Literatura

Donoso por Castellanos Moya: la marca del prestidigitador

Nacido en la alta burguesía de colegios ingleses, universidades norteamericanas y vida acomodada, la literatura de José Donoso gozó de la sensibilidad, la necesidad y la profundidad con las que él mismo se abrió al Chile más allá de su mundo de privilegios: el de las pensiones, las sirvientas, las ex prostitutas, los sobrevivientes, los quebrados, las penurias agobiantes, las fantasías mínimas y la irrevocable llegada de la vejez. Publicados antes de las novelas que lo convertirían en uno de los miembros más encumbrados del Boom latinoamericano, uno de los más brillantes y renovadores novelistas de la lengua española, y dueño de un mundo narrativo radicalmente distinto al de Carlos Fuentes, Vargas Llosa, Cortázar y García Márquez, sus cuentos («Cuentos reunidos», Alfaguara) son la galería perfecta en la que recorrer el talento con que trató el fracaso vital del ser humano, al que no le queda más que aferrarse a sus fantasías antes de sucumbir.
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pocos escritores latinoamericanos el lector puede conocer la vida privada con tal profusio\u0301n de detalles como la de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6165-jose-donoso\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jose\u0301 Donoso<\/a><\/span>. No me refiero solo a textos autobiogra\u0301ficos, diarios o memorias, pues ya sabemos que en ellas abunda el juego de mamparas y de espejos, y que, tal como sosteni\u0301a Lev Shestov en referencia a los diarios de Tolsto\u0301i, \u00abningu\u0301n hombre ha logrado hasta ahora contar sin ambages sobre si\u0301 mismo ni siquiera una parte de la verdad\u00bb. Pero la mirada cri\u0301tica y descarnada de los seres queridos, de aquellos que han compartido nuestra cotidianidad, nuestros furores, cai\u0301das, obsesiones, miserias, puede ser devastadora, como lo fue el libro que escribio\u0301 Pilar Donoso sobre su padre, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/225655-ebook-correr-el-tupido-velo-9789563841312\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Correr el tupido vel<\/a>o<\/em><\/span>. Despue\u0301s de leerlo, el lector se preguntara\u0301 \u2014o al menos yo me lo pregunte\u0301\u2014 si podri\u0301a leer la obra de Donoso de la misma forma, con la misma admiracio\u0301n y encantamiento. Y con ese temor volvi\u0301 a estos cuentos que ahora 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la experiencia de la relectura ha sido gratificante, no solo por el gozo que producen estas historias, sino porque confirma la idea que Proust expuso con tanta claridad y Naipaul repitio\u0301: uno es el hombre que escribe, que crea sus mundos de ficcio\u0301n, que nos deslumbra por su capacidad para calar en el espi\u0301ritu humano, en lo profundo de sus oscuridades y en sus momentos luminosos; y otro es el hombre cotidiano, aquel al que creemos conocer en las miserias del di\u0301a a di\u0301a, al que padecemos por sus maldades y con el que a veces gozamos. La obra de Jose\u0301 Donoso se mantiene firme, crece incluso con el paso del tiempo, y no solo su novela cumbre, <em>El obsceno pa\u0301jaro de la noche<\/em>, sino tambie\u0301n estas piezas primeras.\u00a0<\/p><p>Donoso pertenece a la estirpe de escritores que inician su obra con la <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/elena-garro-cuento-inedito-el-gato\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">escritura de cuentos<\/a>, un ge\u0301nero que les permite comenzar a medir sus fuerzas creativas, sus formas de escritura, su manejo de los recursos estili\u0301sticos y tambie\u0301n incursionar en sus mundos narrativos. No es difi\u0301cil de entender que, a pesar de que el cuento sea considerado un ge\u0301nero ma\u0301s estricto que la novela en cuanto a sus leyes internas, muchos narradores lo consideren el punto donde debe arrancar su escritura de ficcio\u0301n: la brevedad en la extensio\u0301n y la utilizacio\u0301n de pocos personajes es propicia para quien comienza a hacer las armas en el oficio. Larga es la lista de grandes escritores que, una vez que transitan a la novela, regresan con frecuencia al cuento. Menos larga es la de aquellos que no lo hacen (James Joyce quiza\u0301 sea el ma\u0301s notable). Jose\u0301 Donoso puede formar parte de esta 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libro que el lector tiene entre manos fue publicado por primera vez en 1966 bajo el ti\u0301tulo <em>Los mejores cuentos de Jose\u0301 Donoso,<\/em> en la editorial chilena Zig-Zag, con un breve pro\u0301logo y una cronologi\u0301a realizados por Luis Domi\u0301nguez, e incluye todos los cuentos que forman los dos libros de este ge\u0301nero publicados por el escritor chileno: <em>Veraneo y otros cuentos<\/em> (1955) y <em>El charlesto\u0301n<\/em> (1960); tambie\u0301n contiene dos narraciones fuera de coleccio\u0301n (\u00abChina\u00bb, publicado en la <em>Antologi\u0301a del nuevo\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/lina-meruane-marta-sanz-zona-ciega\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">cuento chileno<\/a><\/em> de Enrique Lafourcade en 1954,<em> y Santelices<\/em>, publicado en la revista bonaerense <em>Sur,<\/em> en 1963). Aquel an\u0303o de 1966 fue clave para el despegue de la obra de Donoso a nivel internacional, hasta entonces constren\u0303ida dentro de las fronteras chilenas: sus novelas <em>El lugar sin li\u0301mites<\/em> y <em>Este domingo<\/em> fueron publicadas por la editorial Joaqui\u0301n Mortiz en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-fixer-narco-miguel-angel-vega\\\">Me\u0301xico<\/a>; <em>Coronacio\u0301n,<\/em> traducida al ingle\u0301s, fue lanzada con bombo y platillo por Knopf en Nueva York, donde <em>The New York Times<\/em> la destaco\u0301 como uno de los libros del an\u0303o. Por si esto fuera poco, Donoso fue invitado a dar clases en el famoso taller Writers Workshop en la Universidad de Iowa, donde se radico\u0301 un par de an\u0303os y coincidio\u0301 con el escritor Kurt Vonnegut. Desde el Medio Oeste estadounidense se trasladari\u0301a luego a vivir a Barcelona. Para entonces, las tres novelas publicadas en Chile y Me\u0301xico habi\u0301an sido lanzadas por Seix Barral en la peni\u0301nsula ibe\u0301rica.