Literatura

Raúl Zurita: poesía y Nuevo Mundo

«Hacemos literatura, música, pintura, porque no fuimos felices. Al final esa es la única razón de todos los libros que se han escrito, de todos los cuadros, de las sinfonías». Raúl Zurita, leyenda viva de la poesía en castellano, reflexiona en las siguientes líneas sobre la influencia del español («una lengua culpable y a la vez nutricia») en Latinoamérica, un universo «signado por la conquista y la evangelización, por la crueldad y las bienaventuranzas», un lugar donde escribir es «persistir en la metáfora de ese futuro posible». En el texto que sigue, un lúcido y conmovedor escrito incluido en «Ensayos reunidos» (Random House), se dan cita Sófocles, el Evangelio, Dante, el Inca Garcilaso, Guamán Poma, Vallejo, Arguedas, Huidobro, Neruda, apenas una muestra («capítulos entresacados») de una larga saga literaria y humanista cuyo desenlace es irrepresentable.

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entran!<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pdwibgg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Est\u00e1 all\u00ed, trazada en la entrada del infierno, en el tercer canto de la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5745-dante-alighieri\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Divina comedia<\/em><\/a><\/span>, pero como la deriva humana pareciera complacerse en lo m\u00e1s desolado de la ficci\u00f3n, esos versos han terminado por pertenecerle m\u00e1s al mundo que al poema. Desde el punto de vista de la erudici\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica probablemente no es m\u00e1s que un sentimentalismo, pero al recordar algunos de los episodios de la conquista de Am\u00e9rica he llegado a imaginarme que fue esa inscripci\u00f3n, m\u00e1s incluso que los mismos barcos espa\u00f1oles, la que precedi\u00f3 la llegada de Europa a estas tierras. En esa sentencia, el infierno dice de s\u00ed que antes no hubo cosa creada sino la eternidad y que, por tanto, ella es anterior a la creaci\u00f3n del hombre y a la idea misma que le da sentido: el pecado. Esta paradoja encarna una cima de fatalidad que ha encontrado y sigue encontrando en los resumideros de nuestra historia su m\u00e1s desgarradora resoluci\u00f3n. En el otro extremo, hacia el final del \u00abPara\u00edso\u00bb, Dante alcanza a vislumbrar a Dios y se da cuenta de que tiene el color del rostro del hombre, no de una cara en particular, sino el color de la faz del humano. M\u00e1s all\u00e1 queda la plenitud de lo inenarrable y el poema termina con la visi\u00f3n de las estrellas movidas por el amor. Insistiendo en ese sentimentalismo fuera de moda, tambi\u00e9n me ha parecido ver all\u00ed el anuncio del final de toda conquista.<\/p><p>En realidad, es la misma paradoja: los poemas arcaicos, tanto las primeras \u00e9picas como los profetas hebreos, hab\u00edan ya entrevisto esa sombra de lo sacro que excede lo expresable, pero es con el <em>Edipo en Colono<\/em> de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4577--sofocles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">S\u00f3focles<\/a><\/span>, antes que con el cristianismo, cuando esa presencia alcanza el fulgor de la redenci\u00f3n. Es la muerte de Edipo: nadie ha sufrido tanto y, como en un sue\u00f1o, su fin contiene, al menos potencialmente, la frase m\u00e1s hermosa que jam\u00e1s se haya escrito: \u00abY ten\u00eda en su rostro una expresi\u00f3n tal de paz y de dulzura que ning\u00fan mortal podr\u00eda describirla\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Su muerte misma es entonces una epifan\u00eda, y lo que se nos dice de ella es que no hay palabra alguna para describir esa expresi\u00f3n de paz y de dulzura. Nunca nadie desde este lado de las palabras hab\u00eda llegado a ese albor de lo que ya est\u00e1 m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del lenguaje. Luego, entre la belleza incolmable de esa redenci\u00f3n y las estrellas dantescas aparecer\u00e1n los testamentos b\u00edblicos, Plat\u00f3n, la patr\u00edstica, y el rigor de lo indecible ir\u00e1 poco a poco encontrando en el Viejo Mundo sus espejismos y encarnaciones concretas. Descendientes tard\u00edos de esas encarnaciones hoy s\u00f3lo pueden hablarnos a trav\u00e9s de mitos e im\u00e1genes. Su elocuencia radica en que son las experiencias reales las que, de tanto en tanto, nos hacen volver a esas viejas im\u00e1genes en un retorno que es tambi\u00e9n una paradoja: el regreso al Nuevo Mundo, a un mundo que a\u00fan no nace.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"59sbhq8\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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el vislumbre de lo no dicho, de un coraz\u00f3n sin palabras atascado en el centro mismo de la vida. En rigor, cualquier persona que haya experimentado alguna vez un sentimiento extremo de dolor o de angustia conoce ese coraz\u00f3n y sabe que hay cosas que jam\u00e1s tendr\u00e1n acceso al lenguaje, que nunca podr\u00e1n alcanzar el umbral de las palabras, porque expresar es ya, al menos, o\u00edr el eco de la propia voz que responde. Porque el sufrimiento no tiene respuesta, y quien logra desde all\u00ed decir lo que le sucede es alguien que, aunque sea en el l\u00edmite de la precariedad, ya ha optado por vivir. Sin embargo, an\u00e1logamente, como en la paradoja del infierno, aquello que nunca llegar\u00e1 a las palabras, que jam\u00e1s tendr\u00e1 una expresi\u00f3n de ellas, constituye la base, el soporte de cualquier habla. Esa mudez innombrable entonces, eso que jam\u00e1s podr\u00e1 ser dicho, es lo que podemos llamar el \u00abinfierno\u00bb de toda poes\u00eda.<\/p><p>Pero cualquiera que haya tenido tambi\u00e9n una experiencia absoluta de amor, de ese encuentro infinito frente al otro, sabe de igual modo que cualquier cosa que se diga en ese instante \u2014los perpetuos te amo o te adoro\u2014 est\u00e1 de m\u00e1s; sobra como las excrecencias de un estado de comunicaci\u00f3n lamentable donde los treinta mil a\u00f1os que llevamos intercambiando gru\u00f1idos, gestos, palabras, se revelan como la historia del malentendido. Sim\u00e9tricamente, entonces, aquello que excede para siempre todo el lenguaje, ese amor que nos revienta, que nos arrasa, es lo que podemos llamar el \u00abpara\u00edso\u00bb de toda poes\u00eda. Entre ambos extremos nos resta el \u00abpurgatorio\u00bb de las palabras o, lo que es lo mismo, el largo itinerario de una cura: aquello que los hebreos llamaron la historia de la 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de esa historia, nos ha tocado a nosotros tambi\u00e9n ser la memoria viva de su condena. Los hispanoparlantes de este continente hablamos una lengua que guarda de una u otra forma en cada palabra, en cada giro, en cada una de sus letras el recuerdo de las condiciones en que esa lengua se impuso. Hablar es siempre hacer presente una historia, y ello no es privativo de nosotros; sin embargo, lo que particulariza lo sucedido en estos territorios es que la magnitud de esa imposici\u00f3n y sus consecuencias hicieron del mundo <em>otro<\/em> mundo que no tiene parang\u00f3n en la historia humana. En los pa\u00edses americanos de habla castellana ejercer el lenguaje es repetir de manera constante las marcas que significaron la implantaci\u00f3n de ese idioma entre nosotros. La historia que hemos ido levantando comienza as\u00ed con un arrasamiento, y ser\u00e1 la escritura la que vuelva siempre a ese origen. En cada p\u00e1rrafo de los primeros escritores de estas tierras \u2014en los <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/mx\/tematicas\/305269-ebook-comentarios-reales-de-los-incas-y-otros-textos-9786124325014\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Comentarios reales<\/em> del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega<\/a><\/span>, en la <em>Nueva cor\u00f3nica y buen gobierno<\/em> de Felipe Guam\u00e1n Poma de Ayala o en <em>La Araucana<\/em> de Alonso de Ercilla\u2014 est\u00e1n ya contenidas las condiciones presentes de nuestra habla; y la end\u00e9mica incapacidad de estos pa\u00edses para edificar proyectos sociales permanentes no es ajena a esa relaci\u00f3n traum\u00e1tica con nuestra propia lengua. Singularmente, el primer acto con que aqu\u00ed se instala esa lengua es el de un entierro. Tanto en los primeros balbuceos del castellano de Guam\u00e1n Poma (quienquiera que haya sido), como en la magnificencia estil\u00edstica del Inca Garcilaso, se muestran mundos colapsados, universos ya vueltos abstracciones, idealizaciones tard\u00edas, pero lo que se presenta sobre todo son muestras concretas.