00e9s del teatro, a su experiencia como director de cine y como alfabetizador en Cuba, a su exploraci\u00f3n con distintos alucin\u00f3genos y sicotr\u00f3picos y a su paso por Lecumberri. Para celebrar la reedici\u00f3n mexicana de la obra (Debolsillo), a continuaci\u00f3n reproducimos el pr\u00f3logo de Juli\u00e1n Herbert, un texto que destaca la importancia de Agust\u00edn como cronista excepcional de la marejada juvenil que revolucion\u00f3 M\u00e9xico en la segunda mitad del siglo XX y como referente para las generaciones posteriores que tanto beben de su 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2009, la revista <em>Letras libres<\/em> convoc\u00f3 a un pu\u00f1ado de escritores treinta\u00f1eros, entre ellos yo, a publicar un ensayo personal en su dossier <em>Autobiograf\u00edas precoces.<\/em> La intenci\u00f3n declarada era dialogar con Nuevos Escritores Mexicanos del Siglo xx Presentados Por S\u00ed Mismos,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/letraslibres.com\/libros\/autobiografia-precoz-1966-de-salvador-elizondo\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un proyecto editorial que Rafael Gim\u00e9nez Siles y Emmanuel Carballo<\/a><\/span> hicieron entre 1966 y 1968 con once escritores que en esa \u00e9poca ten\u00edan menos de 35 a\u00f1os: Gustavo Sainz, Carlos Monsiv\u00e1is, Juan Vicente Melo, Juan Garc\u00eda Ponce, Salvador Elizondo, Tom\u00e1s Mojarro, Sergio Pitol, Vicente Le\u00f1ero, Marco Antonio Montes de Oca, Ra\u00fal Navarrete y Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las autobiograf\u00edas editadas por Gim\u00e9nez Siles y Carballo son un hito en la cultura mexicana, pero adem\u00e1s de su inherente valor como conjunto produjeron el primero de los tres cap\u00edtulos que conforman <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/biografias\/309676-libro-el-rock-de-la-carcel-9786073817264\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/a><\/em>\u00a0(1984), una pieza clave para explicar las transiciones estil\u00edsticas en la prosa de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn y la focalizaci\u00f3n de primera persona en la narrativa mexicana de los ochenta.\u00a0<\/p><p>De los textos anidados en<em> Letras Libres<\/em> crecieron con el tiempo, a su vez, otras dos novelas: <em>El cuerpo en que nac\u00ed<\/em> (2011) de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1118-guadalupe-nettel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Guadalupe Nettel<\/a><\/span> y <em>Canci\u00f3n de tumba<\/em> (2011). De ah\u00ed que exista, quiz\u00e1s, un aire de familia entre estos tres libros: se trata de relatos fragmentarios y digresivos narrados en una peculiar primera persona con doble fondo inc\u00f3modamente autoconsciente, y cuyas estructuras podr\u00edan ser empacadas \u2014no sin secreta displicencia\u2014 como ensayos, cr\u00f3nicas o 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significa, a mediados del a\u00f1o 2022, releer<em> El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/em> en clave de novela? Si, como escribe Alberto Vital, los g\u00e9neros son un puente entre la literatura y la sociedad*, me parece pertinente mencionar la cercan\u00eda t\u00e9cnica y estil\u00edstica de este libro con obras posteriores como (adem\u00e1s de las dos ya mencionadas) <em>Fruta verde<\/em> (2006) de Enrique Serna, <em>El cerebro de mi hermano<\/em> (2013) de Rafael P\u00e9rez Gay, o <em>Autobiograf\u00eda del algod\u00f3n<\/em> (2020) de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza<\/a><\/span>. Una soluci\u00f3n f\u00e1cil e inexacta ser\u00eda remitir estos vol\u00famenes al gastado rubro de la autoficci\u00f3n. Me resulta m\u00e1s atractivo pensar en un territorio el\u00e1stico, el espacio de la novela, donde lo que une a estas historias no es solamente lo autobiogr\u00e1fico, sino tambi\u00e9n un uso cultural subversivo del g\u00e9nero en tanto que t\u00e9cnica y lenguaje. No intento proponer <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/em> como novela precursora de las otras, sino lo contrario: reenmarcar mi apreciaci\u00f3n del libro de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn usando la cultura narrativa del siglo xxi como linterna. Un texto del presente puede influir a un texto del pasado merced a la impunidad del orden de lectura. La idea no es m\u00eda: se encuentra en Borges y en Harold Bloom y en la versi\u00f3n del <em>I Ching<\/em> que conocemos.