\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto;\\\">La publicacio\u0301n de <em>El obsceno pa\u0301jaro de la noche<\/em> (Seix Barral, 1970) en Barcelona fue un acontecimiento literario que consolido\u0301 el prestigio y la fama de Donoso como uno de los ma\u0301s brillantes y renovadores novelistas de la lengua espan\u0303ola. El mundo narrativo de esta obra \u2014radicalmente distinto al de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/3653-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Carlos Fuentes<\/a> y <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez-Mario-Vargas-Llosa-Dos-soledades\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Vargas Llosa, y al llamado realismo ma\u0301gico de Garci\u0301a Ma\u0301rquez<\/a><\/span>\u2014 abri\u0301a rutas nuevas a la<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/la-historia-latinoamericana-segun-hilda-sabato-el-siglo-xix-fue-un-momento-de-innovacion-politica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">narrativa latinoamericana<\/a><\/span>, a trave\u0301s de la exploracio\u0301n de otros estratos, otras voces y la sumersio\u0301n en densidades psicolo\u0301gicas ma\u0301s profundas.\u00a0<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto;\\\">Es en esos momentos de expansio\u0301n de la obra de Donoso, un an\u0303o despue\u0301s del lanzamiento de <em>El obsceno pa\u0301jaro de la noche,<\/em> cuando se publica en Barcelona la edicio\u0301n de los <em>Cuentos<\/em> (Seix Barral, 1971), esta vez sin el calificativo \u00abLos mejores\u00bb que la edicio\u0301n chilena teni\u0301a en el ti\u0301tulo, y con un ilustrativo y agudo pro\u0301logo de Ana Mari\u0301a Moix, para quien el conocimiento de Donoso que se tiene a esa altura en Espan\u0303a \u00absigue siendo incompleto\u00bb. La escritora catalana sostiene que \u00abla diferencia abismal\u00bb que existe entre <em>Coronacio\u0301n<\/em> y <em>El obsceno pa\u0301jaro de la noche<\/em> no es producto de \u00abun salto brusco\u00bb, sino de una evolucio\u0301n progresiva, paulatina y constante, que culmina con \u00abel estallido final\u00bb que es su obra cumbre. Y aprovecha para tratar de establecer la conexio\u0301n existente entre estos cuentos y la produccio\u0301n noveli\u0301stica del escritor. Moix es una de las primeras que sen\u0303ala que Donoso es un \u00abescritor de obsesiones (no con obsesiones)\u00bb, que este seri\u0301a el eje rector de su energi\u0301a y voluntad como escritor, la creacio\u0301n permanente de obsesiones, algo que lo emparenta, digo yo, con el argentino Ernesto Sabato, un autor para quien la literatura que ma\u0301s importaba era aquella de situaciones extremas, y que se atrevio\u0301 a sumergirse en peligrosas profundidades de la psiquis humana.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"u4tkh2w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa intencio\u0301n de Donoso es salir de su clase social y fijar su foco en la vida de la mayori\u0301a silenciosa que pulula en ciudades y pueblos, viviendo en grises pensiones, entre oficinistas, meca\u0301nicos, obreros, lavanderas y exprostitutas. Retratar el Chile donde la vida bulle entre penurias, atmo\u0301sferas asfixiantes y mi\u0301nimas fantasi\u0301as. No hay demagogia ni sentimentalismo sino conmovedoras historias que contar\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"poa6lxx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los cuentos de Donoso, en efecto, se mueven en esos terrenos tema\u0301ticos que la cri\u0301tica ha sen\u0303alado en toda su obra posterior: el mundo de las sirvientas, criadas o empleadas dome\u0301sticas al servicio de la rancia burguesi\u0301a chilena; el angustioso y asfixiante mundo de la vejez; y lo que el cubano Severo Sarduy llamaba \u00abtravestismo\u00bb y que con mayor amplitud Moix denomina un mundo mutante o esquizofre\u0301nico. Pero este enfoque ve solo una de las capas de la obra de Donoso.\u00a0<\/p><p>Desde que publica su primer libro, <em>Veraneo y otros cuento<\/em>s, el escritor toma una posicio\u0301n desde la cual observara\u0301 el mundo que lo rodea y desde donde, adema\u0301s, escogera\u0301 aquellas partes de ese mundo que le interesa abordar. Tiene entonces 31 an\u0303os, siente que el tiempo se le viene encima, que es hora de reafirmar su vocacio\u0301n y oficio, que ha acumulado ya la experiencia que le permitira\u0301 seguir sus intuiciones y a partir de ellas tomar decisiones narrativas que lo tirara\u0301n hacia adelante.\u00a0<\/p><p>Descendiente de una familia burguesa acomodada, educado en la exclusiva academia brita\u0301nica The Grange School en Santiago, donde <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">fue condisci\u0301pulo del mexicano Carlos Fuentes<\/a><\/span>, Donoso dio muestra, desde el fin de su adolescencia, de no sentirse co\u0301modo en el lugar y la posicio\u0301n en que la vida lo habi\u0301a colocado. Al terminar el bachillerato, se largo\u0301 hacia el sur de Chile a trabajar en haciendas ovejeras, luego laboro\u0301 en el puerto de<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/liniers-gustavo-sala-buenos-aires-en-pelotas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Buenos Aires<\/a><\/span>, viajo\u0301 por Centroame\u0301rica y Me\u0301xico, y finalmente regreso\u0301 a Santiago a estudiar literatura. Pronto consiguio\u0301 una beca que le permitio\u0301 permanecer un par de an\u0303os (1949-1951) en la Universidad de Princeton, donde publico\u0301 sus primeros dos cuentos en la revista universitaria MSS, dos relatos escritos en ingle\u0301s, <em>The Poisoned Pastries<\/em> y <em>The Blue Woman<\/em>, traducidos al espan\u0303ol por el propio Donoso y su esposa Pilar, pero que nunca fueron publicados en esta lengua.