<\/p><p>As\u00ed, Garcilaso cierra cada cap\u00edtulo de la <em>Historia general del Per\u00fa,<\/em> la segunda parte de sus <em>Comentarios reales,<\/em> con la narraci\u00f3n de la muerte tr\u00e1gica de uno de los participantes en la guerra de la Conquista, y la obra termina con el relato de la ejecuci\u00f3n del \u00faltimo descendiente del trono inca en la ciudad del Cuzco. El cortejo que avanza hacia el pat\u00edbulo est\u00e1 encabezado por un funcionario que enuncia a viva voz las culpas por las que se le condena a la muerte. Al escucharlo, el inca le pide al fraile que lo acompa\u00f1a que le traduzca pues no entiende el castellano, la lengua bajo la cual lo van a matar (el cap\u00edtulo es en s\u00ed impresionante, porque morir es siempre morir por razones expresadas en una lengua que no entendemos). Esa muerte re\u00fane todas las muertes ocurridas por la lengua que hablamos y transforma la totalidad de los <em>Comentarios reales,<\/em> cada relato del antiguo esplendor incaico, cada detalle de sus templos, de sus construcciones, de sus costumbres, en los ornamentos f\u00fanebres de unas exequias. Pero esas exequias ser\u00e1n, sobre todo, una condici\u00f3n futura, y la ejecuci\u00f3n relatada por Garcilaso significar\u00e1 tambi\u00e9n, trescientos a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, el sacrificio de los poemas de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/38425-libro-cesar-vallejo-9788430600595\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">C\u00e9sar Vallejo<\/a><\/span>.<\/p><p>Paralelamente al Inca Garcilaso, Felipe Guam\u00e1n Poma de Ayala (hoy est\u00e1 en fuerte discusi\u00f3n su identidad, pero eso cuenta para la iconograf\u00eda de los nombres y de la historia, no para la poes\u00eda) recorre, en las postrimer\u00edas del 1500, el mundo andino escribiendo su <em>Nueva cor\u00f3nica y buen gobierno,<\/em> conocida tambi\u00e9n como <em>Carta al rey,<\/em> y en la cual le propone al rey de Espa\u00f1a la instauraci\u00f3n de un orden nuevo que reconciliar\u00eda definitivamente los dos mundos: el inc\u00e1sico y el espa\u00f1ol. La inmediata p\u00e9rdida y olvido de esa carta describe concreta, exactamente, el suicidio que trescientos sesenta a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s cometer\u00e1 Jos\u00e9 Mar\u00eda Arguedas. El autor de <em>Los r\u00edos profundos<\/em> y de <em>El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo<\/em> (que contiene un diario donde relata paso a paso el proceso que lo lleva al suicidio) muere el 28 de noviembre de 1969 de un pistoletazo en la sien por las mismas razones que hicieron que esa obra no llegara jam\u00e1s a ning\u00fan rey y que, en cambio, fuese descubierta reci\u00e9n tres siglos m\u00e1s tarde entre los archivos de una biblioteca de Copenhague. Ning\u00fan mundo fue reconciliado, ni para Arguedas, y somos nosotros entonces los destinatarios de esa misiva. Al leerla, el lector es el monarca espa\u00f1ol. Al no atenderla repetimos la misma incomprensi\u00f3n, es decir, volvemos a condenar a Arguedas al suicidio y nos transformamos en los testigos c\u00f3mplices de un doble 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Son los cantos XX y XXI de <em>La Araucana<\/em> de Alonso de Ercilla. All\u00ed, el poeta cuenta c\u00f3mo una noche, de guardia despu\u00e9s de una batalla con los araucanos \u2014estos hab\u00edan sido derrotados y el campo estaba cubierto de cad\u00e1veres\u2014, ve deslizarse una sombra entre los muertos. En el momento en que va a descargar su espada se da cuenta de que es una mujer; su nombre es Tegualda y se encuentra all\u00ed buscando los restos de su amado Crepino.<\/p><p>Su primer impulso es matar; sin embargo, escucha su historia y finalmente es \u00e9l mismo quien le entrega el cuerpo para que ella pueda llev\u00e1rselo y enterrarlo junto a los suyos. La grandeza de este acto matricial, arquet\u00edpico, ya presente en la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/25899-ebook-iliada-los-mejores-clasicos-9788491050919\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Il\u00edada<\/em><\/a><\/span> y que cruzar\u00e1 el arco completo de las obras que se escribir\u00e1n en nuestro continente, radica en que es el poeta mismo, Ercilla, el que permite realizar el acto del entierro. De all\u00ed en adelante la misi\u00f3n del poeta no ser\u00e1 otra que la de darle sepultura, a nombre de sociedades que no han querido o no han podido hacerlo, a toda esa fila interminable de cuerpos que, ca\u00eddos, victimizados, arrasados por y en la lengua que nosotros hablamos, contin\u00faan deambulando en el eje de nuestro idioma sin encontrar siquiera la sanci\u00f3n de un entierro. Tanto <em>La Araucana<\/em> como las obras del Inca Garcilaso y de Guam\u00e1n Poma sintetizan una enorme literatura augural, representada por los cronistas y por los primeros escritores nativos, iniciando as\u00ed nuestra pertenencia a este mundo. Por ellas un tipo de hombre en particular opta por su habla y comienza el itinerario de su cura. Lo que debe ser curado es la herida irredenta: la muerte sin exequias. Desde Garcilaso y Guam\u00e1n Poma, entonces, hasta Vallejo y Arguedas; desde Ercilla hasta Neruda; desde los cronistas espa\u00f1oles e ind\u00edgenas de la Nueva Espa\u00f1a hasta Fuentes, Rulfo o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span>, el recorrido de toda nuestra literatura ha mostrado las huellas de un idioma en que cada uno de los hablantes busca su salida en la promesa del Nuevo Mundo. Cada generaci\u00f3n de escritores ha representado as\u00ed una muerte y un renacimiento, enterradores de las v\u00edctimas al mismo tiempo que sacrificados ellos mismos al vislumbre de un sue\u00f1o que no est\u00e1. Pero son las obras de tres poetas \u2014C\u00e9sar Vallejo, Vicente Huidobro y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/540-pablo-neruda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pablo Neruda<\/a><\/span>\u2014 las que con mayor fuerza revelan el doblez del sacrificio y la redenci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Tanto <em>Trilce<\/em> de Vallejo como <em>Altazor<\/em> de Huidobro y las \u00abAlturas de Macchu Picchu\u00bb de Neruda constituyen los momentos m\u00e1s amplios desde donde se pueden entrever las se\u00f1as de un futuro posible. Cada uno de ellos es un modo de padecer y revelar un idioma y cada uno de ellos encarna, tambi\u00e9n, un modo de hablar de nuestro continente. Leerlos es hoy, antes que todo, curar la herida de una lengua, reunir de nuevo sus fisuras y volver a levantar, desde las fosas de las palabras, la promesa despojada del Nuevo Mundo. La poes\u00eda de C\u00e9sar Vallejo es el testimonio m\u00e1s extremo y profundo que la literatura hispanoamericana ha dado de ese despojamiento. En el poema <em>Espa\u00f1a, aparta de m\u00ed este c\u00e1liz,<\/em> Vallejo ve de forma textual \u00abla letra en que naci\u00f3 la pena\u00bb:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"i8buasq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Si cae \u2014digo, es un decir\u2014 si cae <br \/>Espa\u00f1a, de la tierra para abajo, [...]<br \/>\u00a1C\u00f3mo vais a bajar las gradas del alfabeto <br \/>Hasta la letra en que naci\u00f3 la pena!<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1b9ik09\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo que nos est\u00e1 diciendo entonces es que, en estas tierras, la historia del dolor es inextirpable porque este se encuentra incrustado en las part\u00edculas mismas del idioma impuesto. Al escribir en castellano, Vallejo dio cuenta de ese derrotero y del desgarro radical que significa actuar en una lengua que es la \u00fanica que se posee, y a la que, por tanto, se le tiene gratitud, pero que simult\u00e1neamente es el origen del aniquilamiento y de la muerte en vida a la que han sido condenados tantos. Su sufrimiento es entonces la historia, y su libro <em>Trilce,<\/em> el m\u00e1ximo testimonio de una devastaci\u00f3n vuelta a exponer. Cada uno de sus poemas es, literalmente, un cuerpo sacrificado, y la alteraci\u00f3n total de la sintaxis, los arca\u00edsmos y neologismos, la furia de las may\u00fasculas y de los signos de exclamaci\u00f3n, los puntos suspensivos, en fin, toda esa violencia permanente de cada palabra con la contigua, su enterramiento mutuo, sus chirridos son, dec\u00edamos, carnes torturadas, miembros encepados, cuerpos puestos en una posici\u00f3n de perpetua agon\u00eda. Ser\u00e1 el lector entonces quien salvar\u00e1 esos escritos, quien se har\u00e1 cargo de esas l\u00edneas quebradas, de esas palabras rotas para reacomodarlas un poco, para aliviarlas en algo de su sufrimiento. S\u00f3lo as\u00ed quien lee puede leer; s\u00f3lo orden\u00e1ndolas un poco puede entender su sentido. La mirada del que lee recorre como si fuera una boca cada l\u00ednea, cada herida de esos versos, cur\u00e1ndolos, sac\u00e1ndolos de su agon\u00eda para que puedan vivir. El precio es que el lector cargue con la muerte que esos poemas contienen. Su redenci\u00f3n es tambi\u00e9n la nuestra, y en la mirada metaf\u00f3rica de este texto las palabras que decimos encuentran as\u00ed un horizonte. Vallejo vive. Sac\u00e1ndolo de la cruz en la cual se encepan sus palabras, el lector redime simb\u00f3licamente su propia agon\u00eda.<\/p><p>Quien habla en <em>Trilce<\/em> tambi\u00e9n habla en el <em>Altazor<\/em> de Vicente Huidobro y, en un universo que ha alcanzado su paz, tambi\u00e9n hablar\u00e1 en las \u00abAlturas de Macchu Picchu\u00bb de Pablo Neruda. El largo viaje de Altazor \u2014ese ser que sabe ad\u00f3nde cae, pero que no sabe desde d\u00f3nde cae\u2014 describe sobre todo el derrumbe de un idioma sobre s\u00ed mismo. El poema huidobriano es un volcamiento que va desde las esplendorosas cadencias e im\u00e1genes de los cantos primero y segundo \u2014\u00ab\u00bfIr\u00edas a ser muda que Dios te dio esos ojos?