Música

Bono sobre «Sunday Bloody Sunday»: esta no es una canción protesta

Por fortuna, atrás quedaron los tiempos en los que el IRA marcaba -a base de bombas, sangre, violencia y fuego- la agenda política y social de Irlanda y el Reino Unido. Sin embargo, algunos renovados discursos independentistas en las diferentes naciones constitutivas de la Corona (sobre todo en Escocia e Irlanda del Norte) y los atribulados tiempos que corren en el número 10 de Downing Street -con el desfile de tres primeros ministros diferentes en menos dos meses- vuelven a abrir el debate sobre el futuro de la isla de Irlanda. Un debate sobre el que Bono, líder de U2 y activista infatigable, arroja luz y ofrece contexto en «Surrender» (Reservoir Books), un libro de memorias estructurado a través de las canciones de la banda de rock más popular de los últimos 40 años. En las siguientes líneas, todas extraídas del capítulo dedicado a «Sunday Bloody Sunday» (del álbum «War», de 1983), el músico narra cómo fue crecer -personal y profesionalmente- en un país dividido hasta el extremo, en un lugar en el que alguien cómo él podría estar en el centro de varias dianas y en el que posicionarte por la paz podría costarte la vida.

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Sin embargo, algunos renovados discursos independentistas en las diferentes naciones constitutivas de la Corona (sobre todo en Escocia e Irlanda del Norte) y los atribulados tiempos que corren en el n\u00famero 10 de Downing Street -con el desfile de tres primeros ministros diferentes en menos dos meses- vuelven a abrir el debate sobre el futuro de la isla de Irlanda. Un debate sobre el que Bono, l\u00edder de U2 y activista infatigable, arroja luz y ofrece contexto en \u00abSurrender\u00bb (Reservoir Books), un libro de memorias estructurado a trav\u00e9s de las canciones de la banda de rock m\u00e1s popular de los \u00faltimos 40 a\u00f1os. En las siguientes l\u00edneas, todas extra\u00eddas del cap\u00edtulo dedicado a \u00abSunday Bloody Sunday\u00bb (del \u00e1lbum \u00abWar\u00bb, de 1983), el m\u00fasico narra c\u00f3mo fue crecer -personal y profesionalmente- en un pa\u00eds dividido hasta el extremo, en un lugar en el que alguien c\u00f3mo \u00e9l podr\u00eda estar en el centro de varias dianas y en el que posicionarte por la paz podr\u00eda costarte la 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vez Edge nos llev\u00f3 al otro lado de la frontera con el esbozo de una canci\u00f3n <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Conflicto_norirland%C3%A9s\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sobre los Troubles<\/a><\/span>, la banda no dej\u00f3 de animarme a internarme m\u00e1s y m\u00e1s en un terreno peligroso. Creo que tengo una especie de man\u00eda perversa cuando me dicen que no haga o diga algo. Es mucho m\u00e1s atractivo para m\u00ed. \u00abSunday Bloody Sunday\u00bb no era solo un asunto peliagudo en el sentido de sus evidentes peligros si eras un chico del sur. Era realmente peligroso en el sentido de que, al o\u00edrlo, algunas personas deseaban hacernos da\u00f1o. Personas de ambos lados de la brecha sectaria. Para los irreflexivos unionistas era una traici\u00f3n. Para los irreflexivos nacionalistas y republicanos era una campa\u00f1a de publicidad, capaz de despertar una sensaci\u00f3n de indignaci\u00f3n a prop\u00f3sito de esos\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film524424.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">veintiocho civiles desarmados<\/a><\/span> a los que hab\u00edan disparado cuando se manifestaban pac\u00edficamente.\u00a0<\/p><p>La canci\u00f3n lleg\u00f3 despu\u00e9s de la muerte por huelga de hambre de Bobby Sands el 5 de mayo de 1981.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/patrick-radden-keefe-no-digas-nada-ira-irlanda-del-norte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sands era un alma po\u00e9tica que argumentaba con su vida que el IRA provisional estaba luchando en una guerra<\/a><\/span> y que los combatientes encarcelados merec\u00edan el mismo estatus que cualquier prisionero de guerra, como el derecho a no tener que ir vestidos de presidiarios. No era una petici\u00f3n descabellada, pero quienes la apoyaban parec\u00edan olvidar que el IRA no respetaba la Convenci\u00f3n de Ginebra. Ni ninguna 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sus protestas en la c\u00e1rcel pasaron inadvertidas para la primera ministra brit\u00e1nica, Margaret Thatcher, Sands llev\u00f3 su huelga de hambre m\u00e1s all\u00e1. Se visti\u00f3 solo con una manta y se neg\u00f3 a utilizar los aseos. Esta <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.eldiario.es\/red\/que-es\/protesta-sucia-escatologico-metodo-tenso-cuerdas-ira-gobierno-britanico_1_6681159.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abprotesta sucia\u00bb<\/a><\/span>, en la que los prisioneros pintaron con heces las paredes de las celdas, estuvo entre los momentos m\u00e1s angustiosos de la campa\u00f1a del IRA para expulsar a los brit\u00e1nicos de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">l<\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a isla de Irlanda<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>Estos paramilitares no ten\u00edan un apoyo mayoritario ni al norte ni al sur de la frontera. Ni siquiera entre la asediada minor\u00eda cat\u00f3lica del \u00dalster, y, sin embargo, decid\u00edan qui\u00e9n viv\u00eda y qui\u00e9n mor\u00eda en su lucha por reconfigurar el mapa de Irlanda. Aun as\u00ed, el hecho de que Sands decidiera quitarse la vida a los veintisiete a\u00f1os, despu\u00e9s de negarse a comer durante sesenta y seis d\u00edas, provoc\u00f3 todo tipo de emociones encontradas, incluso a los nacionalistas comunes y corrientes como yo.