\u00a0<\/p><p>Quiza\u0301 fue ese el primer desafi\u0301o que Donoso debio\u0301 superar en su carrera de escritor: la tentacio\u0301n de cambiar de lengua, de dejar el espan\u0303ol y lanzarse a la aventura del ingle\u0301s que manejaba con soltura desde su infancia, a la manera ma\u0301s de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/Plagio-Hector-Aguilar-Camin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un Nabokov<\/a><\/span> que de un Conrad (quien tanto peleo\u0301 con esa lengua cuando decidio\u0301 escribir en ella). El regreso a Chile luego de Princeton significo\u0301 no solo la decisio\u0301n de mantenerse en su lengua materna, sino que puso en evidencia que la percepcio\u0301n del mundo narrativo que configurari\u0301a en su obra ya estaba definida. Ninguno de los cuentos publicados por Donoso trata temas relacionados con su experiencia estadounidense; nada de sus vivencias en la universidad, nada de esos dos an\u0303os en los que con mucha frecuencia viajaba a Nueva York.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"sdfe6jo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abUn rasgo que se repite en varios de los relatos es un momento de quiebre, de crisis, de hundimiento del personaje central, que ha sido sometido a una presio\u0301n ba\u0301rbara por la vida. Y ese momento de quiebre es el precio que hay que pagar por la i\u0301ntima ilusio\u0301n que cada uno de ellos alberga para darse aliento a lo largo de su mi\u0301sera cotidianidad\u00bb.<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"e784ht5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No es gratuito entonces que si\u0301 incluya un cuento (<em>El gu\u0308ero)<\/em> sobre su paso por Veracruz y la selva <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">mexicana<\/a><\/span>, y otro (<em>Dinamarquero)<\/em> basado en su corta aventura en las zonas de pastoreo del extremo sur chileno. Me atreveri\u0301a a decir que esta decisio\u0301n entra\u00f1a un gesto radical sobre\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2021\/tilsa-otta-lxs-ninxs-de-oro-de-la-alquimia-sexual\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la identidad<\/a><\/span> y pertenencia del escritor: la tentacio\u0301n del desarraigo vital habi\u0301a sido dejada atra\u0301s. Pasari\u0301an cuarenta an\u0303os para que Donoso escribiera una novela completamente dedicada al ambiente universitario estadounidense, <em>Donde van a morir los elefantes<\/em>, una obra bastante sati\u0301rica que esta\u0301 basada en sus experiencias en la ciudad de Iowa, en cuya universidad Donoso dio clases en dos ocasiones (1965-66 y 1991) y en donde yo estoy escribiendo este pro\u0301logo. En la biblioteca de la Universidad de Iowa ocupa un lugar destacado la coleccio\u0301n Jose\u0301 Donoso Papers, que contiene los originales de la mayori\u0301a de los cuentos incluidos en este libro y de varios otros que fueron desechados.\u00a0<\/p><p>Deci\u0301a pa\u0301rrafos atra\u0301s que algunos de los temas que la cri\u0301tica menciona como dominantes en la obra de Donoso, desde estos primeros cuentos, son apenas una capa del universo <em>donosiano.<\/em> Las sirvientas o criadas de los ricos, por ejemplo. El libro comienza precisamente con <em>Veraneo<\/em>, un relato en el que a trave\u0301s de un tri\u0301o de sirvientas se retrata la ti\u0301pica relacio\u0301n adu\u0301ltera de un hombre acomodado que tiene en el mismo balneario la casa con su mujer y su hijo, y no muy lejos la casa donde tambie\u0301n veranean su amante con su hijo; la relacio\u0301n entre los nin\u0303os de ambas\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/marylene-patou-mathis-el-hombre-prehistorico-es-tambien-una-mujer\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">mujeres<\/a><\/span> sucede enfrente de las criadas que tambie\u0301n viven su propio chisme. Pero se trata del u\u0301nico cuento en que ellas juegan un papel protago\u0301nico. La intencio\u0301n de Donoso iba ma\u0301s alla\u0301: salir de su clase social, hacer a un lado su zona de confort, y fijar su foco de atencio\u0301n en la vida de aquella mayori\u0301a silenciosa que pulula en ciudades y pueblos, viviendo en grises pensiones, pobres oficinistas (<em>Fiesta en grande<\/em>, <em>La puerta cerrada)<\/em>, empleados de poca monta (<em>Santelices<\/em> y <em>El hombrecito)<\/em>, meca\u0301nicos (<em>Tocayos)<\/em>, obreros y lavanderas (<em>Ana Mari\u0301a)<\/em>, exprostitutas (<em>Dinamarquero)<\/em>, en fin, retratar el Chile que estaba ma\u0301s alla\u0301 de su clase acomodada, donde la vida bulle entre penurias, atmo\u0301sferas asfixiantes y mi\u0301nimas fantasi\u0301as. No hay demagogia ni sentimentalismo en su posicionamiento, sino conmovedoras historias que contar. Tampoco se trata de la pose del renegado (<em>Paseo)<\/em> recrea la vida de unos hermanos de una familia pudiente, sino de una expansio\u0301n vital y creativa necesaria para el escritor que arranca con su obra. Donoso pareceri\u0301a haber sido consciente de que entre ma\u0301s mundos incorporara dentro de si\u0301 mismo su mirada tendri\u0301a mayor agudeza y penetracio\u0301n, y que tambie\u0301n los registros de su narrativa seri\u0301an ma\u0301s variados.