\u00bb\u2014 hasta la desintegraci\u00f3n total de la lengua en el canto final. All\u00ed la letra, la onomatopeya visual de las s\u00edlabas, se recorta sobre un blanco que pareciera decirnos que el verdadero poema es el que se yergue m\u00e1s all\u00e1 del t\u00e9rmino del libro y que solamente all\u00ed, despu\u00e9s de la demolici\u00f3n de las \u00faltimas palabras, quien ha le\u00eddo comienza a construir el Altazor real. Al rev\u00e9s de <em>Trilce,<\/em> Huidobro construye la muerte para que al lector le quede s\u00f3lo la posibilidad de reconstruir la vida. Para que este levante el poema desde el fin del poema, o, lo que es lo mismo, para que \u00e9l, nosotros, incluso en los tiempos que vienen, pueda inventar las im\u00e1genes de un idioma y de un mundo renovados. El entusiasmo de Vicente Huidobro por un idioma que ha de nacer desde las ruinas de las lenguas muertas que hablamos es el mismo padecimiento de Vallejo pero con un signo opuesto. Sombras entonces de una condena primigenia, Huidobro y Vallejo revelan desde dos extremos la misma condici\u00f3n tr\u00e1gica de un idioma y de una historia que no logra la paz con sus hablantes y que se ve, por eso mismo, obligada a inventar su propia geograf\u00eda, sus toponimias, sus relieves, cristalizando una naturaleza paralela al mundo que ser\u00e1 siempre, en la escritura de ambos, una representaci\u00f3n de lo inacabado de la 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una espada envuelta en meteoros <br \/>hund\u00ed la mano turbulenta y dulce <br \/>en lo m\u00e1s genital de lo terrestre.<\/p><p>Puse la frente entre las olas profundas, <br \/>descend\u00ed como gota entre la paz sulf\u00farica, <br \/>y, como un ciego, regres\u00e9 al jazm\u00edn <br \/>de la gastada primavera humana.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"y4c14go\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hay que o\u00edrlo, es semejante a un r\u00edo que trajera arrastrando un mont\u00f3n de piedras hasta que en un momento las soltara de golpe, arroj\u00e1ndolas de tal forma que cada una cayera exactamente en el lugar que le estaba destinado desde siempre. En el \u00fanico y perfecto lugar. Esa disposici\u00f3n de las palabras supone alcanzar una reconciliaci\u00f3n absoluta, una redenci\u00f3n total con la lengua, que hace que Neruda mismo no parezca un autor sino un destinatario, un mensajero a trav\u00e9s del cual el idioma se celebra festej\u00e1ndose a s\u00ed mismo. \u00abAlturas de Macchu Picchu\u00bb nos adelanta de esa forma un futuro de palabras; en ellas los hombres ya han purgado la muerte cumpliendo con las exequias f\u00fanebres que esas mismas palabras les han impuesto. Esta marca presente del futuro es lo que hace de Neruda un poeta prometeico: su fe en el futuro no radica tanto en el hecho de haber sido un militante del Partido Comunista \u2014Vallejo en su tristeza tambi\u00e9n lo fue\u2014 como en haber reconciliado el idioma con las huellas plurales de su tragedia. Por eso puede imaginar un mundo nuevo y escribir \u00abSube a nacer conmigo, hermano\u00bb. En esa dimensi\u00f3n casi sacra Neruda abre el anticipo de una visi\u00f3n renacida de la persona y del territorio. En los \u00faltimos versos les pide a los muertos que hablen a trav\u00e9s de su boca, que digan de nuevo, que vuelvan a la palabra:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"na7fyrf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Apegadme los cuerpos como imanes. <br \/>Acudid a mis venas y a mi boca. <br \/>Hablad por mis palabras y mi sangre.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6twnbvq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo cierto de esos versos es que se cumplen; su condena es que tr\u00e1gica, permanentemente se est\u00e1n cumpliendo. Neruda, al proponerse para s\u00ed ser un int\u00e9rprete, nos muestra que ning\u00fan hombre al hablar es s\u00f3lo uno. Que hablar es, precisamente, darles una nueva oportunidad a quienes nos han precedido para que vuelvan a tomar la palabra. Mirar, sentir, o\u00edr es siempre mirar por los ojos de los que han estado. La cordillera de los Andes, una monta\u00f1a cualquiera, no es sino la suma de las miradas que la han visto, y cada cuerpo vivo, al verla, es saludado nuevamente por esos ojos muertos. Eso es lo conmovedor del mundo: cada grano de polvo, cada hierba, cada estepa, es el final de una cadena infinita de muertos donde se encuentran los que nos han precedido, a quienes nosotros al hablar, al ver, al o\u00edr \u2014en suma, al ejercer la vida\u2014 les estamos dando una oportunidad de existencia nueva.<\/p><p>Ese tambi\u00e9n es el m\u00e1s all\u00e1 al que apuntaba la muerte de Edipo y la narraci\u00f3n dantesca. El infierno y el para\u00edso no les pertenecen ya a las palabras, porque su vac\u00edo est\u00e1 instalado en el coraz\u00f3n mismo de lo inenarrable. Ese vac\u00edo lo llenan nuestros cuerpos, y en el torrente de los poemas, de toda literatura, de cualquier palabra, somos nosotros, los que nos han precedido, toda la deriva humana, quienes buscamos las orillas de su nuevo nacimiento. De una resurrecci\u00f3n general en la que est\u00e1 contenida toda la dimensi\u00f3n moral que explica el acto de escribir. Porque no se escribe s\u00f3lo por un presente o por un devenir, se escribe, parad\u00f3jicamente, para corregir la historia y entregarle as\u00ed a un sinn\u00famero de hombres la posibilidad de un relato redimido. Es all\u00ed donde todos los derrotados, ca\u00eddos, muertos y pertinentes del lenguaje humano vuelven a encontrar las palabras de sus destinos negados.<\/p><p>En este universo latinoamericano, entonces, signado por la conquista y la evangelizaci\u00f3n, por la crueldad y las bienaventuranzas, por una lengua culpable y a la vez nutricia, escribir es hoy persistir en la met\u00e1fora de ese futuro posible. S\u00f3focles, el Evangelio, Dante, el Inca Garcilaso, Guam\u00e1n Poma, Vallejo, Arguedas, Huidobro, Neruda, no son sino cap\u00edtulos entresacados de una larga saga cuyo desenlace es irrepresentable.<\/p><p>No es mucho m\u00e1s.<\/p><p>Hacemos literatura, m\u00fasica, pintura, porque no fuimos felices. Al final esa es la \u00fanica raz\u00f3n de todos los libros que se han escrito, de todos los cuadros, de las sinfon\u00edas. De tanto en tanto tambi\u00e9n nos asalta la dimensi\u00f3n de la noche: ese universo previo a la llegada de Europa que s\u00f3lo puede reconstruirse como en los sue\u00f1os y que, por ello mismo, se nos priva al d\u00eda. El sue\u00f1o del infierno, del purgatorio, del para\u00edso, nos habla entonces desde un coraz\u00f3n velado al que s\u00f3lo podemos apuntar con las palabras, porque ellas, en estos escenarios escindidos, son en s\u00ed mismas un cierto exceso, una excrecencia del amor. En la \u00faltima p\u00e1gina de la <em>Vida nueva,<\/em> Dante habla algo de esto. En ella promete escribir un poema en el que dir\u00e1 a Beatriz lo que no ha sido dicho de mujer alguna. Muchos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s concluy\u00f3 la <em>Divina comedia,<\/em> pero para eso su amor tuvo que morir. Sin embargo, desde estos espacios sudamericanos nos es posible a\u00fan vislumbrar un recorrido inverso donde \u2014abierto como una flor desde el fondo de nosotros mismos\u2014 podamos pasar no del amor a la muerte, no de la vida a la comedia, no de la promesa a una obra, sino de la comedia a la vida, de la obra a una promesa, del Viejo al Nuevo Mundo, a las orillas de esta tierra que a pesar de todo nos quiere. No es mucho m\u00e1s de lo que podemos resguardarnos; las derrotas del mundo han sido siempre un triunfo de la poes\u00eda y alg\u00fan d\u00eda es probable que los poemas dejen de ser necesarios porque habremos llegado a ser dignos del universo que habitamos. Es un sue\u00f1o y no. Nada sobrevivir\u00e1 all\u00ed de nosotros y, sin embargo, alguien lo ver\u00e1. Y algo de nuestros ojos mirar\u00e1 tambi\u00e9n por esos ojos vivos. Entonces, ciegos de amor, como Edipo, habremos encontrado las palabras para expresar todo el dolor, la paz y la dulzura.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l90y9g8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alejandra-Pizarnik-Cristina-Pina-Patricia-Venti-Luna-Miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl castellano no es lo mismo despu\u00e9s de la poes\u00eda de Pizarnik\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/anne-sexton-en-tres-poemas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abVive o muere pero no envenenes cada cosa\u2026\u00bb: Anne Sexton en tres poemas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/la-muerte-de-virginia-woolf-por-leonard-woolf\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La muerte de Virginia Woolf por Leonard Woolf: la contemplaci\u00f3n imperturbable<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/joan-didion-zadie-smith\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joan Didion por Zadie Smith: la otra cara del pensamiento m\u00e1gico<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-mariana-enriquez-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sylvia Plath por Mariana Enr\u00edquez: la mujer que lo ha sido todo para 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20 minutos
Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

