Literatura

José Saramago: todos los escritores que viven en mí

Trabajó de periodista, crítico y traductor en Portugal durante varios años hasta 1976, cuando se dedicó exclusivamente a la literatura. Sin embargo, José Saramago nunca abandonó la escritura de columnas de opinión, cartas abiertas y crónicas en medios de todo el mundo. El año en el que cumpliría cien años parece el pretexto perfecto para recorrer ese camino paralelo de su obra: publicamos a continuación una selección de fragmentos de «Saramago. Sus nombres. Un álbum biográfico» (Alfaguara) en el que el portugués ganador del Nobel habla de los autores clásicos que más leyó y admiró –entre ellos, Franz Kafka, Fernando Pessoa y Federico García Lorca–, y de escritores contemporáneos como Gabriel García Márquez, Carlos Fuentes o Mario Benedetti, con los que cultivó una amistad que trascendió la cofradía literaria.

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Un \u00e1lbum biogr\u00e1fico\u00bb en el que el portugu\u00e9s ganador del Nobel habla de los escritores que m\u00e1s ley\u00f3 y admir\u00f3.","meta_keywords":"Jos\u00e9 Saramago Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez Borges Federico Garc\u00eda Lorca Benedetti Sabato","short_content":"<p>Trabaj\u00f3 de periodista, cr\u00edtico y traductor en Portugal durante varios a\u00f1os hasta 1976, cuando se dedic\u00f3 exclusivamente a la literatura. Sin embargo, Jos\u00e9 Saramago nunca abandon\u00f3 la escritura de columnas de opini\u00f3n, cartas abiertas y cr\u00f3nicas en medios de todo el mundo. El a\u00f1o en el que cumplir\u00eda cien a\u00f1os parece el pretexto perfecto para recorrer ese camino paralelo de su obra: publicamos a continuaci\u00f3n una selecci\u00f3n de fragmentos de \u00abSaramago. Sus nombres. Un \u00e1lbum biogr\u00e1fico\u00bb (Alfaguara) en el que el portugu\u00e9s ganador del Nobel habla de los autores cl\u00e1sicos que m\u00e1s ley\u00f3 y admir\u00f3 \u2013entre ellos, Franz Kafka, Fernando Pessoa y Federico Garc\u00eda Lorca\u2013, y de escritores contempor\u00e1neos como Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, Carlos Fuentes o Mario Benedetti, con los que cultiv\u00f3 una amistad que trascendi\u00f3 la cofrad\u00eda 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PESSOA<\/strong><\/p><p>A Fernando Pessoa, hombre de m\u00e1scaras que miran y se enfrentan a m\u00e1scaras, solo podr\u00edamos leerlo, y probablemente entenderlo, si reconoci\u00e9semos en nosotros mismos las m\u00e1scaras que somos. Se producir\u00eda, as\u00ed, una constelaci\u00f3n de sentidos, de lecturas infinitamente abiertas, nunca conclusivas. Sin embargo, a esta propuesta de aproximaci\u00f3n se opone la tendencia general de definir a un Fernando Pessoa unificado, del cual, por mera ramificaci\u00f3n, habr\u00edan nacido los heter\u00f3nimos, reversibles en cualquier momento a su punto de partida, por mera voluntad nuestra. Es un intento, a mi entender, condenado a fallar. Cada uno de nosotros es aquel que es (somos quien cuando), pero el que act\u00faa en nosotros es otro. Fernando Pessoa lo habr\u00e1 entendido mejor que nadie. A partir del d\u00eda en que Fernando Pessoa se convirti\u00f3 en objeto de citas para pol\u00edticos, el mito empez\u00f3 a morir, para quedar solo el poeta. Solo, y como conviene.<\/p><p><em>La Vanguardia,<\/em> marzo de 1988<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/439-federico-garcia-lorca\\\"><br \/>FEDERICO GARC\u00cdA LORCA<\/a><\/strong><\/span><br \/><br \/>M\u00e1s Lorca. Esta vez fuimos de romer\u00eda hasta la Huerta de San Vicente, la casa donde viv\u00eda cuando se lo llevaron para matarlo. Una sobrina, Laura Garc\u00eda Lorca, fue la gu\u00eda de la melanc\u00f3lica visita. Probablemente sin que ella se diera cuenta, cada palabra suya, cada gesto, cada puerta que abr\u00eda y cerraba, nos iban guiando por los laberintos ambiguos de la relaci\u00f3n de la ciudad de Granada con la memoria de Federico. Incluso llegu\u00e9 a pensar (la responsabilidad de este pensar es solo m\u00eda), tanto por lo que conoc\u00eda de antes, como por lo que he conocido ahora, que Granada sufre, todav\u00eda hoy, el remordimiento de no haberlo defendido...<br \/><br \/><em>Cuadernos de Lanzarote<\/em>, 20 de octubre de 1996<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bnuhxig\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/780-antonio-machado#\\\"><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">ANTONIO MACHADO<\/span><\/strong><\/a><br \/><br \/>Me acuerdo, tan n\u00edtidamente como si fuera hoy, de un hombre que se llam\u00f3 Antonio Machado. En ese tiempo yo ten\u00eda catorce a\u00f1os e iba a la escuela para aprender un oficio que de poco iba a servirme. Hab\u00eda guerra en Espa\u00f1a. A los combatientes de un lado les dieron el nombre de rojos, mientras que los del otro lado, por las bondades que de ellos o\u00eda contar, deb\u00edan de tener un color as\u00ed como el del cielo cuando hace buen tiempo. Al dictador de mi pa\u00eds le gustaba tanto ese ej\u00e9rcito azul que dio orden a los peri\u00f3dicos para que publicaran las noticias de modo que hicieran creer a los ingenuos que los combates siempre terminaban\u00a0con victorias de sus amigos. Yo ten\u00eda un mapa donde clavaba banderitas hechas con alfileres y papel de seda. Era la l\u00ednea del frente. Este hecho prueba que conoc\u00eda a Antonio Machado, aunque no lo hab\u00eda le\u00eddo, lo que es disculpable si tenemos en cuenta mi poca edad. Un d\u00eda, al darme cuenta de que andaba siendo enga\u00f1ado por los oficiales del ej\u00e9rcito portugu\u00e9s\u00a0que dirig\u00edan la censura de la prensa, tire el mapa y las banderas. Me dej\u00e9 llevar por una actitud irreflexiva, de impaciencia juvenil, que Antonio Machado no merec\u00eda y de la que hoy me arrepiento. Los a\u00f1os fueron pasando. En cierto momento, no recuerdo cu\u00e1ndo ni c\u00f3mo, descubr\u00ed que el tal hombre era poeta, y tan feliz me sent\u00ed que, sin ning\u00fan prop\u00f3sito de vanagloria futura, me puse a leer todo cuanto escribi\u00f3. Fue entonces cuando supe que ya hab\u00eda muerto, y, naturalmente, coloqu\u00e9 una bandera en Collioure. Es tiempo, si no me equivoco, de poner esa bandera en el coraz\u00f3n de Espa\u00f1a. Los restos pueden quedarse donde\u00a0est\u00e1n.