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Bobby_Sands\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fue m\u00e1s que una simple tragedia<\/a><\/span>. Fue tambi\u00e9n una muerte que se convirti\u00f3 en la herramienta m\u00e1s poderosa para recaudar fondos en la historia del IRA, sobre todo en Estados Unidos, donde la banda se sent\u00eda obligada a combatir cualquier idea novelesca sobre la lucha armada en nuestro pa\u00eds. En nuestros conciertos y entrevistas, ofrec\u00edamos un relato alternativo sobre la no violencia, en un intento de reducir los ingresos del IRA, sabiendo que este pondr\u00eda armas y bombas en manos de combatientes que mutilar\u00edan y matar\u00edan con el fin de instaurar su propia idea de Irlanda. Unos combatientes a los que nadie hab\u00eda elegido y que decid\u00edan si un bar de Belfast o de M\u00e1nchester era un \u00abobjetivo leg\u00edtimo\u00bb. O si pod\u00edan hacer saltar en pedazos y sin previo aviso un desfile de jubilados y veteranos de la Segunda Guerra 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Durante una semana o dos\u2026 hasta que se aplacaba el furor y volv\u00edan a hacer o\u00eddos sordos y a aclamar entre gru\u00f1idos a \u00abnuestros muchachos\u00bb. Esta duplicidad enfurec\u00eda a la gente al norte y al sur de la frontera. A m\u00ed me enfurec\u00eda, y eso ayuda a explicar mi desabrida introducci\u00f3n a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=EM4vblG6BVQ\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abSunday Bloody Sunday\u00bb en un concierto en Red Rocks, Colorado<\/a><\/span>, una noche en la que tuvimos mucho m\u00e1s p\u00fablico de lo normal porque se estaba grabando para la televisi\u00f3n del Reino Unido.<\/p><p>Mientras Edge tocaba sus quejumbrosos arpegios bajo la lluvia y Larry hac\u00eda su redoble, yo solt\u00e9: \u00ab\u00a1Esta no es una canci\u00f3n rebelde!\u00bb con todo el convencimiento que pude reunir.\u00a0<\/p><p>La brevedad compens\u00f3 la falta de elocuencia. 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Las cosas en casa ya no volver\u00edan a ser iguales para nosotros.<\/p><p>La banda nunca subray\u00f3 su condici\u00f3n de irlandesa. A m\u00ed cada vez me frustraba m\u00e1s c\u00f3mo lo irland\u00e9s parec\u00eda haber sido secuestrado por el movimiento republicano, un movimiento que cre\u00eda en la restauraci\u00f3n a la fuerza de un pa\u00eds \u00fanico en la isla de Irlanda. Un movimiento que empezaba a apropiarse de generaciones de anteriores agitadores y luchadores por la independencia, as\u00ed como del legado de poes\u00eda, canciones populares y folklore cuyos autores no habr\u00edan querido tener nada que ver con esos pistoleros. Para m\u00ed, ser irland\u00e9s no ten\u00eda nada que ver con ser protestante o cat\u00f3lico. Algunos de los mayores revolucionarios contra el dominio brit\u00e1nico eran protestantes irlandeses, desde Wolfe Tone hasta Maud Gonne o Roger Casement. Mi padre era cat\u00f3lico, pero \u00e9l tampoco se tragaba la ret\u00f3rica de esos supuestos luchadores por la libertad.<\/p><p>\u2013Yo soy cat\u00f3lico \u2013me dec\u00eda\u2013. Y te aseguro que la divisi\u00f3n de nuestra peque\u00f1a isla tuvo mucho m\u00e1s que ver con mantener Harland & Wolff en la uni\u00f3n que con proteger a los protestantes. Quer\u00edan conservar los astilleros y el lino. El sur solo acept\u00f3 la frontera bajo la amenaza de la guerra que hizo Lloyd George, pero, a pesar de todas las injusticias, estos pistoleros no representan una mayor\u00eda en ning\u00fan sitio en esta isla, ni al sur ni al norte de la frontera.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bbNo hagas caso de sus t\u00f3picos \u2013a\u00f1ad\u00eda, antes de recitar uno de sus versos heroicos de Se\u00e1n O'Casey (solo que no era de Se\u00e1n O'Casey, se lo hab\u00eda inventado)\u2013: \u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 es Irlanda m\u00e1s que la tierra que impide que se me mojen los pies?\u00bb.<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, \u00e9l mismo se hab\u00eda casado con una mujer de \u00abotra comunidad\u00bb. Dec\u00eda medio en serio que todos los pa\u00edses eran mentira \u2013\u00abson historias que nos contamos unos a otros\u00bb\u2013 y se mostraba suspicaz con respecto a qui\u00e9n controlaba el relato.\u00a0<\/p><p>Dicho esto, le impresion\u00f3 verme en el escenario en las Monta\u00f1as Rocosas haciendo una performance en la que rasgaba la bandera irlandesa. A menudo me lanzaban banderas irlandesas en los conciertos, y a veces les arrancaba el naranja y el verde y la convert\u00eda en una bandera blanca en un intento de apoyar la no violencia. M\u00e1s tarde empec\u00e9 a recalcar que la bandera blanca era una imagen de rendici\u00f3n espiritual, pero, por ahora, nos permit\u00edamos una especie de pacifismo militante.