Por mí se va en la ciudad doliente.
Por mí se va en el eterno dolor.
Por mí se va tras la perdida gente.
La justicia movió a mi alto constructor,
me hicieron la divina potestad,
la gran sabiduría y el primer amor.
Antes de mí nada creado se encuentra
sino lo eterno y yo eterno duro.
¡Dejen toda esperanza ustedes que entran!

Está allí, trazada en la entrada del infierno, en el tercer canto de la Divina comedia, pero como la deriva humana pareciera complacerse en lo más desolado de la ficción, esos versos han terminado por pertenecerle más al mundo que al poema. Desde el punto de vista de la erudición histórica probablemente no es más que un sentimentalismo, pero al recordar algunos de los episodios de la conquista de América he llegado a imaginarme que fue esa inscripción, más incluso que los mismos barcos españoles, la que precedió la llegada de Europa a estas tierras. En esa sentencia, el infierno dice de sí que antes no hubo cosa creada sino la eternidad y que, por tanto, ella es anterior a la creación del hombre y a la idea misma que le da sentido: el pecado. Esta paradoja encarna una cima de fatalidad que ha encontrado y sigue encontrando en los resumideros de nuestra historia su más desgarradora resolución. En el otro extremo, hacia el final del «Paraíso», Dante alcanza a vislumbrar a Dios y se da cuenta de que tiene el color del rostro del hombre, no de una cara en particular, sino el color de la faz del humano. Más allá queda la plenitud de lo inenarrable y el poema termina con la visión de las estrellas movidas por el amor. Insistiendo en ese sentimentalismo fuera de moda, también me ha parecido ver allí el anuncio del final de toda conquista.