\u00a0<\/p><p>Un rasgo que se repite en varios de los relatos es un momento de quiebre, de crisis, de hundimiento del personaje central, que ha sido sometido a una presio\u0301n ba\u0301rbara por la vida. Y ese momento de quiebre es el precio que hay que pagar por la i\u0301ntima ilusio\u0301n que cada uno de ellos alberga para darse aliento a lo largo de su mi\u0301sera cotidianidad. Pero Donoso no se regodea en la morbosidad de la cai\u0301da, en el desastre emocional que significa el fin de toda ilusio\u0301n, sino que su magia radica en hacer que el personaje sufra una metamorfosis que lo reconcilie con su final. Sebastia\u0301n Rengifo (<em>La puerta cerrada)<\/em>\u00a0destruye su vida, se hunde en la miseria para tratar de descifrar lo que hay en sus suen\u0303os y muere como pordiosero ano\u0301nimo en la calle, pero con el rostro transfigurado por la expresio\u0301n de gozo de quien por fin ha logrado su meta. En <em>Santelices<\/em>, cuando \u00e9ste comprende que su coleccio\u0301n de estampas y recortes de felinos salvajes ha sido destruida para siempre por el duen\u0303o de la pensio\u0301n, regresa a medianoche a su oficina y desde la altura de su ventana salta por los aires, delirante y emocionado, para salvar a la joven vecina que supone acechada, abajo en el patio, por todos esos felinos salvajes de su 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que, escritos con un enjundioso dominio del ge\u0301nero, cierran con una epifani\u0301a, a veces de ternura e inocencia, como en <em>Ana Mari\u0301a<\/em>, cuando el viejo y decre\u0301pito obrero desempleado, sin medios de subsistencia, abandonado por su mujer, en ruta hacia la muerte, pasa a ver por u\u0301ltima vez a la nin\u0303a que, para su sorpresa, decide acompan\u0303arlo; a veces de misterio, como en <em>Paseo<\/em>, cuando la ti\u0301a Matilde \u2014esa mujer encumbrada, solterona, estricta, dedicada al cuidado de sus hermanos, florecientes abogados\u2014 deja atra\u0301s status, casa, familia, y desaparece para siempre en compan\u0303i\u0301a de una perra callejera y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/javier-cercas-paradojas-pandemia\\\">enferma <\/a><\/span>que de pronto le ha ganado el alma.\u00a0<\/p><p>El pulso firme de Donoso se manifiesta en el fino control de diversas voces y 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Y esa es la marca del prestidigitador: cuentos que culminan con una metamorfosis o con la desaparicio\u0301n bajo un velo de misterio.\u00a0<\/p><p>Donoso tiene la virtud de tratar el fracaso vital de sus personajes, la <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2021\/emiliano-monge-tejer-la-oscuridad\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">grisura de sus vidas<\/a>, la rutina de los perdedores, con un toque de piedad, ajena a juicios y moralismos. La u\u0301nica moraleja es que la ma\u0301quina trituradora de la vida no tiene consideraciones con nadie ni tolera excepciones, y que al ser humano no le queda ma\u0301s que aferrarse a sus fantasi\u0301as antes de sucumbir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"c6qbxw6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abDonoso tiene la virtud de tratar el fracaso de sus personajes, la grisura de sus vidas, la rutina de los perdedores, con un toque de piedad, ajena a juicios y moralismos. La u\u0301nica moraleja es que la ma\u0301quina trituradora de la vida no tiene consideraciones con nadie ni tolera excepciones, y que al ser humano no le queda ma\u0301s que aferrarse a sus fantasi\u0301as antes de sucumbir. Y esa es la marca del prestidigitador: cuentos que culminan con una metamorfosis o con la desaparicio\u0301n bajo un velo de misterio\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g7e5sg7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Para aquellos interesados en la gene\u0301tica literaria, la coleccio\u0301n <em>Jose\u0301 Donoso Papers<\/em> antes mencionada, en su caja n\u00b0 4, contiene los originales de once de los catorce cuentos que componen este libro (faltan <em>Fiesta en grande<\/em>, <em>Ana Mari\u0301a<\/em> y <em>Santelices<\/em>), escritos a ma\u0301quina, con apuntes y correcciones del autor, y muchos de ellos con la fecha y lugar de su escritura. Del u\u0301nico cuento del que hay una primera versio\u0301n manuscrita y dos versiones a ma\u0301quina (una de trabajo y la definitiva) es de <em>Paseo.<\/em> La caja contiene tambie\u0301n los originales de ocho cuentos desechados por el autor y uno <em>Pasos en la noche<\/em> que, segu\u0301n reza un apunte manuscrito de Donoso junto al ti\u0301tulo, \u00abtal como esta\u0301 aqui\u0301, aparecio\u0301 en la revista <em>Ame\u0301ricas,<\/em> de la Unio\u0301n Panamericana\u00bb en 1958.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero ma\u0301s alla\u0301 de estas curiosidades, leer los cuentos de Donoso sera\u0301 un agasajo para el lector. Poco ma\u0301s de medio siglo despue\u0301s de ser publicados, no solo no han perdido su fuerza, sino que han crecido con la distancia. Estas piezas constituyen los primeros pasos del autor en su larga ruta creativa, y muestran que, asi\u0301 como fue un vasto y magni\u0301fico novelista, tambie\u0301n escribio\u0301 con maestri\u0301a los relatos que conteni\u0301an el germen de su rico mundo narrativo, varios de los cuales \u2014como <em>Fiesta en grande, La puerta cerrada<\/em>, <em>Paseo<\/em> o <em>Santelices<\/em>\u2014 deben formar parte del canon del ge\u0301nero en lengua castellana.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong><br \/><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<br \/><br \/><\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/horacio-castellanos-moya-rafael-gumucio-roque-dalton\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Horacio Castellanos Moya, el hombre del pasaporte equivocado<\/a><\/span><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Villoro por H\u00e9ctor Abad Faciolince: el material del que est\u00e1n hechos los sue\u00f1os<\/a><\/span><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-fixer-narco-miguel-angel-vega\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Contacto en M\u00e9xico: Vida y muertes del <em>fixer,\u00a0<\/em>el enlace entre la prensa extranjera y los capos narco.\u00a0<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j70flvp\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