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kmaeve6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A menudo me lanzaban banderas irlandesas en los conciertos, y a veces les arrancaba el naranja y el verde y la convert\u00eda en una bandera blanca en un intento de apoyar la no violencia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7mqh7nl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todas estas explicaciones no siempre eran populares en Irlanda, y cada vez m\u00e1s gente pon\u00eda en cuesti\u00f3n nuestro patriotismo. Algunos tardaron en darse cuenta. Dos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, en un concierto en Croke Park, en el <em>Unforgettable Fire Tour,<\/em> en 1985, volv\u00ed a hacer lo de cortar la bandera y a una parte del p\u00fablico no le gust\u00f3. Despu\u00e9s de la actuaci\u00f3n, el coche en el que \u00edbamos Ali (Alison Hewson, esposa de Bono desde 1982) y yo se qued\u00f3 atascado en una callejuela de Dubl\u00edn y estall\u00f3 una violenta pelea a nuestro alrededor; enseguida empezaron los golpes en la parte de arriba del coche y los gritos en apoyo de los violentos. Un joven desencajado, con el pu\u00f1o envuelto en una bandera tricolor, intent\u00f3 romper el parabrisas al lado del rostro de Ali. Lo que se rompi\u00f3 fue otra cosa. \u00c9ramos peces en una pecera y las pira\u00f1as al otro lado del cristal hab\u00edan sido fans de U2 solo unas horas antes. A finales de los a\u00f1os ochenta las cosas estaban cambiando para U2 en Irlanda. Por un tiempo hab\u00eda sido como si fu\u00e9semos el equipo nacional que volv\u00eda a casa con la copa. Todav\u00eda \u00e9ramos los h\u00e9roes locales, pero los \u00e1nimos hab\u00edan cambiado un poco. En el mundo fuera de U2, los a\u00f1os ochenta se percib\u00eda como una lucha por el alma y el tama\u00f1o del pa\u00eds. La frontera se fue interiorizando cada vez m\u00e1s, la isla se volvi\u00f3 m\u00e1s tribal. Ni la mezcla de or\u00edgenes sociales ni nuestras teolog\u00edas individuales encajaban con facilidad en ninguna de las tribus.<\/p><p>En una entrevista en <em>Hot Press,<\/em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Gerry_Adams\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gerry Adams, el l\u00edder del Sinn F\u00e9in<\/a><\/span>, tuvo el valor y la ingenuidad moral de cuestionar la lucha armada que \u00e9l y su partido hab\u00edan apoyado, cuando no dirigido. En el mismo art\u00edculo eligi\u00f3 el arom\u00e1tico verbo \u00abapestar\u00bb para describirme. Como juicio sobre mi higiene personal, ya se sabe que quien bien te quiere te har\u00e1 sufrir, pero, como insulto, envi\u00f3 una t\u00e1cita se\u00f1al a los republicanos m\u00e1s empedernidos de que yo era, y no hay otra palabra para decirlo, un mierda. Para los que ya estaban cabreados porque la oposici\u00f3n de U2 a los paramilitares (de todo tipo) hab\u00eda costado al IRA financiaci\u00f3n muy valiosa en Estados Unidos, esto era una se\u00f1al pol\u00e9mica para sus simpatizantes en aumento, algunos en los medios, para expulsar a U2 de su elevada posici\u00f3n nacional. Sobre todo al cantante.\u00a0<\/p><p>En la pr\u00e1ctica, nos hab\u00edan aconsejado que aument\u00e1semos nuestra seguridad despu\u00e9s de que secuestraran a un dentista adinerado, al que hab\u00edan cortado la punta de dos dedos y las hab\u00edan enviado para pedir el rescate. Cuando la Special Branch vino a vernos, sin embargo, predijo que Ali era un objetivo m\u00e1s probable. Eso a\u00fan me molesta por todo tipo de razones.<\/p><p>La profunda esperanza de la banda es que alg\u00fan d\u00eda Irlanda vuelva a ser, por medios pac\u00edficos y democr\u00e1ticos, una Irlanda unida. Ir\u00f3nicamente, pensamos que el mayor obst\u00e1culo es el modo en que los paramilitares usan las ofensas como 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encanta ir a Irlanda del Norte. Para la banda, uno de los puntos culminantes de cualquier gira es el concierto que damos en Belfast. Nos encanta Irlanda del Norte, por su humor patibulario. No ser\u00e1 por falta de cadalsos, eso seguro.\u00a0<\/p><p>Despu\u00e9s de hacer de teloneros para Squeeze en 1979, nos invitaron a una fiesta despu\u00e9s del concierto, todo muy alegre, hasta que unos soldados brit\u00e1nicos nos rodearon e hicieron parar el coche. Un oficial, con un acento norte\u00f1o ingl\u00e9s muy marcado, nos orden\u00f3 poner las manos sobre la cabeza y nos pidi\u00f3 que nos qued\u00e1ramos delante de una tapia.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2013\u00bfQu\u00e9 llevan en el maletero del coche? \u2013pregunt\u00f3.\u00a0<\/p><p>La respuesta fue equipaje caro, en la forma de nuestro bajista, Adam Clayton, que hab\u00eda estado brindado con los peatones cada vez que se abr\u00eda el maletero del coche... Sin darse cuenta de que en Belfast un maletero abierto puede ser el escondite utilizado por un francotirador, no un karaoke.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como no aprendimos la lecci\u00f3n, esa noche nos alojamos en Belfast, en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.elmundo.es\/cultura\/literatura\/2020\/12\/05\/5fca806921efa0717f8b4613.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el hotel Europa, que ten\u00eda fama de ser el hotel que m\u00e1s atentados hab\u00eda sufrido de Europa<\/a><\/span>: treinta y tres veces. Todav\u00eda \u00e9ramos adolescentes, por lo que est\u00e1bamos emocionad\u00edsimos de estar en un hotel de verdad, uno cualquiera.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Paul_McGuinness\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Paul McGuinness<\/a><\/span> estaba en el bar cuando cogimos sus llaves en recepci\u00f3n, subimos a su habitaci\u00f3n y la desmantelamos. Envolvimos el televisor con las s\u00e1banas, pusimos los muebles patas arriba y escribimos un mensaje con espuma de afeitar en el espejo del ba\u00f1o: \u00abSabemos d\u00f3nde aparcas el coche\u00bb. Supongo que cre\u00edmos que a Paul le har\u00eda gracia, y, si no, seguro que apreciar\u00eda que sus clientes imitasen sofisticadamente las bromas de las estrellas de rock en habitaciones de hotel. Nunca lo sabr\u00edamos. Media hora despu\u00e9s, cuando hab\u00edamos devuelto la llave a recepci\u00f3n e intent\u00e1bamos disimular la risa, fuimos con \u00e9l al bar y vimos que un completo desconocido llegaba y ped\u00eda esa llave. Habitaci\u00f3n incorrecta. Nuestras m\u00e1s sinceras disculpas a quien fuese.