En realidad, es la misma paradoja: los poemas arcaicos, tanto las primeras épicas como los profetas hebreos, habían ya entrevisto esa sombra de lo sacro que excede lo expresable, pero es con el Edipo en Colono de Sófocles, antes que con el cristianismo, cuando esa presencia alcanza el fulgor de la redención. Es la muerte de Edipo: nadie ha sufrido tanto y, como en un sueño, su fin contiene, al menos potencialmente, la frase más hermosa que jamás se haya escrito: «Y tenía en su rostro una expresión tal de paz y de dulzura que ningún mortal podría describirla». 

Su muerte misma es entonces una epifanía, y lo que se nos dice de ella es que no hay palabra alguna para describir esa expresión de paz y de dulzura. Nunca nadie desde este lado de las palabras había llegado a ese albor de lo que ya está más allá del lenguaje. Luego, entre la belleza incolmable de esa redención y las estrellas dantescas aparecerán los testamentos bíblicos, Platón, la patrística, y el rigor de lo indecible irá poco a poco encontrando en el Viejo Mundo sus espejismos y encarnaciones concretas. Descendientes tardíos de esas encarnaciones hoy sólo pueden hablarnos a través de mitos e imágenes. Su elocuencia radica en que son las experiencias reales las que, de tanto en tanto, nos hacen volver a esas viejas imágenes en un retorno que es también una paradoja: el regreso al Nuevo Mundo, a un mundo que aún no nace.