José Donoso en una imagen de archivo. Crédito: Valeria Zalaquett.

De pocos escritores latinoamericanos el lector puede conocer la vida privada con tal profusión de detalles como la de José Donoso. No me refiero solo a textos autobiográficos, diarios o memorias, pues ya sabemos que en ellas abunda el juego de mamparas y de espejos, y que, tal como sostenía Lev Shestov en referencia a los diarios de Tolstói, «ningún hombre ha logrado hasta ahora contar sin ambages sobre sí mismo ni siquiera una parte de la verdad». Pero la mirada crítica y descarnada de los seres queridos, de aquellos que han compartido nuestra cotidianidad, nuestros furores, caídas, obsesiones, miserias, puede ser devastadora, como lo fue el libro que escribió Pilar Donoso sobre su padre, Correr el tupido velo. Después de leerlo, el lector se preguntará —o al menos yo me lo pregunté— si podría leer la obra de Donoso de la misma forma, con la misma admiración y encantamiento. Y con ese temor volví a estos cuentos que ahora publico.

Pero la experiencia de la relectura ha sido gratificante, no solo por el gozo que producen estas historias, sino porque confirma la idea que Proust expuso con tanta claridad y Naipaul repitió: uno es el hombre que escribe, que crea sus mundos de ficción, que nos deslumbra por su capacidad para calar en el espíritu humano, en lo profundo de sus oscuridades y en sus momentos luminosos; y otro es el hombre cotidiano, aquel al que creemos conocer en las miserias del día a día, al que padecemos por sus maldades y con el que a veces gozamos. La obra de José Donoso se mantiene firme, crece incluso con el paso del tiempo, y no solo su novela cumbre, El obsceno pájaro de la noche, sino también estas piezas primeras. 