<\/p><p><br \/>\u00abCarta a Antonio Machado\u00bb, <em>El Cuaderno<\/em>, 22 de febrero de 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evidente que Dios no ha le\u00eddo a Kafka\u00bb.<br \/><br \/>Saramago, 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4405--voltaire#\\\">VOLTAIRE<\/a><\/strong><\/span><br \/><br \/>Mi racionalismo tiene una ra\u00edz \u00abvoltairiana\u00bb. Ese escepticismo, esa iron\u00eda y esa especie de compasi\u00f3n por la locura de los hombres viene de ah\u00ed.<br \/><br \/><em>Expresso<\/em>, 2 de noviembre de 1991<br \/><br \/>Me gustar\u00eda encontrarme con Voltaire y decirle que ten\u00eda raz\u00f3n en su opini\u00f3n esc\u00e9ptica y pesimista del g\u00e9nero humano. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/682-franz-kafka#\\\">FRANZ KAFKA<\/a><\/strong><\/span><br \/><br \/>Es evidente que Dios no ha le\u00eddo a Kafka.<br \/><br \/>\u00abSof\u00eda Gandarias\u00bb, <em>El \u00faltimo Cuaderno<\/em>, 14 de junio de 2009<br \/><br \/><br \/>Si hay un escritor del siglo XX por el que siento veneraci\u00f3n, ese es Kafka, y reivindico ser kafkiano. Kafka dijo que un libro tiene que ser el hacha que corta el mar helado de nuestra conciencia; todo esto como un programa de trabajo.<br \/><br \/><em>\u00c9poca<\/em>, 21 de enero de 2001<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges#\\\">JORGE LUIS BORGES<\/a><\/strong><\/span><br \/><br \/>El \u00faltimo de los gigantes literarios. Esa literatura suya que parece haberse desprendido de la realidad para revelar mejor sus misterios invisibles. Hay mundos que existen a partir del momento en que \u00e9l los cre\u00f3.<br \/><br \/>Palabras en la inauguraci\u00f3n del Memorial a Borges en Lisboa, 12 de diciembre de 2008<br \/><br \/><br \/>Borges invent\u00f3 la literatura virtual. Pierre Menard, Herbert Quain, toda esa fantas\u00eda, todo ese inventar un mundo que solo existe en su mente, en su imaginaci\u00f3n\u2026 Es como si para Borges la realidad estuviese incompleta, como si a la realidad a\u00fan le faltase algo para existir del todo.<br \/><br \/><em>Alma<\/em>, diciembre de 2009<\/p><p><strong><br \/><br \/>FEDERICO FELLINI<\/strong><br \/><br \/><em>Amarcord<\/em> es, probablemente, la pel\u00edcula que me llevar\u00eda a una isla desierta. No es suficiente decir que me gusta Fellini. Es m\u00e1s correcto decir que me apasiona.\u00a0Desgraciadamente para todos nosotros, no habr\u00e1 otro Fellini.<br \/><br \/><em>La Repubblica<\/em>, 23 de junio de 2007<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l1yce2a\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab<em>Amarcord<\/em> es, probablemente, la pel\u00edcula que me llevar\u00eda a una isla desierta. No es suficiente decir que me gusta Fellini. Es m\u00e1s correcto decir que me apasiona\u00bb.<br \/><br \/>Saramago, 2007<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rkshs1s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/577-jose-donoso#\\\">JOS\u00c9 DONOSO<\/a><\/strong><\/span><br \/><br \/>No es ninguna novedad decir que los libros de Jose Donoso son tambi\u00e9n, en el \u00e1mbito de las circunstancias subjetivas y objetivas de la historia social y pol\u00edtica de Chile y de sus clases en los \u00faltimos cuarenta a\u00f1os, una mirada por dentro. Por eso mismo, una mirada impiadosa. La mirada de quien sabe. La mirada de quien en ning\u00fan momento se dejar\u00e1 sustraer por la complacencia con que acostumbran a arreglarse todas las decadencias, siempre f\u00e1cilmente romantizables, porque tan apasionadamente rom\u00e1ntico es el temperamento del escritor y, quiz\u00e1, del hombre. Creo que es exacto decir que en Jose Donoso existe, para nuestro gozo, el realismo de una raz\u00f3n que se mueve rectamente en la direcci\u00f3n de la fr\u00eda objetividad y el<br \/>romanticismo convulsivo de un sentimiento desesperado frente a la realidad.\u00a0Jose Donoso no ha hecho m\u00e1s que parar el tiempo.\u00a0\u00bfPara qu\u00e9? Solo puedo ofrecerles una respuesta: que Donoso lo ha hecho simplemente para que pens\u00e1ramos despacio, muy despacio, si somos en verdad humanos.\u00a0\u00bfLo hemos pensado? \u00bfO es que seguimos encerrados en el saco de nuestra propia absurdidad, esperando la hoguera y las cenizas como quien renuncio ya a la vida? Si el escritor es, como creo, quien nos persigue con preguntas, entonces Jose Donoso es de los m\u00e1s grandes.<br \/>Por eso, y por ser quien es, le doy las gracias.<br \/><br \/>Conferencia en el coloquio \u00abJos\u00e9 Donoso, 70 a\u00f1os\u00bb, 5-7 de octubre de 1994<\/p><p><strong><br \/><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/3674-mario-benedetti#\\\">MARIO BENEDETTI<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>La MANZANA es un manzano<br \/>y el manzano es un vitral<br \/>el vitral es un ensue\u00f1o<br \/>y el ensue\u00f1o un ojal\u00e1<br \/>ojal\u00e1 siembra futuro<br \/>y el futuro es un im\u00e1n<br \/>el im\u00e1n es una patria<br \/>patria es humanidad<br \/><br \/>Mario Benedetti escribi\u00f3 estos versos cuando andaba por aqu\u00ed transportando sobre los hombros su exilio y el de todos los exiliados del mundo. Era el momento adecuado para conocer el significado de la palabra patria, por eso descubri\u00f3 la gloriosa humanidad de hombres y mujeres que cada d\u00eda, juntando af\u00e1n con af\u00e1n, como hoy aqu\u00ed, pretenden construir otra norma y otra forma de mirar y de mirarse. As\u00ed que sigui\u00f3 escribiendo mi amigo Mario Benedetti,<br \/><br \/>yo con mis manos de hueso<br \/>vos con tu vientre de pan<br \/>yo con mi germen de gloria<br \/>vos con tu tierra feraz<br \/>vos con tus pechos boreales<br \/>yo con mi caricia austral<br \/>inventamos una patria<br \/>patria es humanidad<br \/><br \/>Algunos hombres han encarnado este sue\u00f1o de Jose Mart\u00ed. Sin duda, los mejores, y Mario Benedetti esta entre ellos. Por eso todos sentimos que algo dentro de nosotros se nos ensancha cada vez que leemos una p\u00e1gina suya, un poema, un cuento, la lecci\u00f3n moral que nos alumbra. Ahora, en esta fiesta de intercambio y mestizaje, conviene recordar el porqu\u00e9 de tanta amistad, de tanta gratitud: la patria que Benedetti nos ha ido ofreciendo se ha convertido en nuestra propia patria y todos juntos nos festejamos al descubrirnos a nosotros\u00a0mismos en la escritura y en el ejemplo de nuestro definitivo amigo.