Es el vislumbre de lo no dicho, de un corazón sin palabras atascado en el centro mismo de la vida. En rigor, cualquier persona que haya experimentado alguna vez un sentimiento extremo de dolor o de angustia conoce ese corazón y sabe que hay cosas que jamás tendrán acceso al lenguaje, que nunca podrán alcanzar el umbral de las palabras, porque expresar es ya, al menos, oír el eco de la propia voz que responde. Porque el sufrimiento no tiene respuesta, y quien logra desde allí decir lo que le sucede es alguien que, aunque sea en el límite de la precariedad, ya ha optado por vivir. Sin embargo, análogamente, como en la paradoja del infierno, aquello que nunca llegará a las palabras, que jamás tendrá una expresión de ellas, constituye la base, el soporte de cualquier habla. Esa mudez innombrable entonces, eso que jamás podrá ser dicho, es lo que podemos llamar el «infierno» de toda poesía.

Pero cualquiera que haya tenido también una experiencia absoluta de amor, de ese encuentro infinito frente al otro, sabe de igual modo que cualquier cosa que se diga en ese instante —los perpetuos te amo o te adoro— está de más; sobra como las excrecencias de un estado de comunicación lamentable donde los treinta mil años que llevamos intercambiando gruñidos, gestos, palabras, se revelan como la historia del malentendido. Simétricamente, entonces, aquello que excede para siempre todo el lenguaje, ese amor que nos revienta, que nos arrasa, es lo que podemos llamar el «paraíso» de toda poesía. Entre ambos extremos nos resta el «purgatorio» de las palabras o, lo que es lo mismo, el largo itinerario de una cura: aquello que los hebreos llamaron la historia de la salvación.

Herederos de esa historia, nos ha tocado a nosotros también ser la memoria viva de su condena. Los hispanoparlantes de este continente hablamos una lengua que guarda de una u otra forma en cada palabra, en cada giro, en cada una de sus letras el recuerdo de las condiciones en que esa lengua se impuso. Hablar es siempre hacer presente una historia, y ello no es privativo de nosotros; sin embargo, lo que particulariza lo sucedido en estos territorios es que la magnitud de esa imposición y sus consecuencias hicieron del mundo otro mundo que no tiene parangón en la historia humana. En los países americanos de habla castellana ejercer el lenguaje es repetir de manera constante las marcas que significaron la implantación de ese idioma entre nosotros. La historia que hemos ido levantando comienza así con un arrasamiento, y será la escritura la que vuelva siempre a ese origen. En cada párrafo de los primeros escritores de estas tierras —en los Comentarios reales del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, en la Nueva corónica y buen gobierno de Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala o en La Araucana de Alonso de Ercilla— están ya contenidas las condiciones presentes de nuestra habla; y la endémica incapacidad de estos países para edificar proyectos sociales permanentes no es ajena a esa relación traumática con nuestra propia lengua. Singularmente, el primer acto con que aquí se instala esa lengua es el de un entierro. Tanto en los primeros balbuceos del castellano de Guamán Poma (quienquiera que haya sido), como en la magnificencia estilística del Inca Garcilaso, se muestran mundos colapsados, universos ya vueltos abstracciones, idealizaciones tardías, pero lo que se presenta sobre todo son muestras concretas.

Así, Garcilaso cierra cada capítulo de la Historia general del Perú, la segunda parte de sus Comentarios reales, con la narración de la muerte trágica de uno de los participantes en la guerra de la Conquista, y la obra termina con el relato de la ejecución del último descendiente del trono inca en la ciudad del Cuzco. El cortejo que avanza hacia el patíbulo está encabezado por un funcionario que enuncia a viva voz las culpas por las que se le condena a la muerte. Al escucharlo, el inca le pide al fraile que lo acompaña que le traduzca pues no entiende el castellano, la lengua bajo la cual lo van a matar (el capítulo es en sí impresionante, porque morir es siempre morir por razones expresadas en una lengua que no entendemos). Esa muerte reúne todas las muertes ocurridas por la lengua que hablamos y transforma la totalidad de los Comentarios reales, cada relato del antiguo esplendor incaico, cada detalle de sus templos, de sus construcciones, de sus costumbres, en los ornamentos fúnebres de unas exequias. Pero esas exequias serán, sobre todo, una condición futura, y la ejecución relatada por Garcilaso significará también, trescientos años más tarde, el sacrificio de los poemas de César Vallejo.

Paralelamente al Inca Garcilaso, Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala (hoy está en fuerte discusión su identidad, pero eso cuenta para la iconografía de los nombres y de la historia, no para la poesía) recorre, en las postrimerías del 1500, el mundo andino escribiendo su Nueva corónica y buen gobierno, conocida también como Carta al rey, y en la cual le propone al rey de España la instauración de un orden nuevo que reconciliaría definitivamente los dos mundos: el incásico y el español. La inmediata pérdida y olvido de esa carta describe concreta, exactamente, el suicidio que trescientos sesenta años después cometerá José María Arguedas. El autor de Los ríos profundos y de El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo (que contiene un diario donde relata paso a paso el proceso que lo lleva al suicidio) muere el 28 de noviembre de 1969 de un pistoletazo en la sien por las mismas razones que hicieron que esa obra no llegara jamás a ningún rey y que, en cambio, fuese descubierta recién tres siglos más tarde entre los archivos de una biblioteca de Copenhague. Ningún mundo fue reconciliado, ni para Arguedas, y somos nosotros entonces los destinatarios de esa misiva. Al leerla, el lector es el monarca español. Al no atenderla repetimos la misma incomprensión, es decir, volvemos a condenar a Arguedas al suicidio y nos transformamos en los testigos cómplices de un doble asesinato.

Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

Pero es en el origen de nuestra poesía donde esta empresa de rescate y sepultura encuentra su referencia más explícita. Son los cantos XX y XXI de La Araucana de Alonso de Ercilla. Allí, el poeta cuenta cómo una noche, de guardia después de una batalla con los araucanos —estos habían sido derrotados y el campo estaba cubierto de cadáveres—, ve deslizarse una sombra entre los muertos. En el momento en que va a descargar su espada se da cuenta de que es una mujer; su nombre es Tegualda y se encuentra allí buscando los restos de su amado Crepino.