Donoso pertenece a la estirpe de escritores que inician su obra con la escritura de cuentos, un género que les permite comenzar a medir sus fuerzas creativas, sus formas de escritura, su manejo de los recursos estilísticos y también incursionar en sus mundos narrativos. No es difícil de entender que, a pesar de que el cuento sea considerado un género más estricto que la novela en cuanto a sus leyes internas, muchos narradores lo consideren el punto donde debe arrancar su escritura de ficción: la brevedad en la extensión y la utilización de pocos personajes es propicia para quien comienza a hacer las armas en el oficio. Larga es la lista de grandes escritores que, una vez que transitan a la novela, regresan con frecuencia al cuento. Menos larga es la de aquellos que no lo hacen (James Joyce quizá sea el más notable). José Donoso puede formar parte de esta lista.

El libro que el lector tiene entre manos fue publicado por primera vez en 1966 bajo el título Los mejores cuentos de José Donoso, en la editorial chilena Zig-Zag, con un breve prólogo y una cronología realizados por Luis Domínguez, e incluye todos los cuentos que forman los dos libros de este género publicados por el escritor chileno: Veraneo y otros cuentos (1955) y El charlestón (1960); también contiene dos narraciones fuera de colección («China», publicado en la Antología del nuevo cuento chileno de Enrique Lafourcade en 1954, y Santelices, publicado en la revista bonaerense Sur, en 1963). Aquel año de 1966 fue clave para el despegue de la obra de Donoso a nivel internacional, hasta entonces constreñida dentro de las fronteras chilenas: sus novelas El lugar sin límites y Este domingo fueron publicadas por la editorial Joaquín Mortiz en México; Coronación, traducida al inglés, fue lanzada con bombo y platillo por Knopf en Nueva York, donde The New York Times la destacó como uno de los libros del año. Por si esto fuera poco, Donoso fue invitado a dar clases en el famoso taller Writers Workshop en la Universidad de Iowa, donde se radicó un par de años y coincidió con el escritor Kurt Vonnegut. Desde el Medio Oeste estadounidense se trasladaría luego a vivir a Barcelona. Para entonces, las tres novelas publicadas en Chile y México habían sido lanzadas por Seix Barral en la península ibérica. 

La publicación de El obsceno pájaro de la noche (Seix Barral, 1970) en Barcelona fue un acontecimiento literario que consolidó el prestigio y la fama de Donoso como uno de los más brillantes y renovadores novelistas de la lengua española. El mundo narrativo de esta obra —radicalmente distinto al de Carlos Fuentes y Vargas Llosa, y al llamado realismo mágico de García Márquez— abría rutas nuevas a la narrativa latinoamericana, a través de la exploración de otros estratos, otras voces y la sumersión en densidades psicológicas más profundas. 

Es en esos momentos de expansión de la obra de Donoso, un año después del lanzamiento de El obsceno pájaro de la noche, cuando se publica en Barcelona la edición de los Cuentos (Seix Barral, 1971), esta vez sin el calificativo «Los mejores» que la edición chilena tenía en el título, y con un ilustrativo y agudo prólogo de Ana María Moix, para quien el conocimiento de Donoso que se tiene a esa altura en España «sigue siendo incompleto». La escritora catalana sostiene que «la diferencia abismal» que existe entre Coronación y El obsceno pájaro de la noche no es producto de «un salto brusco», sino de una evolución progresiva, paulatina y constante, que culmina con «el estallido final» que es su obra cumbre. Y aprovecha para tratar de establecer la conexión existente entre estos cuentos y la producción novelística del escritor. Moix es una de las primeras que señala que Donoso es un «escritor de obsesiones (no con obsesiones)», que este sería el eje rector de su energía y voluntad como escritor, la creación permanente de obsesiones, algo que lo emparenta, digo yo, con el argentino Ernesto Sabato, un autor para quien la literatura que más importaba era aquella de situaciones extremas, y que se atrevió a sumergirse en peligrosas profundidades de la psiquis humana. 

«La intención de Donoso es salir de su clase social y fijar su foco en la vida de la mayoría silenciosa que pulula en ciudades y pueblos, viviendo en grises pensiones, entre oficinistas, mecánicos, obreros, lavanderas y exprostitutas. Retratar el Chile donde la vida bulle entre penurias, atmósferas asfixiantes y mínimas fantasías. No hay demagogia ni sentimentalismo sino conmovedoras historias que contar».

Los cuentos de Donoso, en efecto, se mueven en esos terrenos temáticos que la crítica ha señalado en toda su obra posterior: el mundo de las sirvientas, criadas o empleadas domésticas al servicio de la rancia burguesía chilena; el angustioso y asfixiante mundo de la vejez; y lo que el cubano Severo Sarduy llamaba «travestismo» y que con mayor amplitud Moix denomina un mundo mutante o esquizofrénico. Pero este enfoque ve solo una de las capas de la obra de Donoso. 