\u00a0<\/p><p>Si vas a bromear sobre asuntos serios, lo menos que puedes hacer es tener el <em>punchline<\/em> adecuado.\u00a0<br \/><br \/><\/p><p>***<\/p><p>\u00abTransigir\u00bb es seguramente una de las palabras m\u00e1s infravaloradas del diccionario. 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1997, Tony Blair y Bertie Ahern fueron elegidos para ocupar los m\u00e1s altos cargos del Reino Unido y de la Rep\u00fablica de Irlanda e intuyeron que ten\u00edan el mandato de sus respectivos electores de intentar conseguir una paz duradera en Irlanda. El senador George Mitchell, que era el enviado especial del presidente Clinton, se convirti\u00f3 en el encargado de presidir las negociaciones de paz que vinieron despu\u00e9s. Participaron ocho partidos pol\u00edticos diferentes de Irlanda del Norte, tres de ellos ligados a grupos paramilitares (dos unionistas, uno republicano); los dos partidos principales eran el Partido Unionista del \u00dalster (UUP), liderado por David Trimble, y el Partido Socialdem\u00f3crata y Laborista (SDLP), con John Hume a la cabeza. David Trimble arriesg\u00f3 su reputaci\u00f3n entre la comunidad protestante m\u00e1s tradicional que hab\u00eda jurado no negociar jam\u00e1s con terroristas. Hume vivi\u00f3 por la \u00abno violencia\u00bb y, en unas cuantas ocasiones, estuvo a punto de morir por esos principios tan elevados.\u00a0<\/p><p>Muchas caras desconocidas merecen reconocimiento por su compromiso, pero desde el punto de vista de U2, John Hume fue el Martin Luther King de los Troubles. Hume tambi\u00e9n ide\u00f3 la cooperativa de cr\u00e9dito en Derry, que ayud\u00f3 a los cat\u00f3licos con la vivienda en Irlanda del Norte, todo un desaf\u00edo, ya que hasta 1969 solo los propietarios pod\u00edan votar en las elecciones locales. En agosto de 2020, cuando falleci\u00f3, escrib\u00ed un micropaneg\u00edrico para el oficio religioso en la catedral de St. Eugene en Derry:<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bk8q7rs\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Busc\u00e1bamos un gigante y encontramos a un hombre que hizo que nuestra vida fuese m\u00e1s grande.\u00a0<\/p><p>Busc\u00e1bamos superpoderes y encontramos claridad de ideas, bondad e insistencia.<\/p><p>Busc\u00e1bamos una revoluci\u00f3n y la encontramos en las salas de la parroquia con t\u00e9, galletas y reuniones a \u00faltima hora de la noche bajo los tubos fluorescentes.\u00a0<\/p><p>Busc\u00e1bamos un negociador que entendiera que nadie gana, a no ser que todos ganen y pierdan algo y que la paz es la \u00fanica victoria.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o2iawi2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Uno podr\u00eda pensar que habr\u00eda un apoyo masivo a un acuerdo de paz por parte de gente de a pie que solo quer\u00eda vivir su vida libre del apartheid religioso que se estableci\u00f3 en Irlanda. Pero la amargura puede ser dif\u00edcil de escupir, as\u00ed que cuando tuvo lugar el refer\u00e9ndum de 1998, el voto estaba muy re\u00f1ido. Se hizo famoso un cartel en el ayuntamiento de Belfast, en manos unionistas: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/innateireland\/3337979064\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abBelfast dice no\u00bb<\/a><\/span>. (En Navidad tuvieron el detalle de a\u00f1adir una E y una L: \u00abBelfast dice Noel\u00bb). No era gracioso, pero s\u00ed lo era. Como el voto joven no se ve\u00eda claro, tres d\u00edas antes nos pidieron a U2 que actu\u00e1semos en el Concierto por el S\u00ed, junto con la banda de Downpatrick Ash. Est\u00e1bamos encantados, pero solo accedimos con la condici\u00f3n de que los l\u00edderes de los partidos opositores subieran al escenario y se diesen la mano. Y otra cosa (que sonaba a\u00fan m\u00e1s improbable): que ni el l\u00edder del UUP, David Trimble, ni el del SDLP, John Hume, hiciesen ninguna declaraci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Pedirle a un pol\u00edtico que re\u00fana a una multitud y no diga nada era como pedirle a un c\u00f3mico que suba al escenario y no cuente un chiste. Los dos se quedaron perplejos. Nos pareci\u00f3 que el simbolismo ir\u00eda m\u00e1s all\u00e1 que las palabras y adem\u00e1s les avisamos de que cualquier pol\u00edtico que hable en un concierto de rock se arriesga a que lo abucheen. Eso ser\u00eda inc\u00f3modo, as\u00ed que los dos hombres aceptaron subir, uno por la izquierda y otro por la derecha, y en un momento que explica por qu\u00e9 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/diario\/1998\/12\/11\/internacional\/913330811_850215.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">John Hume y David Trumble ganaron despu\u00e9s el Nobel de la Paz<\/a><\/span>, se estrecharon la mano unos tres segundos. Cuando me adelant\u00e9 para alzar sus manos en el aire, ignoraban que estaban copiando el lenguaje visual de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com\/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQpFHFjYanVXOGFCaXW_x9th_SzhImIe03FHSbBD7d8MQ&s\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una fotograf\u00eda de Bob Marley de 1978<\/a><\/span>, tomada cuando dos pol\u00edticos rivales \u2013Manley y Seaga\u2013 subieron juntos al escenario en Kingston, Jamaica, por el miedo a la violencia que envolv\u00eda a aquella isla. De nuevo, la fotograf\u00eda cristaliz\u00f3 algo, una imagen mucho m\u00e1s poderosa que mil palabras.