Su primer impulso es matar; sin embargo, escucha su historia y finalmente es él mismo quien le entrega el cuerpo para que ella pueda llevárselo y enterrarlo junto a los suyos. La grandeza de este acto matricial, arquetípico, ya presente en la Ilíada y que cruzará el arco completo de las obras que se escribirán en nuestro continente, radica en que es el poeta mismo, Ercilla, el que permite realizar el acto del entierro. De allí en adelante la misión del poeta no será otra que la de darle sepultura, a nombre de sociedades que no han querido o no han podido hacerlo, a toda esa fila interminable de cuerpos que, caídos, victimizados, arrasados por y en la lengua que nosotros hablamos, continúan deambulando en el eje de nuestro idioma sin encontrar siquiera la sanción de un entierro. Tanto La Araucana como las obras del Inca Garcilaso y de Guamán Poma sintetizan una enorme literatura augural, representada por los cronistas y por los primeros escritores nativos, iniciando así nuestra pertenencia a este mundo. Por ellas un tipo de hombre en particular opta por su habla y comienza el itinerario de su cura. Lo que debe ser curado es la herida irredenta: la muerte sin exequias. Desde Garcilaso y Guamán Poma, entonces, hasta Vallejo y Arguedas; desde Ercilla hasta Neruda; desde los cronistas españoles e indígenas de la Nueva España hasta Fuentes, Rulfo o García Márquez, el recorrido de toda nuestra literatura ha mostrado las huellas de un idioma en que cada uno de los hablantes busca su salida en la promesa del Nuevo Mundo. Cada generación de escritores ha representado así una muerte y un renacimiento, enterradores de las víctimas al mismo tiempo que sacrificados ellos mismos al vislumbre de un sueño que no está. Pero son las obras de tres poetas —César Vallejo, Vicente Huidobro y Pablo Neruda— las que con mayor fuerza revelan el doblez del sacrificio y la redención.

Tanto Trilce de Vallejo como Altazor de Huidobro y las «Alturas de Macchu Picchu» de Neruda constituyen los momentos más amplios desde donde se pueden entrever las señas de un futuro posible. Cada uno de ellos es un modo de padecer y revelar un idioma y cada uno de ellos encarna, también, un modo de hablar de nuestro continente. Leerlos es hoy, antes que todo, curar la herida de una lengua, reunir de nuevo sus fisuras y volver a levantar, desde las fosas de las palabras, la promesa despojada del Nuevo Mundo. La poesía de César Vallejo es el testimonio más extremo y profundo que la literatura hispanoamericana ha dado de ese despojamiento. En el poema España, aparta de mí este cáliz, Vallejo ve de forma textual «la letra en que nació la pena»:

Si cae —digo, es un decir— si cae
España, de la tierra para abajo, [...]
¡Cómo vais a bajar las gradas del alfabeto
Hasta la letra en que nació la pena!

Lo que nos está diciendo entonces es que, en estas tierras, la historia del dolor es inextirpable porque este se encuentra incrustado en las partículas mismas del idioma impuesto. Al escribir en castellano, Vallejo dio cuenta de ese derrotero y del desgarro radical que significa actuar en una lengua que es la única que se posee, y a la que, por tanto, se le tiene gratitud, pero que simultáneamente es el origen del aniquilamiento y de la muerte en vida a la que han sido condenados tantos. Su sufrimiento es entonces la historia, y su libro Trilce, el máximo testimonio de una devastación vuelta a exponer. Cada uno de sus poemas es, literalmente, un cuerpo sacrificado, y la alteración total de la sintaxis, los arcaísmos y neologismos, la furia de las mayúsculas y de los signos de exclamación, los puntos suspensivos, en fin, toda esa violencia permanente de cada palabra con la contigua, su enterramiento mutuo, sus chirridos son, decíamos, carnes torturadas, miembros encepados, cuerpos puestos en una posición de perpetua agonía. Será el lector entonces quien salvará esos escritos, quien se hará cargo de esas líneas quebradas, de esas palabras rotas para reacomodarlas un poco, para aliviarlas en algo de su sufrimiento. Sólo así quien lee puede leer; sólo ordenándolas un poco puede entender su sentido. La mirada del que lee recorre como si fuera una boca cada línea, cada herida de esos versos, curándolos, sacándolos de su agonía para que puedan vivir. El precio es que el lector cargue con la muerte que esos poemas contienen. Su redención es también la nuestra, y en la mirada metafórica de este texto las palabras que decimos encuentran así un horizonte. Vallejo vive. Sacándolo de la cruz en la cual se encepan sus palabras, el lector redime simbólicamente su propia agonía.

Quien habla en Trilce también habla en el Altazor de Vicente Huidobro y, en un universo que ha alcanzado su paz, también hablará en las «Alturas de Macchu Picchu» de Pablo Neruda. El largo viaje de Altazor —ese ser que sabe adónde cae, pero que no sabe desde dónde cae— describe sobre todo el derrumbe de un idioma sobre sí mismo. El poema huidobriano es un volcamiento que va desde las esplendorosas cadencias e imágenes de los cantos primero y segundo —«¿Irías a ser muda que Dios te dio esos ojos?»— hasta la desintegración total de la lengua en el canto final. Allí la letra, la onomatopeya visual de las sílabas, se recorta sobre un blanco que pareciera decirnos que el verdadero poema es el que se yergue más allá del término del libro y que solamente allí, después de la demolición de las últimas palabras, quien ha leído comienza a construir el Altazor real. Al revés de Trilce, Huidobro construye la muerte para que al lector le quede sólo la posibilidad de reconstruir la vida. Para que este levante el poema desde el fin del poema, o, lo que es lo mismo, para que él, nosotros, incluso en los tiempos que vienen, pueda inventar las imágenes de un idioma y de un mundo renovados. El entusiasmo de Vicente Huidobro por un idioma que ha de nacer desde las ruinas de las lenguas muertas que hablamos es el mismo padecimiento de Vallejo pero con un signo opuesto. Sombras entonces de una condena primigenia, Huidobro y Vallejo revelan desde dos extremos la misma condición trágica de un idioma y de una historia que no logra la paz con sus hablantes y que se ve, por eso mismo, obligada a inventar su propia geografía, sus toponimias, sus relieves, cristalizando una naturaleza paralela al mundo que será siempre, en la escritura de ambos, una representación de lo inacabado de la muerte.

Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

Raúl Zurita. Crédito: Lorena Palavecino.

A fin de cuentas, es eso lo que Vicente Huidobro llamó «creacionismo». Sin embargo, ya el poema inaugural de Alonso de Ercilla denotaba esa carga al concebir la naturaleza como una escenografía que la misma pasión de vivir, es decir, la pasión de la Conquista, va levantando. Vendrá a ser en otro poema —las «Alturas de Macchu Picchu», segunda sección del Canto General de Neruda— donde los conquistados, respondiéndole a Ercilla, apelarán a un nuevo sentido de las palabras. La naturaleza inaugurada por La Araucana pasará ahora a ser el custodio de una reserva que antecede a todo acto de opresión, de conquista o de sometimiento, tal como se lee en los dos primeros versos del Canto General:

Antes de la peluca y la casaca
Fueron los ríos, ríos arteriales.