Desde que publica su primer libro, Veraneo y otros cuentos, el escritor toma una posición desde la cual observará el mundo que lo rodea y desde donde, además, escogerá aquellas partes de ese mundo que le interesa abordar. Tiene entonces 31 años, siente que el tiempo se le viene encima, que es hora de reafirmar su vocación y oficio, que ha acumulado ya la experiencia que le permitirá seguir sus intuiciones y a partir de ellas tomar decisiones narrativas que lo tirarán hacia adelante. 

Descendiente de una familia burguesa acomodada, educado en la exclusiva academia británica The Grange School en Santiago, donde fue condiscípulo del mexicano Carlos Fuentes, Donoso dio muestra, desde el fin de su adolescencia, de no sentirse cómodo en el lugar y la posición en que la vida lo había colocado. Al terminar el bachillerato, se largó hacia el sur de Chile a trabajar en haciendas ovejeras, luego laboró en el puerto de Buenos Aires, viajó por Centroamérica y México, y finalmente regresó a Santiago a estudiar literatura. Pronto consiguió una beca que le permitió permanecer un par de años (1949-1951) en la Universidad de Princeton, donde publicó sus primeros dos cuentos en la revista universitaria MSS, dos relatos escritos en inglés, The Poisoned Pastries y The Blue Woman, traducidos al español por el propio Donoso y su esposa Pilar, pero que nunca fueron publicados en esta lengua. 

Quizá fue ese el primer desafío que Donoso debió superar en su carrera de escritor: la tentación de cambiar de lengua, de dejar el español y lanzarse a la aventura del inglés que manejaba con soltura desde su infancia, a la manera más de un Nabokov que de un Conrad (quien tanto peleó con esa lengua cuando decidió escribir en ella). El regreso a Chile luego de Princeton significó no solo la decisión de mantenerse en su lengua materna, sino que puso en evidencia que la percepción del mundo narrativo que configuraría en su obra ya estaba definida. Ninguno de los cuentos publicados por Donoso trata temas relacionados con su experiencia estadounidense; nada de sus vivencias en la universidad, nada de esos dos años en los que con mucha frecuencia viajaba a Nueva York. 

«Un rasgo que se repite en varios de los relatos es un momento de quiebre, de crisis, de hundimiento del personaje central, que ha sido sometido a una presión bárbara por la vida. Y ese momento de quiebre es el precio que hay que pagar por la íntima ilusión que cada uno de ellos alberga para darse aliento a lo largo de su mísera cotidianidad».

No es gratuito entonces que sí incluya un cuento (El güero) sobre su paso por Veracruz y la selva mexicana, y otro (Dinamarquero) basado en su corta aventura en las zonas de pastoreo del extremo sur chileno. Me atrevería a decir que esta decisión entraña un gesto radical sobre la identidad y pertenencia del escritor: la tentación del desarraigo vital había sido dejada atrás. Pasarían cuarenta años para que Donoso escribiera una novela completamente dedicada al ambiente universitario estadounidense, Donde van a morir los elefantes, una obra bastante satírica que está basada en sus experiencias en la ciudad de Iowa, en cuya universidad Donoso dio clases en dos ocasiones (1965-66 y 1991) y en donde yo estoy escribiendo este prólogo. En la biblioteca de la Universidad de Iowa ocupa un lugar destacado la colección José Donoso Papers, que contiene los originales de la mayoría de los cuentos incluidos en este libro y de varios otros que fueron desechados. 

Decía párrafos atrás que algunos de los temas que la crítica menciona como dominantes en la obra de Donoso, desde estos primeros cuentos, son apenas una capa del universo donosiano. Las sirvientas o criadas de los ricos, por ejemplo. El libro comienza precisamente con Veraneo, un relato en el que a través de un trío de sirvientas se retrata la típica relación adúltera de un hombre acomodado que tiene en el mismo balneario la casa con su mujer y su hijo, y no muy lejos la casa donde también veranean su amante con su hijo; la relación entre los niños de ambas mujeres sucede enfrente de las criadas que también viven su propio chisme. Pero se trata del único cuento en que ellas juegan un papel protagónico. La intención de Donoso iba más allá: salir de su clase social, hacer a un lado su zona de confort, y fijar su foco de atención en la vida de aquella mayoría silenciosa que pulula en ciudades y pueblos, viviendo en grises pensiones, pobres oficinistas (Fiesta en grande, La puerta cerrada), empleados de poca monta (Santelices y El hombrecito), mecánicos (Tocayos), obreros y lavanderas (Ana María), exprostitutas (Dinamarquero), en fin, retratar el Chile que estaba más allá de su clase acomodada, donde la vida bulle entre penurias, atmósferas asfixiantes y mínimas fantasías. No hay demagogia ni sentimentalismo en su posicionamiento, sino conmovedoras historias que contar. Tampoco se trata de la pose del renegado (Paseo) recrea la vida de unos hermanos de una familia pudiente, sino de una expansión vital y creativa necesaria para el escritor que arranca con su obra. Donoso parecería haber sido consciente de que entre más mundos incorporara dentro de sí mismo su mirada tendría mayor agudeza y penetración, y que también los registros de su narrativa serían más variados. 