<\/p><p>Agradecerle al escritor Mario Benedetti que nos haya descubierto los andamiajes de una nueva patria y que esta sea un lugar de encuentro y de responsabilidad es un deber que tenemos hoy m\u00e1s que nunca, porque est\u00e1n cerca los que se empe\u00f1an en prostituir palabras y conceptos, los que desprecian o condenan al otro porque le atribuyen patrias distintas a la \u00fanica posible,\u00a0la de la necesaria humanidad que Benedetti nos ha ensenado.<\/p><p><br \/>Gracias, Mario<br \/>Un abrazo de hermano<br \/><br \/>Carta p\u00fablica a Mario Benedetti por la atribuci\u00f3n del Premio Son Latino, 25 de agosto de 2000<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"24xyaxc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEl primer libro de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez que me lleg\u00f3 a las manos fue <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/7401-libro-cien-anos-de-soledad-edicion-conmemorativa-de-la-rae-y-la-asale-edicion-conmemorativa-de-la-rae-y-la-asale-9788420471839#\\\"><em>Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/em><\/a> y el choque que me caus\u00f3 fue tal que tuve que parar de leer al cabo de cincuenta p\u00e1ginas. Si la palabra traumatismo pudiese tener un significado positivo, de buen grado la aplicar\u00eda al caso\u00bb.<\/p><p><br \/>Saramago, 2009<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ytoo2pp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/581-gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\">GABRIEL GARC\u00cdA M\u00c1RQUEZ<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>Los escritores se dividen (imaginando que aceptaran ser divididos...) en dos grupos: el m\u00e1s reducido, el de aquellos que fueron capaces de abrirle a la literatura nuevos caminos; el m\u00e1s numeroso, el de los que van detr\u00e1s y se sirven de esos caminos para su propio viaje. Es as\u00ed desde el principio del mundo y la (\u00bfleg\u00edtima?) vanidad de los autores nada puede contra\u00a0las claridades de la evidencia. Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez us\u00f3 su ingenio para abrir y consolidar la v\u00eda del despu\u00e9s mal llamado \u00abrealismo m\u00e1gico\u00bb, por donde avanzaron m\u00e1s tarde multitudes de seguidores y, como siempre sucede, los detractores de turno. El primer libro suyo que me lleg\u00f3 a las manos fue <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/7401-libro-cien-anos-de-soledad-edicion-conmemorativa-de-la-rae-y-la-asale-edicion-conmemorativa-de-la-rae-y-la-asale-9788420471839#\\\"><em>Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/em><\/a><\/span> y el choque que me caus\u00f3 fue tal que tuve que parar de leer al cabo de cincuenta p\u00e1ginas. Necesitaba poner alg\u00fan orden en mi cabeza, alguna disciplina en el coraz\u00f3n, y, sobre todo, aprender a manejar la br\u00fajula con la que ten\u00eda la esperanza de orientarme en las veredas del mundo nuevo que se presentaba ante mis ojos. En mi vida de lector han sido poqu\u00edsimas las ocasiones en que se ha producido una experiencia como \u00e9sta. Si la palabra traumatismo pudiese tener un significado positivo, de buen grado la aplicar\u00eda al caso. Pero, ya que ha sido escrita, aqu\u00ed la dejo. Espero que se entienda.<br \/>\u00a0<br \/>\u00abGabo\u00bb, <em>El \u00faltimo Cuaderno<\/em>, 3 de agosto de 2009<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6612-chico-buarque\\\">CHICO BUARQUE<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>\u00bfC\u00f3mo entonces?<br \/>\u00bfDesgarrados de la tierra?<br \/>\u00bfC\u00f3mo? <br \/>\u00bfLevantados del suelo?<br \/>\u00bfComo bajo los pies una tierra como agua que se escurre de la mano?<br \/>\u2028\u00bfComo en sue\u00f1os correr por una carretera?<br \/>\u00bfDesliz\u00e1ndose en el mismo sitio?<br \/>\u00bfComo en sue\u00f1os perder el paso y caer en el hueco de la Tierra?<br \/>\u00bfC\u00f3mo entonces? <br \/>\u00bfDesgarrados de la tierra?<br \/>\u00bfC\u00f3mo? <br \/>\u00bfLevantados del suelo?<br \/>\u00bfO en la planta de los pies una tierra como agua en la palma de la mano?<\/p><p>\u00abLevantados del suelo\u00bb, <em>Terra<\/em>, 1997<br \/><br \/>Mi querido Chico:<br \/>Acabamos de o\u00edr la preciosa m\u00fasica y las preciosas palabras de Levantados del suelo. Las hemos o\u00eddo emocionados, como si las estuviesen cantando todos los hombres y las mujeres sin tierra de ese dolorido Brasil. Gracias a tu talento y a tu coraz\u00f3n generoso, la gente sufridora del campo tiene su himno. Ojal\u00e1 sea cantado y o\u00eddo en todas las partes del mundo donde falta la justicia y es negado el derecho. Por lo que a m\u00ed respecta, te estar\u00e9 siempre agradecido por haberle puesto a tu canci\u00f3n el t\u00edtulo de un libro m\u00edo. Puedes imaginarte la alegr\u00eda que me da. Y tambi\u00e9n el orgullo. Recibe nuestro abrazo fraterno.<br \/><br \/>Carta de Jos\u00e9 Saramago, 19 de marzo de 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/448-manuel-vazquez-montalban\\\">MANUEL V\u00c1ZQUEZ MONTALB\u00c1N<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>Es extra\u00f1o porque no tuve mucha intimidad con Manolo V\u00e1zquez Montalb\u00e1n. Lleg\u00f3 hasta m\u00ed a trav\u00e9s de Pilar, nos llevamos muy bien desde el primer momento, pero las circunstancias, \u00e9l aqu\u00ed en Barcelona y nosotros en Lanzarote o en Lisboa, \u00e9l viajando much\u00edsimo y nosotros que no viaj\u00e1bamos menos. La nuestra es un ejemplo de gran amistad en que no fue necesario que hubi\u00e9semos ido a la misma escuela, bebido la primera copa juntos o fumado el primer cigarro.