En «Alturas de Macchu Picchu» se despliega la gran marca de la obra nerudiana. Lo que allí se abre es la apelación a un futuro liberado que será sólo posible a partir de la reconciliación con el idioma que nuestra poesía levanta en un mundo nuevo y de una significación nueva, y su escritura constituye un hecho infinitamente más importante en la historia de la independencia de estas antiguas colonias que, por ejemplo, la batalla de Ayacucho. Hay que escuchar entonces el despliegue de las palabras en ese poema:

como una espada envuelta en meteoros
hundí la mano turbulenta y dulce
en lo más genital de lo terrestre.

Puse la frente entre las olas profundas,
descendí como gota entre la paz sulfúrica,
y, como un ciego, regresé al jazmín
de la gastada primavera humana.

Hay que oírlo, es semejante a un río que trajera arrastrando un montón de piedras hasta que en un momento las soltara de golpe, arrojándolas de tal forma que cada una cayera exactamente en el lugar que le estaba destinado desde siempre. En el único y perfecto lugar. Esa disposición de las palabras supone alcanzar una reconciliación absoluta, una redención total con la lengua, que hace que Neruda mismo no parezca un autor sino un destinatario, un mensajero a través del cual el idioma se celebra festejándose a sí mismo. «Alturas de Macchu Picchu» nos adelanta de esa forma un futuro de palabras; en ellas los hombres ya han purgado la muerte cumpliendo con las exequias fúnebres que esas mismas palabras les han impuesto. Esta marca presente del futuro es lo que hace de Neruda un poeta prometeico: su fe en el futuro no radica tanto en el hecho de haber sido un militante del Partido Comunista —Vallejo en su tristeza también lo fue— como en haber reconciliado el idioma con las huellas plurales de su tragedia. Por eso puede imaginar un mundo nuevo y escribir «Sube a nacer conmigo, hermano». En esa dimensión casi sacra Neruda abre el anticipo de una visión renacida de la persona y del territorio. En los últimos versos les pide a los muertos que hablen a través de su boca, que digan de nuevo, que vuelvan a la palabra:

Apegadme los cuerpos como imanes.
Acudid a mis venas y a mi boca.
Hablad por mis palabras y mi sangre.

Lo cierto de esos versos es que se cumplen; su condena es que trágica, permanentemente se están cumpliendo. Neruda, al proponerse para sí ser un intérprete, nos muestra que ningún hombre al hablar es sólo uno. Que hablar es, precisamente, darles una nueva oportunidad a quienes nos han precedido para que vuelvan a tomar la palabra. Mirar, sentir, oír es siempre mirar por los ojos de los que han estado. La cordillera de los Andes, una montaña cualquiera, no es sino la suma de las miradas que la han visto, y cada cuerpo vivo, al verla, es saludado nuevamente por esos ojos muertos. Eso es lo conmovedor del mundo: cada grano de polvo, cada hierba, cada estepa, es el final de una cadena infinita de muertos donde se encuentran los que nos han precedido, a quienes nosotros al hablar, al ver, al oír —en suma, al ejercer la vida— les estamos dando una oportunidad de existencia nueva.

Ese también es el más allá al que apuntaba la muerte de Edipo y la narración dantesca. El infierno y el paraíso no les pertenecen ya a las palabras, porque su vacío está instalado en el corazón mismo de lo inenarrable. Ese vacío lo llenan nuestros cuerpos, y en el torrente de los poemas, de toda literatura, de cualquier palabra, somos nosotros, los que nos han precedido, toda la deriva humana, quienes buscamos las orillas de su nuevo nacimiento. De una resurrección general en la que está contenida toda la dimensión moral que explica el acto de escribir. Porque no se escribe sólo por un presente o por un devenir, se escribe, paradójicamente, para corregir la historia y entregarle así a un sinnúmero de hombres la posibilidad de un relato redimido. Es allí donde todos los derrotados, caídos, muertos y pertinentes del lenguaje humano vuelven a encontrar las palabras de sus destinos negados.

En este universo latinoamericano, entonces, signado por la conquista y la evangelización, por la crueldad y las bienaventuranzas, por una lengua culpable y a la vez nutricia, escribir es hoy persistir en la metáfora de ese futuro posible. Sófocles, el Evangelio, Dante, el Inca Garcilaso, Guamán Poma, Vallejo, Arguedas, Huidobro, Neruda, no son sino capítulos entresacados de una larga saga cuyo desenlace es irrepresentable.

No es mucho más.

Hacemos literatura, música, pintura, porque no fuimos felices. Al final esa es la única razón de todos los libros que se han escrito, de todos los cuadros, de las sinfonías. De tanto en tanto también nos asalta la dimensión de la noche: ese universo previo a la llegada de Europa que sólo puede reconstruirse como en los sueños y que, por ello mismo, se nos priva al día. El sueño del infierno, del purgatorio, del paraíso, nos habla entonces desde un corazón velado al que sólo podemos apuntar con las palabras, porque ellas, en estos escenarios escindidos, son en sí mismas un cierto exceso, una excrecencia del amor. En la última página de la Vida nueva, Dante habla algo de esto. En ella promete escribir un poema en el que dirá a Beatriz lo que no ha sido dicho de mujer alguna. Muchos años después concluyó la Divina comedia, pero para eso su amor tuvo que morir. Sin embargo, desde estos espacios sudamericanos nos es posible aún vislumbrar un recorrido inverso donde —abierto como una flor desde el fondo de nosotros mismos— podamos pasar no del amor a la muerte, no de la vida a la comedia, no de la promesa a una obra, sino de la comedia a la vida, de la obra a una promesa, del Viejo al Nuevo Mundo, a las orillas de esta tierra que a pesar de todo nos quiere. No es mucho más de lo que podemos resguardarnos; las derrotas del mundo han sido siempre un triunfo de la poesía y algún día es probable que los poemas dejen de ser necesarios porque habremos llegado a ser dignos del universo que habitamos. Es un sueño y no. Nada sobrevivirá allí de nosotros y, sin embargo, alguien lo verá. Y algo de nuestros ojos mirará también por esos ojos vivos. Entonces, ciegos de amor, como Edipo, habremos encontrado las palabras para expresar todo el dolor, la paz y la dulzura.