<\/p><p>De entre los m\u00faltiples significados que emite <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/literatura-contemporanea\/51144-libro-el-rock-de-la-carcel-9789707808966\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> me gustar\u00eda resaltar cuatro o cinco que encuentro de impecable actualidad: el palimpsesto, el uso simb\u00f3lico de las personas narrativas como viaje del ego al mundo social a trav\u00e9s del inconsciente, la autorreferencialidad estil\u00edstica (el texto que se explora a s\u00ed mismo en tanto que territorio verbal de intenciones y carencias), el <em>name-dropping<\/em> y la cultura pop como escenarios de un revueltiano realismo dial\u00e9ctico, y un marcado \u00e9nfasis intergeneracional: no \u00abel esp\u00edritu de los tiempos\u00bb, sino el choque entre 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-agustin-por-fernanda-melchor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el propio Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn<\/a><\/span> deja entrever en \u00abTienes que entrar para salir\u00bb, segundo cap\u00edtulo de la pieza que aqu\u00ed se prologa, el primer episodio (\u00abQui\u00e9n soy, d\u00f3nde estoy, qu\u00e9 me dieron\u00bb) fue escrito y publicado casi dos d\u00e9cadas antes que el resto del libro. Esto confiere a <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/em> una peculiar atm\u00f3sfera metanarrativa, pues el segundo episodio no solamente retoma la historia donde la dej\u00f3 el primero, sino que se convierte en una suerte de <em>making of<\/em> a toro pasado que explica las circunstancias editoriales y chismogr\u00e1ficas que originaron el relato. Al mismo tiempo, este segundo episodio \u2014el m\u00e1s extenso y piedra angular en un sentido tanto estructural como estil\u00edstico, pero me estoy adelantando\u2014 fue escrito <em>despu\u00e9s<\/em> de transcurridos los sucesos que se narran en el episodio de cierre (\u00abEl rock de la c\u00e1rcel\u00bb), de modo que puede permitirse, y lo hace, una buena cantidad de prolepsis sobre los siete meses de prisi\u00f3n que padecer\u00e1 eventualmente el protagonista y narrador. Estas anticipaciones funcionan al menos de dos modos. Primero, trazan un palimpsesto entre el tono l\u00fadico e individualista que predomina al principio, y la gravitaci\u00f3n de lo comunitario que predomina al final de la historia. Segundo, logran introducir un sentimiento de fatalidad en los pasajes m\u00e1s alucin\u00f3genos del relato, como si bajo la b\u00fasqueda de libertad cognitiva de los viajes en \u00e1cido subyaciera \u2014en alg\u00fan punto Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn lo dice con todas sus letras\u2014 una inherente vocaci\u00f3n purgativa: como si el sentido \u00faltimo de la trascendencia fuera el presentimiento de que uno debe ser castigado. La experiencia m\u00edstica (el mundo lis\u00e9rgico) conduce al narrador a la miseria social (el mundo carcelario). Nada m\u00e1s lejos, sin embargo, de una lectura moralizante. A menos que la moraleja sea \u00e9sta: no busques la pureza o el sentido trascendente del orden, porque terminar\u00e1s conociendo las cloacas del Estado.<\/p><p>El m\u00e1s evidente uso simb\u00f3lico de la persona narrativa como eje de realidad est\u00e1 en los t\u00edtulos de cada episodio: \u00abQui\u00e9n soy d\u00f3nde estoy, qu\u00e9 me dieron\u00bb (primera persona: la construcci\u00f3n de una identidad privada y p\u00fablica); \u00abTienes que entrar para salir\u00bb (segunda persona: el debraye, el desdoblamiento en identidades, el espejeo amoroso y er\u00f3tico); \u00abEl rock de la c\u00e1rcel\u00bb (tercera persona: la aventura social y heroica de \u00c9l, aunque tambi\u00e9n de <em>Ellos<\/em> \u2014los presos\u2014 y <em>Ello<\/em> \u2014la instituci\u00f3n represora).\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ickrbqh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-agustin-por-fernanda-melchor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn por Fernanda Melchor: cuanto m\u00e1s alto vuelas, m\u00e1s profundo vas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/fernanda-melchor-y-su-viaje-al-paradais-escribir-de-lo-que-a-una-le-interesa-es-suficientemente-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fernanda Melchor y su viaje al \u00abP\u00e1radais\u00bb: \u00abEscribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n ha le\u00eddo a Elena Garro?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Villoro por H\u00e9ctor Abad Faciolince: el material del que est\u00e1n hechos los sue\u00f1os<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wqyt3a6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>M\u00e1s que una suma de peripecias autobiogr\u00e1ficas, la novela es una suma de peripecias de lenguaje. Los juegos de palabras y El Uso De May\u00fasculas de la primera parte dialogan con el estilo temprano de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn en novelas como <em>De perfil<\/em>, pero tambi\u00e9n son reevaluados y explicados en la segunda secci\u00f3n. Por ejemplo: la an\u00e9cdota con Aurelio Garz\u00f3n del Camino, corrector de estilo de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/41067-ebook-la-tumba-edicion-conmemorativa-9786073126656\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La tumba<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> no tiene desperdicio, pues mientras Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn explica sus razones estil\u00edsticas para romper la norma editorial, escribe la mayor parte de este pasaje en una parodia de estilo vetusto, lo que le da una vuelta de tuerca a la argumentaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>De manera veloz \u2014esto no es un <em>paper<\/em>\u2014, hago notar tambi\u00e9n que, as\u00ed como el estilo y la sintaxis del primer episodio dialogan con <em>De perfil<\/em>, el segundo cap\u00edtulo est\u00e1 emparentado con las im\u00e1genes y los referentes (claves mist\u00e9ricas y sicod\u00e9licas incluso) de<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-agustin-por-fernanda-melchor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Se est\u00e1 haciendo tarde (final en laguna)<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> mientras que en la tercera secci\u00f3n la prosa hier\u00e1tica y a la vez barroquizada por idiolectos de otra clase social (el <em>cualquier cualquier<\/em> lumpen) acusa la influencia de Revueltas y de sus ideas acerca del realismo como una forma de la conciencia ideol\u00f3gica. Me refiero a una influencia no s\u00f3lo tem\u00e1tica, sino tambi\u00e9n ling\u00fc\u00edstica. Este (al que Revueltas llam\u00f3 Realismo Dial\u00e9ctico) es un aspecto que Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn desarrollar\u00e1 brillantemente en otras obras suyas de los ochenta y los noventa. Por ejemplo, en el cuento \u00abTransportar\u00e1n un cad\u00e1ver por expr\u00e9s\u00bb.<\/p><p>El espectro de Jos\u00e9 Revueltas, el realismo dial\u00e9ctico, el pop y la celebridad como sustancia de contraste de la ansiedad m\u00e1s \u00edntima, son factores que se repiten y entremezclan a la manera del sue\u00f1o en varias de las novelas que he citado un poco al paso desde aqu\u00ed. Revueltas y el fracaso de la reforma agraria emergen mitologizados en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/45804-ebook-autobiografia-del-algodon-9786073194426\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Autobiograf\u00eda del algod\u00f3n<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> Lo mismo sucede con el subcomandante Marcos en <em>El cuerpo en que nac\u00ed.<\/em> El \u00e1mbito art\u00edstico chilango de los a\u00f1os setenta es retratado, as\u00ed sea como esbozo, en <em>Fruta verde.<\/em> Conceb\u00ed los boleros y la imaginer\u00eda en torno al sindicalismo y la revoluci\u00f3n cubana como instrumentos esenciales para la atm\u00f3sfera de <em>Canci\u00f3n de tumba.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>En <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel,<\/em> factores similares se dibujan en estado alterado, intoxicados de precocidad, ambig\u00fcedad y humor. Revueltas como personaje, el 68, Arturo Durazo, jugar cuartos como pretexto para hacer la V de la Victoria en televisi\u00f3n abierta en tiempos de la represi\u00f3n pol\u00edtica, el <em>name-dropping<\/em> de estrellas del espect\u00e1culo y celebridades de la cultura produciendo pelis o viajando en hongos\u2026 Todo este retablo es transitado por el juvenil Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn con un extra\u00f1o asombro te\u00f1ido de desd\u00e9n. El diluido retrato de Ang\u00e9lica Mar\u00eda y el chisme del romance del autor con la Novia de M\u00e9xico bastar\u00edan para despertar el inter\u00e9s de muchos lectores. Sin embargo, termina siendo m\u00e1s intensa y reveladora la relaci\u00f3n del personaje con otras dos mujeres: Ang\u00e9lica Ortiz, quien se desliza como una suerte de fantasma materno vagamente incestuoso a lo largo del segundo episodio; y Margarita, la esposa, quien conduce al narrador a la conclusi\u00f3n (tan inc\u00f3moda para las libertades sexuales de los a\u00f1os sesenta como para el poliamor atormentado y banalizado del siglo xxi) de que la monogamia sincera es una opci\u00f3n igual de complicada y emocionante y deseable que cualquier otra subversi\u00f3n de la pareja.<\/p><p>La conciencia intergeneracional tambi\u00e9n est\u00e1 presente en varias de las novelas que he citado, desde el plano filial en primer grado <em>(El cuerpo en que nac\u00ed, El cerebro de mi hermano, Canci\u00f3n de tumba, Fruta verde)<\/em> hasta el contexto social \u2014que es lo que predomina en<em> Autobiograf\u00eda del algod\u00f3n<\/em> y <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel.<\/em> Me parece uno de los mayores logros (y de los menos estudiados y apreciados) que hay en la obra de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn: no s\u00f3lo un registro y una celebraci\u00f3n de la contracultura, sino tambi\u00e9n una cr\u00edtica saludablemente aut\u00f3faga, un conocimiento y apreciaci\u00f3n de la cultura hasta entonces dominante (perceptible en las referencias literarias de quien se confiesa m\u00e1s interesado en la tradici\u00f3n literaria decimon\u00f3nica y barroca que su colega Gustavo Sainz) y un marcado escepticismo hacia los valores \u00e9ticos y est\u00e9ticos tanto del pasado como del presente del relato: \u00abRealmente jam\u00e1s me ilusion\u00e9 ni con el rock ni con las drogas de poder, y por tanto jam\u00e1s llegu\u00e9 a \\\"desilusionarme\\\" m\u00e1s tarde\u00bb. Esta visi\u00f3n desconfiada y dial\u00e9ctica me parece especialmente pertinente para desmontar la falacia ani\u00f1ada de la cultura de principios del siglo xxi (o del <em>zeitgeist<\/em> de los a\u00f1os sesenta) porque \u2014no es la primera vez que lo digo\u2014 el narcisismo generacional oculta el verdadero motor dram\u00e1tico de la Historia. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/chuck-palahniuk-club-de-la-lucha-fight-club\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Chuck Palahniuk me lo describi\u00f3 as\u00ed en una entrevista<\/a><\/span>:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j59x3zk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No pienso tanto en mi trabajo como algo representativo de una generaci\u00f3n, sino m\u00e1s bien como algo representativo de una fase de la vida que es com\u00fan a todas las generaciones. En alg\u00fan momento de la vida, cada generaci\u00f3n se reconoce a s\u00ed misma como el resultado de todas las decisiones, acciones y energ\u00edas humanas de la historia. Y cada generaci\u00f3n se da cuenta de que ella, tambi\u00e9n, morir\u00e1.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"50\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zy3kjnn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo 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1989 y 1994, le\u00ed todos los libros que Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn hab\u00eda publicado hasta entonces. Me cuesta mucho esfuerzo escribir sobre ellos en forma mesurada: desde el primer momento me transmitieron muchas de las claves de la clase de escritor que yo aspiraba a ser. Empez\u00f3 con un detalle ingenuo y chovinista: se supone que ambos somos de Acapulco. Si en mi lectura inicial predominaron la diversi\u00f3n, la frescura y el chisme, no tard\u00e9 en notar la complejidad formal y conceptual de su pr\u00e1ctica. Comparto, desde luego, la preocupaci\u00f3n de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn por la intoxicaci\u00f3n como proceso imaginativo y \u00e9tico, aunque en mi caso opt\u00e9 (no s\u00e9 si de manera demasiado punk o demasiado est\u00fapida) por el alcohol y las drogas duras. Me interesa tambi\u00e9n la autoconciencia existencial y est\u00e9tica: el control y la idea de un Yo independiente en tanto que fantas\u00eda cognitiva de alg\u00fan modo tr\u00e1gica. Siempre admir\u00e9 y envidi\u00e9 la precocidad vital y literaria del autor. Y aunque soy m\u00e1s bien un escritor de madurez (en parte por ser provinciano y venir de otra clase social, y en parte porque carezco de genio), me procur\u00e9 una intensa juventud autobiogr\u00e1fica a sabiendas de que eso llegar\u00eda a convertirse en un buen material literario con el paso del tiempo.<\/p><p>(\u00bfEs la precocidad una aspiraci\u00f3n a la que hemos renunciado como civilizaci\u00f3n, ahora que la vida dura mucho y el dinero poco?... Me temo que \u00e9sta ser\u00e1 una de las preguntas que atormenten mi vejez rodeada de adolescentes clasemedieros de entre treinta y cuarenta a\u00f1os.)<\/p><p>Aunque quiz\u00e1 en la superficie todos estos aires de familia no sean demasiado evidentes (o al menos eso espero), a cada rato me salen al paso ejemplos conscientes o inconscientes del influjo de Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn sobre lo que escribo. En estos d\u00edas, al releer <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel<\/em> para hacer este pr\u00f3logo, descubr\u00ed uno.<\/p><p>En varias ocasiones he contado, en entrevistas o charlas, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/29185-libro-cancion-de-tumba-9788439725602\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">c\u00f3mo empec\u00e9 a escribir <\/a><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/29185-libro-cancion-de-tumba-9788439725602\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Canci\u00f3n de tumba<\/a><\/span>:<\/em> estaba en el Hospital Universitario de Saltillo, una madrugada de oto\u00f1o, vigilando la leucemia de mi madre, cuando alguien en la estaci\u00f3n de enfermeras puso una canci\u00f3n de Calle 13: \u00abAtr\u00e9vete\u00bb. Abr\u00ed mi laptop, empec\u00e9 a transcribir la letra de la canci\u00f3n, y de ah\u00ed en adelante comenc\u00e9 a redactar como pose\u00eddo el relato de mi infancia, la juventud de Guadalupe Ch\u00e1vez y la enfermedad que termin\u00f3 mat\u00e1ndola; sal\u00ed del cl\u00f3set de ser el hijo de una prostituta.<\/p><p>Ya no s\u00e9 si esto que cuento es verdadero. Lo que s\u00ed es verdadero es que Jos\u00e9 Agust\u00edn narra una escena id\u00e9ntica en <em>El rock de la c\u00e1rcel:<\/em> la manera en que empez\u00f3 a escribir \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1l es la onda?\u00bb (el primer texto suyo que le\u00ed) de madrugada, mientras escuchaba y transcrib\u00eda <em>Alabama Song<\/em> en la versi\u00f3n de The Doors.<\/p><p>Es lo que tienen los libros que uno ama: un doble filo que de vez en cuando vuelve a cortarnos la 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10 minutos
José Agustín. Crédito: D. R.