Un rasgo que se repite en varios de los relatos es un momento de quiebre, de crisis, de hundimiento del personaje central, que ha sido sometido a una presión bárbara por la vida. Y ese momento de quiebre es el precio que hay que pagar por la íntima ilusión que cada uno de ellos alberga para darse aliento a lo largo de su mísera cotidianidad. Pero Donoso no se regodea en la morbosidad de la caída, en el desastre emocional que significa el fin de toda ilusión, sino que su magia radica en hacer que el personaje sufra una metamorfosis que lo reconcilie con su final. Sebastián Rengifo (La puerta cerrada) destruye su vida, se hunde en la miseria para tratar de descifrar lo que hay en sus sueños y muere como pordiosero anónimo en la calle, pero con el rostro transfigurado por la expresión de gozo de quien por fin ha logrado su meta. En Santelices, cuando éste comprende que su colección de estampas y recortes de felinos salvajes ha sido destruida para siempre por el dueño de la pensión, regresa a medianoche a su oficina y desde la altura de su ventana salta por los aires, delirante y emocionado, para salvar a la joven vecina que supone acechada, abajo en el patio, por todos esos felinos salvajes de su fantasía. 

José Donoso en París en 1981. Crédito: Getty Images.

Cuentos que, escritos con un enjundioso dominio del género, cierran con una epifanía, a veces de ternura e inocencia, como en Ana María, cuando el viejo y decrépito obrero desempleado, sin medios de subsistencia, abandonado por su mujer, en ruta hacia la muerte, pasa a ver por última vez a la niña que, para su sorpresa, decide acompañarlo; a veces de misterio, como en Paseo, cuando la tía Matilde —esa mujer encumbrada, solterona, estricta, dedicada al cuidado de sus hermanos, florecientes abogados— deja atrás status, casa, familia, y desaparece para siempre en compañía de una perra callejera y enferma que de pronto le ha ganado el alma. 

El pulso firme de Donoso se manifiesta en el fino control de diversas voces y registros, en la perspicacia psicológica que le permite construir las mentalidades de personajes de diversas edades y estratos, y que también le posibilita penetrar en sus trastornos sin escándalo, incluso con cierta delicadeza, como en el caso de Juan Vizcarra (El hombrecito), un empleado doméstico hácelo-todo, compónelo-todo, que se hunde paulatinamente en el alcoholismo hasta no dejar rastro. Y esa es la marca del prestidigitador: cuentos que culminan con una metamorfosis o con la desaparición bajo un velo de misterio. 

Donoso tiene la virtud de tratar el fracaso vital de sus personajes, la grisura de sus vidas, la rutina de los perdedores, con un toque de piedad, ajena a juicios y moralismos. La única moraleja es que la máquina trituradora de la vida no tiene consideraciones con nadie ni tolera excepciones, y que al ser humano no le queda más que aferrarse a sus fantasías antes de sucumbir.

«Donoso tiene la virtud de tratar el fracaso de sus personajes, la grisura de sus vidas, la rutina de los perdedores, con un toque de piedad, ajena a juicios y moralismos. La única moraleja es que la máquina trituradora de la vida no tiene consideraciones con nadie ni tolera excepciones, y que al ser humano no le queda más que aferrarse a sus fantasías antes de sucumbir. Y esa es la marca del prestidigitador: cuentos que culminan con una metamorfosis o con la desaparición bajo un velo de misterio».

Para aquellos interesados en la genética literaria, la colección José Donoso Papers antes mencionada, en su caja n° 4, contiene los originales de once de los catorce cuentos que componen este libro (faltan Fiesta en grande, Ana María y Santelices), escritos a máquina, con apuntes y correcciones del autor, y muchos de ellos con la fecha y lugar de su escritura. Del único cuento del que hay una primera versión manuscrita y dos versiones a máquina (una de trabajo y la definitiva) es de Paseo. La caja contiene también los originales de ocho cuentos desechados por el autor y uno Pasos en la noche que, según reza un apunte manuscrito de Donoso junto al título, «tal como está aquí, apareció en la revista Américas, de la Unión Panamericana» en 1958. 

Pero más allá de estas curiosidades, leer los cuentos de Donoso será un agasajo para el lector. Poco más de medio siglo después de ser publicados, no solo no han perdido su fuerza, sino que han crecido con la distancia. Estas piezas constituyen los primeros pasos del autor en su larga ruta creativa, y muestran que, así como fue un vasto y magnífico novelista, también escribió con maestría los relatos que contenían el germen de su rico mundo narrativo, varios de los cuales —como Fiesta en grande, La puerta cerrada, Paseo o Santelices— deben formar parte del canon del género en lengua castellana. 



OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTERÉS:

Horacio Castellanos Moya, el hombre del pasaporte equivocado
Juan Villoro por Héctor Abad Faciolince: el material del que están hechos los sueños
Contacto en México: Vida y muertes del fixer, el enlace entre la prensa extranjera y los capos narco. 

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