\u00a0<\/p><p>Faltaba un largo camino por recorrer hasta la paz duradera, pero el 22 de mayo de 1998 el \u00dalster dijo s\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>El d\u00eda siguiente a la votaci\u00f3n, Irlanda comenz\u00f3 el lento desmantelamiento de los prejuicios contra las siglas \u2013UDA, UVF, IRA\u2013 alej\u00e1ndose de la violencia, mientras los paramilitares promet\u00edan cambiar el fusil ArmaLite por las urnas. Esto todav\u00eda contin\u00faa.<\/p><p>En el bando unionista, David Ervine desempe\u00f1\u00f3 un papel significativo. Gerry Adams, por m\u00e1s que rechazara su participaci\u00f3n en la \u00ablucha armada\u00bb, tambi\u00e9n merece parte del m\u00e9rito. 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salir de un acto en Nueva York en 2008, not\u00e9 una presencia a mi espalda y, al volverme, me encontr\u00e9 con Gerry Adams. Hac\u00eda una temporada que \u00e9l no estaba muy bien de salud, as\u00ed que le pregunt\u00e9 qu\u00e9 tal se encontraba y le dije que le agradec\u00eda que, durante la campa\u00f1a para anular la deuda de los pa\u00edses pobres hubiese hecho una discreta visita a las oficinas del Jubileo 2000 \/ Anulad la Deuda en Londres. Cuando me tendi\u00f3 la mano, se la estrech\u00e9. No creo que fuese m\u00e1s duro para \u00e9l que para m\u00ed. Apreci\u00e9 el gesto.\u00a0<\/p><p>Mirando hacia atr\u00e1s, de no haber sido por el insomnio y las discusiones a medianoche del presidente Clinton con las distintas partes en conflicto, o por la meticulosidad de su caballero andante George Mitchell, no estoy seguro de que se hubiese alcanzado la paz en Irlanda. Creo lo mismo de Bertie Ahern y del primer ministro del Reino Unido, Tony Blair, que pasaron incontables horas hablando y hablando, en lugar de luchando y luchando.\u00a0<\/p><p>Clinton y Blair tambi\u00e9n empezaron la transformaci\u00f3n \u2013a\u00fan incompleta\u2013 de las relaciones entre las antiguas potencias coloniales y el continente africano. A ambos los presionamos mucho para conseguir la anulaci\u00f3n de la deuda. Ning\u00fan jefe de Estado trabaj\u00f3 con m\u00e1s ah\u00ednco en ello que \u00e9l y su entonces ministro de Hacienda, Gordon Brown. Entre los dos duplicaron el presupuesto de ayuda al extranjero del Reino Unido. Eso puede parecer abstracto, pero morir por la picadura de un mosquito o por beber agua contaminada no lo es.<\/p><p>\u00a0En el tercer mandato del Gobierno de Tony Blair, disfrut\u00e9 de una cena tard\u00eda en el 10 de Downing Street. Siempre brome\u00e1bamos con la vida que podr\u00eda haber tenido si hubiese seguido siendo el cantante de la banda de rock Ugly Rumours. Ten\u00eda buena planta, presencia esc\u00e9nica y una voz mel\u00f3dica. Gordon Brown y \u00e9l eran tan prol\u00edficos que, medio en broma, yo los llamaba los\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/david-foenkinos-get-back-the-beatles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lennon y McCartney<\/a><\/span> del desarrollo internacional. Tony Blair no beb\u00eda, pero lo convenc\u00ed para abrir una botella y se bebi\u00f3 una copa y media. Yo deb\u00ed de beber dos copas y media. Tal vez \u00e9l perdiera la noci\u00f3n del tiempo \u2013desde luego, yo olvid\u00e9 que era el primer ministro de Gran Breta\u00f1a\u2013, pero, justo despu\u00e9s de medianoche, record\u00f3 que llegaba tarde a un compromiso importante. Hab\u00eda cierto p\u00e1nico y buen humor en su cara cuando pronunci\u00f3 una frase de uso tan com\u00fan que casi pas\u00e9 por alto su significado:<\/p><p>\u2013\u00bfTe importa si no te acompa\u00f1o a la salida?<\/p><p>Heme ah\u00ed, un irland\u00e9s, libre para deambular a mi antojo en la residencia privada del primer ministro brit\u00e1nico. Los cambios llegan de forma tan azarosa, pens\u00e9\u2026 antes de caer en la cuenta de que, en realidad, no sab\u00eda d\u00f3nde se hallaba la salida.<\/p><p>Al ir hacia las escaleras, me pierdo enseguida, soy un ni\u00f1o en unos grandes almacenes, entrando y saliendo de las habitaciones, encendiendo y apagando las luces. Caras conocidas me miran desde las paredes: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4807-winston-churchill\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Winston Churchill<\/a><\/span>, Margaret Thatcher, Harold Wilson.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y ah\u00ed est\u00e1, David Lloyd George, el primer ministro que hab\u00eda dividido nuestra isla en norte y sur bajo la amenaza de la guerra.<\/p><p>\u2013\u00a1Oiga!, \u00bfpuedo ayudarle?<\/p><p>Un adulto uniformado me encuentra y me acompa\u00f1a educadamente fuera del establecimiento.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4byxcvl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/patrick-radden-keefe-no-digas-nada-ira-irlanda-del-norte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Patrick Radden Keefe y el IRA: un regreso literario a los a\u00f1os de plomo en Irlanda del Norte<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lawrence-wright-la-torre-elevada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El verdadero legado de Al Qaeda<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/david-foenkinos-get-back-the-beatles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abGet Back\u00bb por Foenkinos: The Beatles, solos en la cima (y nosotros con ellos)<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/musica\/javier-limon-memorias-productor-musical\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Las memorias de Javier Lim\u00f3n: un universo de oro<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yhnd1xl\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Por  Bono