José Agustín. Crédito: D. R.

En 2009, la revista Letras libres convocó a un puñado de escritores treintañeros, entre ellos yo, a publicar un ensayo personal en su dossier Autobiografías precoces. La intención declarada era dialogar con Nuevos Escritores Mexicanos del Siglo xx Presentados Por Sí Mismos, un proyecto editorial que Rafael Giménez Siles y Emmanuel Carballo hicieron entre 1966 y 1968 con once escritores que en esa época tenían menos de 35 años: Gustavo Sainz, Carlos Monsiváis, Juan Vicente Melo, Juan García Ponce, Salvador Elizondo, Tomás Mojarro, Sergio Pitol, Vicente Leñero, Marco Antonio Montes de Oca, Raúl Navarrete y José Agustín. 

Las autobiografías editadas por Giménez Siles y Carballo son un hito en la cultura mexicana, pero además de su inherente valor como conjunto produjeron el primero de los tres capítulos que conforman El rock de la cárcel (1984), una pieza clave para explicar las transiciones estilísticas en la prosa de José Agustín y la focalización de primera persona en la narrativa mexicana de los ochenta. 

De los textos anidados en Letras Libres crecieron con el tiempo, a su vez, otras dos novelas: El cuerpo en que nací (2011) de Guadalupe Nettel y Canción de tumba (2011). De ahí que exista, quizás, un aire de familia entre estos tres libros: se trata de relatos fragmentarios y digresivos narrados en una peculiar primera persona con doble fondo incómodamente autoconsciente, y cuyas estructuras podrían ser empacadas —no sin secreta displicencia— como ensayos, crónicas o memorias.