\u00a0No era necesario. Lo que pido es que recordemos a Manolo vivo, porque est\u00e1 vivo.<br \/><br \/>Apertura de la Fiesta de Sant Jordi, Barcelona, 2004<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/675-susan-sontag#\\\">SUSAN SONTAG<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>A Susan Sontag apetece llamarla simplemente La Sontag, como acostumbran los italianos cuando se refieren a las grandes cantantes de \u00f3pera. Susan, que yo sepa, no canta, pero parece tener la misma fuerza, el mismo l\u00edrico vuelo, la misma arrebatada pasi\u00f3n, la misma presencia irrefutable. Lo m\u00e1s curioso es que, contradiciendo absolutamente esta impresi\u00f3n, no se encuentra en ella ning\u00fan asomo de teatralidad, ninguna presunci\u00f3n, sus gestos son naturales siempre, el tono siempre acertado. Hab\u00eda coincidido con ella una vez, hace un buen par de a\u00f1os, en una mesa redonda del Sal\u00f3n del Libro de Tur\u00edn. Por aquella \u00e9poca me pareci\u00f3 arrogante, impertinente, incluso presuntuosa. Para decirlo todo con una palabra, me desagrad\u00f3. Pero hoy, mientras la o\u00eda hablar con tanta sencillez de su trabajo, mientras respond\u00eda yo a su inter\u00e9s por el m\u00edo, pens\u00e9 cu\u00e1ntas veces sucede que no prestamos atenci\u00f3n suficiente no solo al tiempo que pasa, sino a las personas que \u00e9ste nos va trayendo y despu\u00e9s llevando, dej\u00e1ndonos, frecuentemente, el sabor amargo de las ocasiones perdidas.<br \/><br \/><em>Cuadernos de Lanzarote<\/em>, 24 de abril de 1995<\/p><p><br \/><strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/545-carlos-fuentes#\\\">CARLOS FUENTES<\/a><\/span><\/strong><br \/><br \/>El primer libro de Carlos Fuentes que le\u00cd fue <em>Aura<\/em>. Aunque no he vuelto a \u00e9l, guardo desde aquel d\u00eda (m\u00e1s de cuarenta a\u00f1os han pasado) la impresi\u00f3n de haber penetrado en un mundo diferente a todo lo que hab\u00eda conocido hasta entonces, una atm\u00f3sfera compuesta de objetividad realista y de misteriosa magia, en que estos contrarios, en el fondo m\u00e1s\u00a0aparentes que efectivos, se fund\u00edan para crear en el esp\u00edritu del lector una vibraci\u00f3n singular en todos los aspectos. No han sido muchos los casos en que el encuentro con un libro haya dejado en mi memoria tan intenso y perenne recuerdo. <br \/><br \/>\u00abCarlos Fuentes\u00bb, <em>El Cuaderno<\/em>, 15 de octubre de 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seguro de que al siglo pasado se le podr\u00e1 llamar tambi\u00e9n el siglo de Sabato, como el de Kafka o el de Proust\u00bb.<\/p><p><br \/>Saramago, 2009<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zcfndg6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>ERNESTO SABATO<\/strong><br \/><br \/>Dentro, pese a la penumbra reinante, ninguna luz estaba encendida. Y en ning\u00fan momento Sabato se quitar\u00eda las gafas oscuras, de lentes grues\u00edsimas. La sala donde nos recibi\u00f3 daba a la parte de atr\u00e1s del jard\u00edn, la divisoria de ese lado, acristalada, apenas dejaba pasar la luz quebrada del r\u00e1pido atardecer. Ofrec\u00ed a Sabato el <em>Ensayo<\/em>, \u00e9l quiso saber qu\u00e9 ciegos eran estos m\u00edos, yo le habl\u00e9 de los suyos, despu\u00e9s repasamos juntos los ciegos ilustres de la literatura, tanto personajes como autores, y acabamos pregunt\u00e1ndonos aquello que muchos han querido saber: si los problemas de visi\u00f3n que uno y otro hemos sufrido habr\u00e1n sido la causa inmediata de nuestras contribuciones de ciegos a los estudios literarios. Estuvimos de acuerdo en que no. Trajeron un caf\u00e9, que tomamos en silencio. Despu\u00e9s, Sabato se lanz\u00f3, como quien repite un camino ya muchas veces recorrido, a un largo soliloquio que comenzaba por la evocaci\u00f3n dolorida de la muerte reciente de un hijo (herida que siempre le ir\u00e1 a sangrar), y luego,\u00a0como si le fuese imposible escapar de su propio laberinto, transit\u00f3 por las diversas obsesiones que le conocemos: la descreencia en la raz\u00f3n, la negaci\u00f3n cr\u00edtica del conocimiento cient\u00edfico, la descalificaci\u00f3n del progreso, el problema del mal, Dostoievski, la apolog\u00eda de la obra breve (pese a Dostoievski, comento ahora...). La sala se fue oscureciendo hasta que casi no consegu\u00edamos vernos. Sabato no se levant\u00f3 a encender la luz. Sombra entre sombras, su voz de ceniza lentamente fue cubriendo la sala, los estantes, las caras, los bultos, las manos. Le dije que hasta para descreer de la raz\u00f3n ten\u00edamos necesidad de la raz\u00f3n, que el Mal no era efecto ni obra de un Demonio, que no hay otro Demonio ni otro Dios que el propio hombre. No tengo\u00a0seguridad de que me haya o\u00eddo, su voz era como un r\u00edo negro hacia el cual, poco a poco, yo mismo, todav\u00eda agarrado a la orilla, iba resbalando. <br \/><br \/><em>Cuadernos de Lanzarote<\/em>, 18 de mayo de 1996<\/p><p><br \/><br \/>Estoy seguro de que al siglo pasado se le podr\u00e1 llamar tambi\u00e9n el siglo de Sabato, como el de Kafka o el de Proust.<br \/><br \/>\u00abSabato\u00bb, <em>El \u00faltimo Cuaderno<\/em>, 24 de junio de 2009.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><strong><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jose-saramago-jose-luis-peixoto#\\\">Los otros Saramago<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes#\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura contin\u00faa<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez#\\\">Especial sobre Gabriel Garc\u00eda 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10 minutos