U2 en el año 1979. Crédito: Paul Slattery.

U2 en el año 1979. Crédito: Paul Slattery.

Una vez Edge nos llevó al otro lado de la frontera con el esbozo de una canción sobre los Troubles, la banda no dejó de animarme a internarme más y más en un terreno peligroso. Creo que tengo una especie de manía perversa cuando me dicen que no haga o diga algo. Es mucho más atractivo para mí. «Sunday Bloody Sunday» no era solo un asunto peliagudo en el sentido de sus evidentes peligros si eras un chico del sur. Era realmente peligroso en el sentido de que, al oírlo, algunas personas deseaban hacernos daño. Personas de ambos lados de la brecha sectaria. Para los irreflexivos unionistas era una traición. Para los irreflexivos nacionalistas y republicanos era una campaña de publicidad, capaz de despertar una sensación de indignación a propósito de esos veintiocho civiles desarmados a los que habían disparado cuando se manifestaban pacíficamente. 

La canción llegó después de la muerte por huelga de hambre de Bobby Sands el 5 de mayo de 1981. Sands era un alma poética que argumentaba con su vida que el IRA provisional estaba luchando en una guerra y que los combatientes encarcelados merecían el mismo estatus que cualquier prisionero de guerra, como el derecho a no tener que ir vestidos de presidiarios. No era una petición descabellada, pero quienes la apoyaban parecían olvidar que el IRA no respetaba la Convención de Ginebra. Ni ninguna otra.