¿Qué significa, a mediados del año 2022, releer El rock de la cárcel en clave de novela? Si, como escribe Alberto Vital, los géneros son un puente entre la literatura y la sociedad*, me parece pertinente mencionar la cercanía técnica y estilística de este libro con obras posteriores como (además de las dos ya mencionadas) Fruta verde (2006) de Enrique Serna, El cerebro de mi hermano (2013) de Rafael Pérez Gay, o Autobiografía del algodón (2020) de Cristina Rivera Garza. Una solución fácil e inexacta sería remitir estos volúmenes al gastado rubro de la autoficción. Me resulta más atractivo pensar en un territorio elástico, el espacio de la novela, donde lo que une a estas historias no es solamente lo autobiográfico, sino también un uso cultural subversivo del género en tanto que técnica y lenguaje. No intento proponer El rock de la cárcel como novela precursora de las otras, sino lo contrario: reenmarcar mi apreciación del libro de José Agustín usando la cultura narrativa del siglo xxi como linterna. Un texto del presente puede influir a un texto del pasado merced a la impunidad del orden de lectura. La idea no es mía: se encuentra en Borges y en Harold Bloom y en la versión del I Ching que conocemos.

De entre los múltiples significados que emite El rock de la cárcel, me gustaría resaltar cuatro o cinco que encuentro de impecable actualidad: el palimpsesto, el uso simbólico de las personas narrativas como viaje del ego al mundo social a través del inconsciente, la autorreferencialidad estilística (el texto que se explora a sí mismo en tanto que territorio verbal de intenciones y carencias), el name-dropping y la cultura pop como escenarios de un revueltiano realismo dialéctico, y un marcado énfasis intergeneracional: no «el espíritu de los tiempos», sino el choque entre divergentes sentimientos históricos de Lo Real. 

(Estos fenómenos narrativos están presentes también en las otras obras que he traído a colación, y si me ahorro el análisis comparatista es porque cualquier lector sagaz podrá fácilmente rastrearlos).

Como el propio José Agustín deja entrever en «Tienes que entrar para salir», segundo capítulo de la pieza que aquí se prologa, el primer episodio («Quién soy, dónde estoy, qué me dieron») fue escrito y publicado casi dos décadas antes que el resto del libro. Esto confiere a El rock de la cárcel una peculiar atmósfera metanarrativa, pues el segundo episodio no solamente retoma la historia donde la dejó el primero, sino que se convierte en una suerte de making of a toro pasado que explica las circunstancias editoriales y chismográficas que originaron el relato. Al mismo tiempo, este segundo episodio —el más extenso y piedra angular en un sentido tanto estructural como estilístico, pero me estoy adelantando— fue escrito después de transcurridos los sucesos que se narran en el episodio de cierre («El rock de la cárcel»), de modo que puede permitirse, y lo hace, una buena cantidad de prolepsis sobre los siete meses de prisión que padecerá eventualmente el protagonista y narrador. Estas anticipaciones funcionan al menos de dos modos. Primero, trazan un palimpsesto entre el tono lúdico e individualista que predomina al principio, y la gravitación de lo comunitario que predomina al final de la historia. Segundo, logran introducir un sentimiento de fatalidad en los pasajes más alucinógenos del relato, como si bajo la búsqueda de libertad cognitiva de los viajes en ácido subyaciera —en algún punto José Agustín lo dice con todas sus letras— una inherente vocación purgativa: como si el sentido último de la trascendencia fuera el presentimiento de que uno debe ser castigado. La experiencia mística (el mundo lisérgico) conduce al narrador a la miseria social (el mundo carcelario). Nada más lejos, sin embargo, de una lectura moralizante. A menos que la moraleja sea ésta: no busques la pureza o el sentido trascendente del orden, porque terminarás conociendo las cloacas del Estado.