 Crédito: Getty Images.

FERNANDO PESSOA

A Fernando Pessoa, hombre de máscaras que miran y se enfrentan a máscaras, solo podríamos leerlo, y probablemente entenderlo, si reconociésemos en nosotros mismos las máscaras que somos. Se produciría, así, una constelación de sentidos, de lecturas infinitamente abiertas, nunca conclusivas. Sin embargo, a esta propuesta de aproximación se opone la tendencia general de definir a un Fernando Pessoa unificado, del cual, por mera ramificación, habrían nacido los heterónimos, reversibles en cualquier momento a su punto de partida, por mera voluntad nuestra. Es un intento, a mi entender, condenado a fallar. Cada uno de nosotros es aquel que es (somos quien cuando), pero el que actúa en nosotros es otro. Fernando Pessoa lo habrá entendido mejor que nadie. A partir del día en que Fernando Pessoa se convirtió en objeto de citas para políticos, el mito empezó a morir, para quedar solo el poeta. Solo, y como conviene.

La Vanguardia, marzo de 1988


FEDERICO GARCÍA LORCA


Más Lorca. Esta vez fuimos de romería hasta la Huerta de San Vicente, la casa donde vivía cuando se lo llevaron para matarlo. Una sobrina, Laura García Lorca, fue la guía de la melancólica visita. Probablemente sin que ella se diera cuenta, cada palabra suya, cada gesto, cada puerta que abría y cerraba, nos iban guiando por los laberintos ambiguos de la relación de la ciudad de Granada con la memoria de Federico. Incluso llegué a pensar (la responsabilidad de este pensar es solo mía), tanto por lo que conocía de antes, como por lo que he conocido ahora, que Granada sufre, todavía hoy, el remordimiento de no haberlo defendido...