Cuando sus protestas en la cárcel pasaron inadvertidas para la primera ministra británica, Margaret Thatcher, Sands llevó su huelga de hambre más allá. Se vistió solo con una manta y se negó a utilizar los aseos. Esta «protesta sucia», en la que los prisioneros pintaron con heces las paredes de las celdas, estuvo entre los momentos más angustiosos de la campaña del IRA para expulsar a los británicos de la isla de Irlanda

Estos paramilitares no tenían un apoyo mayoritario ni al norte ni al sur de la frontera. Ni siquiera entre la asediada minoría católica del Úlster, y, sin embargo, decidían quién vivía y quién moría en su lucha por reconfigurar el mapa de Irlanda. Aun así, el hecho de que Sands decidiera quitarse la vida a los veintisiete años, después de negarse a comer durante sesenta y seis días, provocó todo tipo de emociones encontradas, incluso a los nacionalistas comunes y corrientes como yo.

Fue más que una simple tragedia. Fue también una muerte que se convirtió en la herramienta más poderosa para recaudar fondos en la historia del IRA, sobre todo en Estados Unidos, donde la banda se sentía obligada a combatir cualquier idea novelesca sobre la lucha armada en nuestro país. En nuestros conciertos y entrevistas, ofrecíamos un relato alternativo sobre la no violencia, en un intento de reducir los ingresos del IRA, sabiendo que este pondría armas y bombas en manos de combatientes que mutilarían y matarían con el fin de instaurar su propia idea de Irlanda. Unos combatientes a los que nadie había elegido y que decidían si un bar de Belfast o de Mánchester era un «objetivo legítimo». O si podían hacer saltar en pedazos y sin previo aviso un desfile de jubilados y veteranos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Un ejercicio de autorreflexión honesta

Sin duda, después de cada nueva atrocidad, en las comunidades más republicanas, la gente se retorcía las manos por la «lamentable pérdida de vidas». Durante una semana o dos… hasta que se aplacaba el furor y volvían a hacer oídos sordos y a aclamar entre gruñidos a «nuestros muchachos». Esta duplicidad enfurecía a la gente al norte y al sur de la frontera. A mí me enfurecía, y eso ayuda a explicar mi desabrida introducción a «Sunday Bloody Sunday» en un concierto en Red Rocks, Colorado, una noche en la que tuvimos mucho más público de lo normal porque se estaba grabando para la televisión del Reino Unido.