El más evidente uso simbólico de la persona narrativa como eje de realidad está en los títulos de cada episodio: «Quién soy dónde estoy, qué me dieron» (primera persona: la construcción de una identidad privada y pública); «Tienes que entrar para salir» (segunda persona: el debraye, el desdoblamiento en identidades, el espejeo amoroso y erótico); «El rock de la cárcel» (tercera persona: la aventura social y heroica de Él, aunque también de Ellos —los presos— y Ello —la institución represora). 

Más que una suma de peripecias autobiográficas, la novela es una suma de peripecias de lenguaje. Los juegos de palabras y El Uso De Mayúsculas de la primera parte dialogan con el estilo temprano de José Agustín en novelas como De perfil, pero también son reevaluados y explicados en la segunda sección. Por ejemplo: la anécdota con Aurelio Garzón del Camino, corrector de estilo de La tumba, no tiene desperdicio, pues mientras José Agustín explica sus razones estilísticas para romper la norma editorial, escribe la mayor parte de este pasaje en una parodia de estilo vetusto, lo que le da una vuelta de tuerca a la argumentación. 

De manera veloz —esto no es un paper—, hago notar también que, así como el estilo y la sintaxis del primer episodio dialogan con De perfil, el segundo capítulo está emparentado con las imágenes y los referentes (claves mistéricas y sicodélicas incluso) de Se está haciendo tarde (final en laguna), mientras que en la tercera sección la prosa hierática y a la vez barroquizada por idiolectos de otra clase social (el cualquier cualquier lumpen) acusa la influencia de Revueltas y de sus ideas acerca del realismo como una forma de la conciencia ideológica. Me refiero a una influencia no sólo temática, sino también lingüística. Este (al que Revueltas llamó Realismo Dialéctico) es un aspecto que José Agustín desarrollará brillantemente en otras obras suyas de los ochenta y los noventa. Por ejemplo, en el cuento «Transportarán un cadáver por exprés».

El espectro de José Revueltas, el realismo dialéctico, el pop y la celebridad como sustancia de contraste de la ansiedad más íntima, son factores que se repiten y entremezclan a la manera del sueño en varias de las novelas que he citado un poco al paso desde aquí. Revueltas y el fracaso de la reforma agraria emergen mitologizados en Autobiografía del algodón. Lo mismo sucede con el subcomandante Marcos en El cuerpo en que nací. El ámbito artístico chilango de los años setenta es retratado, así sea como esbozo, en Fruta verde. Concebí los boleros y la imaginería en torno al sindicalismo y la revolución cubana como instrumentos esenciales para la atmósfera de Canción de tumba. 

En El rock de la cárcel, factores similares se dibujan en estado alterado, intoxicados de precocidad, ambigüedad y humor. Revueltas como personaje, el 68, Arturo Durazo, jugar cuartos como pretexto para hacer la V de la Victoria en televisión abierta en tiempos de la represión política, el name-dropping de estrellas del espectáculo y celebridades de la cultura produciendo pelis o viajando en hongos… Todo este retablo es transitado por el juvenil José Agustín con un extraño asombro teñido de desdén. El diluido retrato de Angélica María y el chisme del romance del autor con la Novia de México bastarían para despertar el interés de muchos lectores. Sin embargo, termina siendo más intensa y reveladora la relación del personaje con otras dos mujeres: Angélica Ortiz, quien se desliza como una suerte de fantasma materno vagamente incestuoso a lo largo del segundo episodio; y Margarita, la esposa, quien conduce al narrador a la conclusión (tan incómoda para las libertades sexuales de los años sesenta como para el poliamor atormentado y banalizado del siglo xxi) de que la monogamia sincera es una opción igual de complicada y emocionante y deseable que cualquier otra subversión de la pareja.