Cuadernos de Lanzarote, 20 de octubre de 1996

ANTONIO MACHADO

Me acuerdo, tan nítidamente como si fuera hoy, de un hombre que se llamó Antonio Machado. En ese tiempo yo tenía catorce años e iba a la escuela para aprender un oficio que de poco iba a servirme. Había guerra en España. A los combatientes de un lado les dieron el nombre de rojos, mientras que los del otro lado, por las bondades que de ellos oía contar, debían de tener un color así como el del cielo cuando hace buen tiempo. Al dictador de mi país le gustaba tanto ese ejército azul que dio orden a los periódicos para que publicaran las noticias de modo que hicieran creer a los ingenuos que los combates siempre terminaban con victorias de sus amigos. Yo tenía un mapa donde clavaba banderitas hechas con alfileres y papel de seda. Era la línea del frente. Este hecho prueba que conocía a Antonio Machado, aunque no lo había leído, lo que es disculpable si tenemos en cuenta mi poca edad. Un día, al darme cuenta de que andaba siendo engañado por los oficiales del ejército portugués que dirigían la censura de la prensa, tire el mapa y las banderas. Me dejé llevar por una actitud irreflexiva, de impaciencia juvenil, que Antonio Machado no merecía y de la que hoy me arrepiento. Los años fueron pasando. En cierto momento, no recuerdo cuándo ni cómo, descubrí que el tal hombre era poeta, y tan feliz me sentí que, sin ningún propósito de vanagloria futura, me puse a leer todo cuanto escribió. Fue entonces cuando supe que ya había muerto, y, naturalmente, coloqué una bandera en Collioure. Es tiempo, si no me equivoco, de poner esa bandera en el corazón de España. Los restos pueden quedarse donde están.


«Carta a Antonio Machado», El Cuaderno, 22 de febrero de 2009

«Es evidente que Dios no ha leído a Kafka».

Saramago, 2009

VOLTAIRE

Mi racionalismo tiene una raíz «voltairiana». Ese escepticismo, esa ironía y esa especie de compasión por la locura de los hombres viene de ahí.

Expresso, 2 de noviembre de 1991

Me gustaría encontrarme con Voltaire y decirle que tenía razón en su opinión escéptica y pesimista del género humano. Le diría que tuvo razón y que, muchos años después, no hemos cambiado nada, que hay motivos para pensar que, si el viviese en el siglo xx, tendría aún mucha más razón.

Diário Uno, 13 de septiembre de 1998


KARL MARX


Marx, por ejemplo, no dogmatizó, pero no faltaron después pseudomarxistas para convertir El capital en otra biblia, cambiando el pensamiento activo por la glosa estéril o por la interpretación viciosa. Ya se ha visto lo que sucedió. Un día, si fuésemos capaces de deshacernos de los antiguos y férreos moldes, la piel que parecía vieja y al final no nos dejó crecer, volveremos a encontrarnos con Marx: tal vez un «reexamen marxista» del marxismo nos ayude a abrir caminos más generosos al acto de pensar. Que tendrá que empezar por buscar respuestas a la pregunta fundamental: «¿Por qué pienso como pienso?». Con otras palabras: «¿Qué es la ideología?». Parecen preguntas de poca monta y no creo que haya otras más importantes...

Cuadernos de Lanzarote, 21 de marzo de 1995

Rodrigo Fresán

  José Saramago y Gabriel García Márquez. Crédito: Getty Images.

FRANZ KAFKA

Es evidente que Dios no ha leído a Kafka.

«Sofía Gandarias», El último Cuaderno, 14 de junio de 2009


Si hay un escritor del siglo XX por el que siento veneración, ese es Kafka, y reivindico ser kafkiano. Kafka dijo que un libro tiene que ser el hacha que corta el mar helado de nuestra conciencia; todo esto como un programa de trabajo.

Época, 21 de enero de 2001



JORGE LUIS BORGES

El último de los gigantes literarios. Esa literatura suya que parece haberse desprendido de la realidad para revelar mejor sus misterios invisibles. Hay mundos que existen a partir del momento en que él los creó.

Palabras en la inauguración del Memorial a Borges en Lisboa, 12 de diciembre de 2008


Borges inventó la literatura virtual. Pierre Menard, Herbert Quain, toda esa fantasía, todo ese inventar un mundo que solo existe en su mente, en su imaginación… Es como si para Borges la realidad estuviese incompleta, como si a la realidad aún le faltase algo para existir del todo.

Alma, diciembre de 2009



FEDERICO FELLINI


Amarcord es, probablemente, la película que me llevaría a una isla desierta. No es suficiente decir que me gusta Fellini. Es más correcto decir que me apasiona. Desgraciadamente para todos nosotros, no habrá otro Fellini.

La Repubblica, 23 de junio de 2007

«Amarcord es, probablemente, la película que me llevaría a una isla desierta. No es suficiente decir que me gusta Fellini. Es más correcto decir que me apasiona».