La conciencia intergeneracional también está presente en varias de las novelas que he citado, desde el plano filial en primer grado (El cuerpo en que nací, El cerebro de mi hermano, Canción de tumba, Fruta verde) hasta el contexto social —que es lo que predomina en Autobiografía del algodón y El rock de la cárcel. Me parece uno de los mayores logros (y de los menos estudiados y apreciados) que hay en la obra de José Agustín: no sólo un registro y una celebración de la contracultura, sino también una crítica saludablemente autófaga, un conocimiento y apreciación de la cultura hasta entonces dominante (perceptible en las referencias literarias de quien se confiesa más interesado en la tradición literaria decimonónica y barroca que su colega Gustavo Sainz) y un marcado escepticismo hacia los valores éticos y estéticos tanto del pasado como del presente del relato: «Realmente jamás me ilusioné ni con el rock ni con las drogas de poder, y por tanto jamás llegué a "desilusionarme" más tarde». Esta visión desconfiada y dialéctica me parece especialmente pertinente para desmontar la falacia aniñada de la cultura de principios del siglo xxi (o del zeitgeist de los años sesenta) porque —no es la primera vez que lo digo— el narcisismo generacional oculta el verdadero motor dramático de la Historia. Chuck Palahniuk me lo describió así en una entrevista:

No pienso tanto en mi trabajo como algo representativo de una generación, sino más bien como algo representativo de una fase de la vida que es común a todas las generaciones. En algún momento de la vida, cada generación se reconoce a sí misma como el resultado de todas las decisiones, acciones y energías humanas de la historia. Y cada generación se da cuenta de que ella, también, morirá.

Lo que percibo en El rock de la cárcel es una conciencia estética e histórica de índole semejante a la descrita por Chuck.

Cubierta de la nueva reedición mexicana de El rock de la cárcel (Debolsillo), la cual está prologada por Julián Herbert.

Cubierta de la nueva reedición mexicana de El rock de la cárcel (Debolsillo), la cual está prologada por Julián Herbert.

Entre 1989 y 1994, leí todos los libros que José Agustín había publicado hasta entonces. Me cuesta mucho esfuerzo escribir sobre ellos en forma mesurada: desde el primer momento me transmitieron muchas de las claves de la clase de escritor que yo aspiraba a ser. Empezó con un detalle ingenuo y chovinista: se supone que ambos somos de Acapulco. Si en mi lectura inicial predominaron la diversión, la frescura y el chisme, no tardé en notar la complejidad formal y conceptual de su práctica. Comparto, desde luego, la preocupación de José Agustín por la intoxicación como proceso imaginativo y ético, aunque en mi caso opté (no sé si de manera demasiado punk o demasiado estúpida) por el alcohol y las drogas duras. Me interesa también la autoconciencia existencial y estética: el control y la idea de un Yo independiente en tanto que fantasía cognitiva de algún modo trágica. Siempre admiré y envidié la precocidad vital y literaria del autor. Y aunque soy más bien un escritor de madurez (en parte por ser provinciano y venir de otra clase social, y en parte porque carezco de genio), me procuré una intensa juventud autobiográfica a sabiendas de que eso llegaría a convertirse en un buen material literario con el paso del tiempo.

(¿Es la precocidad una aspiración a la que hemos renunciado como civilización, ahora que la vida dura mucho y el dinero poco?... Me temo que ésta será una de las preguntas que atormenten mi vejez rodeada de adolescentes clasemedieros de entre treinta y cuarenta años.)

Aunque quizá en la superficie todos estos aires de familia no sean demasiado evidentes (o al menos eso espero), a cada rato me salen al paso ejemplos conscientes o inconscientes del influjo de José Agustín sobre lo que escribo. En estos días, al releer El rock de la cárcel para hacer este prólogo, descubrí uno.

En varias ocasiones he contado, en entrevistas o charlas, cómo empecé a escribir Canción de tumba: estaba en el Hospital Universitario de Saltillo, una madrugada de otoño, vigilando la leucemia de mi madre, cuando alguien en la estación de enfermeras puso una canción de Calle 13: «Atrévete». Abrí mi laptop, empecé a transcribir la letra de la canción, y de ahí en adelante comencé a redactar como poseído el relato de mi infancia, la juventud de Guadalupe Chávez y la enfermedad que terminó matándola; salí del clóset de ser el hijo de una prostituta.

Ya no sé si esto que cuento es verdadero. Lo que sí es verdadero es que José Agustín narra una escena idéntica en El rock de la cárcel: la manera en que empezó a escribir «¿Cuál es la onda?» (el primer texto suyo que leí) de madrugada, mientras escuchaba y transcribía Alabama Song en la versión de The Doors.

Es lo que tienen los libros que uno ama: un doble filo que de vez en cuando vuelve a cortarnos la cabeza.

* Alberto Vital, Quince hipótesis sobre géneros, UNAM, 2012.

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