Saramago, 2007

JOSÉ DONOSO

No es ninguna novedad decir que los libros de Jose Donoso son también, en el ámbito de las circunstancias subjetivas y objetivas de la historia social y política de Chile y de sus clases en los últimos cuarenta años, una mirada por dentro. Por eso mismo, una mirada impiadosa. La mirada de quien sabe. La mirada de quien en ningún momento se dejará sustraer por la complacencia con que acostumbran a arreglarse todas las decadencias, siempre fácilmente romantizables, porque tan apasionadamente romántico es el temperamento del escritor y, quizá, del hombre. Creo que es exacto decir que en Jose Donoso existe, para nuestro gozo, el realismo de una razón que se mueve rectamente en la dirección de la fría objetividad y el
romanticismo convulsivo de un sentimiento desesperado frente a la realidad. Jose Donoso no ha hecho más que parar el tiempo. ¿Para qué? Solo puedo ofrecerles una respuesta: que Donoso lo ha hecho simplemente para que pensáramos despacio, muy despacio, si somos en verdad humanos. ¿Lo hemos pensado? ¿O es que seguimos encerrados en el saco de nuestra propia absurdidad, esperando la hoguera y las cenizas como quien renuncio ya a la vida? Si el escritor es, como creo, quien nos persigue con preguntas, entonces Jose Donoso es de los más grandes.
Por eso, y por ser quien es, le doy las gracias.

Conferencia en el coloquio «José Donoso, 70 años», 5-7 de octubre de 1994



MARIO BENEDETTI


La MANZANA es un manzano
y el manzano es un vitral
el vitral es un ensueño
y el ensueño un ojalá
ojalá siembra futuro
y el futuro es un imán
el imán es una patria
patria es humanidad

Mario Benedetti escribió estos versos cuando andaba por aquí transportando sobre los hombros su exilio y el de todos los exiliados del mundo. Era el momento adecuado para conocer el significado de la palabra patria, por eso descubrió la gloriosa humanidad de hombres y mujeres que cada día, juntando afán con afán, como hoy aquí, pretenden construir otra norma y otra forma de mirar y de mirarse. Así que siguió escribiendo mi amigo Mario Benedetti,

yo con mis manos de hueso
vos con tu vientre de pan
yo con mi germen de gloria
vos con tu tierra feraz
vos con tus pechos boreales
yo con mi caricia austral
inventamos una patria
patria es humanidad

Algunos hombres han encarnado este sueño de Jose Martí. Sin duda, los mejores, y Mario Benedetti esta entre ellos. Por eso todos sentimos que algo dentro de nosotros se nos ensancha cada vez que leemos una página suya, un poema, un cuento, la lección moral que nos alumbra. Ahora, en esta fiesta de intercambio y mestizaje, conviene recordar el porqué de tanta amistad, de tanta gratitud: la patria que Benedetti nos ha ido ofreciendo se ha convertido en nuestra propia patria y todos juntos nos festejamos al descubrirnos a nosotros mismos en la escritura y en el ejemplo de nuestro definitivo amigo.

Agradecerle al escritor Mario Benedetti que nos haya descubierto los andamiajes de una nueva patria y que esta sea un lugar de encuentro y de responsabilidad es un deber que tenemos hoy más que nunca, porque están cerca los que se empeñan en prostituir palabras y conceptos, los que desprecian o condenan al otro porque le atribuyen patrias distintas a la única posible, la de la necesaria humanidad que Benedetti nos ha ensenado.


Gracias, Mario
Un abrazo de hermano

Carta pública a Mario Benedetti por la atribución del Premio Son Latino, 25 de agosto de 2000

«El primer libro de Gabriel García Márquez que me llegó a las manos fue Cien años de soledad y el choque que me causó fue tal que tuve que parar de leer al cabo de cincuenta páginas. Si la palabra traumatismo pudiese tener un significado positivo, de buen grado la aplicaría al caso».


Saramago, 2009

GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ

Los escritores se dividen (imaginando que aceptaran ser divididos...) en dos grupos: el más reducido, el de aquellos que fueron capaces de abrirle a la literatura nuevos caminos; el más numeroso, el de los que van detrás y se sirven de esos caminos para su propio viaje. Es así desde el principio del mundo y la (¿legítima?) vanidad de los autores nada puede contra las claridades de la evidencia. Gabriel García Márquez usó su ingenio para abrir y consolidar la vía del después mal llamado «realismo mágico», por donde avanzaron más tarde multitudes de seguidores y, como siempre sucede, los detractores de turno. El primer libro suyo que me llegó a las manos fue Cien años de soledad y el choque que me causó fue tal que tuve que parar de leer al cabo de cincuenta páginas. Necesitaba poner algún orden en mi cabeza, alguna disciplina en el corazón, y, sobre todo, aprender a manejar la brújula con la que tenía la esperanza de orientarme en las veredas del mundo nuevo que se presentaba ante mis ojos. En mi vida de lector han sido poquísimas las ocasiones en que se ha producido una experiencia como ésta. Si la palabra traumatismo pudiese tener un significado positivo, de buen grado la aplicaría al caso. Pero, ya que ha sido escrita, aquí la dejo. Espero que se entienda.
 
«Gabo», El último Cuaderno, 3 de agosto de 2009


CHICO BUARQUE

¿Cómo entonces?
¿Desgarrados de la tierra?
¿Cómo?
¿Levantados del suelo?
¿Como bajo los pies una tierra como agua que se escurre de la mano?

¿Como en sueños correr por una carretera?
¿Deslizándose en el mismo sitio?
¿Como en sueños perder el paso y caer en el hueco de la Tierra?
¿Cómo entonces?
¿Desgarrados de la tierra?
¿Cómo?
¿Levantados del suelo?
¿O en la planta de los pies una tierra como agua en la palma de la mano?

«Levantados del suelo», Terra, 1997

Mi querido Chico:
Acabamos de oír la preciosa música y las preciosas palabras de Levantados del suelo. Las hemos oído emocionados, como si las estuviesen cantando todos los hombres y las mujeres sin tierra de ese dolorido Brasil. Gracias a tu talento y a tu corazón generoso, la gente sufridora del campo tiene su himno. Ojalá sea cantado y oído en todas las partes del mundo donde falta la justicia y es negado el derecho. Por lo que a mí respecta, te estaré siempre agradecido por haberle puesto a tu canción el título de un libro mío. Puedes imaginarte la alegría que me da. Y también el orgullo. Recibe nuestro abrazo fraterno.

Carta de José Saramago, 19 de marzo de 1997

Rodrigo Fresán

 José Saramago con el argentino Ernesto Sabato. Crédito: Getty Images.

MANUEL VÁZQUEZ MONTALBÁN

Es extraño porque no tuve mucha intimidad con Manolo Vázquez Montalbán. Llegó hasta mí a través de Pilar, nos llevamos muy bien desde el primer momento, pero las circunstancias, él aquí en Barcelona y nosotros en Lanzarote o en Lisboa, él viajando muchísimo y nosotros que no viajábamos menos. La nuestra es un ejemplo de gran amistad en que no fue necesario que hubiésemos ido a la misma escuela, bebido la primera copa juntos o fumado el primer cigarro. No era necesario. Lo que pido es que recordemos a Manolo vivo, porque está vivo.

Apertura de la Fiesta de Sant Jordi, Barcelona, 2004


SUSAN SONTAG

A Susan Sontag apetece llamarla simplemente La Sontag, como acostumbran los italianos cuando se refieren a las grandes cantantes de ópera. Susan, que yo sepa, no canta, pero parece tener la misma fuerza, el mismo lírico vuelo, la misma arrebatada pasión, la misma presencia irrefutable. Lo más curioso es que, contradiciendo absolutamente esta impresión, no se encuentra en ella ningún asomo de teatralidad, ninguna presunción, sus gestos son naturales siempre, el tono siempre acertado. Había coincidido con ella una vez, hace un buen par de años, en una mesa redonda del Salón del Libro de Turín. Por aquella época me pareció arrogante, impertinente, incluso presuntuosa. Para decirlo todo con una palabra, me desagradó. Pero hoy, mientras la oía hablar con tanta sencillez de su trabajo, mientras respondía yo a su interés por el mío, pensé cuántas veces sucede que no prestamos atención suficiente no solo al tiempo que pasa, sino a las personas que éste nos va trayendo y después llevando, dejándonos, frecuentemente, el sabor amargo de las ocasiones perdidas.

Cuadernos de Lanzarote, 24 de abril de 1995


CARLOS FUENTES

El primer libro de Carlos Fuentes que leÍ fue Aura. Aunque no he vuelto a él, guardo desde aquel día (más de cuarenta años han pasado) la impresión de haber penetrado en un mundo diferente a todo lo que había conocido hasta entonces, una atmósfera compuesta de objetividad realista y de misteriosa magia, en que estos contrarios, en el fondo más aparentes que efectivos, se fundían para crear en el espíritu del lector una vibración singular en todos los aspectos. No han sido muchos los casos en que el encuentro con un libro haya dejado en mi memoria tan intenso y perenne recuerdo.

«Carlos Fuentes», El Cuaderno, 15 de octubre de 2008

«Estoy seguro de que al siglo pasado se le podrá llamar también el siglo de Sabato, como el de Kafka o el de Proust».


Saramago, 2009

ERNESTO SABATO

Dentro, pese a la penumbra reinante, ninguna luz estaba encendida. Y en ningún momento Sabato se quitaría las gafas oscuras, de lentes gruesísimas. La sala donde nos recibió daba a la parte de atrás del jardín, la divisoria de ese lado, acristalada, apenas dejaba pasar la luz quebrada del rápido atardecer. Ofrecí a Sabato el Ensayo, él quiso saber qué ciegos eran estos míos, yo le hablé de los suyos, después repasamos juntos los ciegos ilustres de la literatura, tanto personajes como autores, y acabamos preguntándonos aquello que muchos han querido saber: si los problemas de visión que uno y otro hemos sufrido habrán sido la causa inmediata de nuestras contribuciones de ciegos a los estudios literarios. Estuvimos de acuerdo en que no. Trajeron un café, que tomamos en silencio. Después, Sabato se lanzó, como quien repite un camino ya muchas veces recorrido, a un largo soliloquio que comenzaba por la evocación dolorida de la muerte reciente de un hijo (herida que siempre le irá a sangrar), y luego, como si le fuese imposible escapar de su propio laberinto, transitó por las diversas obsesiones que le conocemos: la descreencia en la razón, la negación crítica del conocimiento científico, la descalificación del progreso, el problema del mal, Dostoievski, la apología de la obra breve (pese a Dostoievski, comento ahora...). La sala se fue oscureciendo hasta que casi no conseguíamos vernos. Sabato no se levantó a encender la luz. Sombra entre sombras, su voz de ceniza lentamente fue cubriendo la sala, los estantes, las caras, los bultos, las manos. Le dije que hasta para descreer de la razón teníamos necesidad de la razón, que el Mal no era efecto ni obra de un Demonio, que no hay otro Demonio ni otro Dios que el propio hombre. No tengo seguridad de que me haya oído, su voz era como un río negro hacia el cual, poco a poco, yo mismo, todavía agarrado a la orilla, iba resbalando.

Cuadernos de Lanzarote, 18 de mayo de 1996



Estoy seguro de que al siglo pasado se le podrá llamar también el siglo de Sabato, como el de Kafka o el de Proust.

«Sabato», El último Cuaderno, 24 de junio de 2009.



OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTERÉS:

Los otros Saramago

La campaña de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura continúa

Especial sobre Gabriel García Márquez

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