Mientras Edge tocaba sus quejumbrosos arpegios bajo la lluvia y Larry hacía su redoble, yo solté: «¡Esta no es una canción rebelde!» con todo el convencimiento que pude reunir. 

La brevedad compensó la falta de elocuencia. Parecía el momento oportuno para proclamar que no estábamos dispuestos a que nuestra canción se utilizase para prolongar el sufrimiento de gente inocente como la que había perdido la vida o a sus allegados ese oscuro día de enero.

Estos paramilitares no tenían un apoyo mayoritario ni al norte ni al sur de la frontera. Ni siquiera entre la asediada minoría católica del Úlster, y, sin embargo, decidían quién vivía y quién moría en su lucha por reconfigurar el mapa de Irlanda.

Esa versión nos llevó a lo alto de las listas de discos más vendidos con el LP en directo Under a Blood Red Sky y también a lo alto de la lista negra de los simpatizantes republicanos. Las cosas en casa ya no volverían a ser iguales para nosotros.

La banda nunca subrayó su condición de irlandesa. A mí cada vez me frustraba más cómo lo irlandés parecía haber sido secuestrado por el movimiento republicano, un movimiento que creía en la restauración a la fuerza de un país único en la isla de Irlanda. Un movimiento que empezaba a apropiarse de generaciones de anteriores agitadores y luchadores por la independencia, así como del legado de poesía, canciones populares y folklore cuyos autores no habrían querido tener nada que ver con esos pistoleros. Para mí, ser irlandés no tenía nada que ver con ser protestante o católico. Algunos de los mayores revolucionarios contra el dominio británico eran protestantes irlandeses, desde Wolfe Tone hasta Maud Gonne o Roger Casement. Mi padre era católico, pero él tampoco se tragaba la retórica de esos supuestos luchadores por la libertad.

–Yo soy católico –me decía–. Y te aseguro que la división de nuestra pequeña isla tuvo mucho más que ver con mantener Harland & Wolff en la unión que con proteger a los protestantes. Querían conservar los astilleros y el lino. El sur solo aceptó la frontera bajo la amenaza de la guerra que hizo Lloyd George, pero, a pesar de todas las injusticias, estos pistoleros no representan una mayoría en ningún sitio en esta isla, ni al sur ni al norte de la frontera. 

»No hagas caso de sus tópicos –añadía, antes de recitar uno de sus versos heroicos de Seán O'Casey (solo que no era de Seán O'Casey, se lo había inventado)–: «¿Qué es Irlanda más que la tierra que impide que se me mojen los pies?».

Además, él mismo se había casado con una mujer de «otra comunidad». Decía medio en serio que todos los países eran mentira –«son historias que nos contamos unos a otros»– y se mostraba suspicaz con respecto a quién controlaba el relato. 

Dicho esto, le impresionó verme en el escenario en las Montañas Rocosas haciendo una performance en la que rasgaba la bandera irlandesa. A menudo me lanzaban banderas irlandesas en los conciertos, y a veces les arrancaba el naranja y el verde y la convertía en una bandera blanca en un intento de apoyar la no violencia. Más tarde empecé a recalcar que la bandera blanca era una imagen de rendición espiritual, pero, por ahora, nos permitíamos una especie de pacifismo militante.

A menudo me lanzaban banderas irlandesas en los conciertos, y a veces les arrancaba el naranja y el verde y la convertía en una bandera blanca en un intento de apoyar la no violencia.

Todas estas explicaciones no siempre eran populares en Irlanda, y cada vez más gente ponía en cuestión nuestro patriotismo. Algunos tardaron en darse cuenta. Dos años después, en un concierto en Croke Park, en el Unforgettable Fire Tour, en 1985, volví a hacer lo de cortar la bandera y a una parte del público no le gustó. Después de la actuación, el coche en el que íbamos Ali (Alison Hewson, esposa de Bono desde 1982) y yo se quedó atascado en una callejuela de Dublín y estalló una violenta pelea a nuestro alrededor; enseguida empezaron los golpes en la parte de arriba del coche y los gritos en apoyo de los violentos. Un joven desencajado, con el puño envuelto en una bandera tricolor, intentó romper el parabrisas al lado del rostro de Ali. Lo que se rompió fue otra cosa. Éramos peces en una pecera y las pirañas al otro lado del cristal habían sido fans de U2 solo unas horas antes. A finales de los años ochenta las cosas estaban cambiando para U2 en Irlanda. Por un tiempo había sido como si fuésemos el equipo nacional que volvía a casa con la copa. Todavía éramos los héroes locales, pero los ánimos habían cambiado un poco. En el mundo fuera de U2, los años ochenta se percibía como una lucha por el alma y el tamaño del país. La frontera se fue interiorizando cada vez más, la isla se volvió más tribal. Ni la mezcla de orígenes sociales ni nuestras teologías individuales encajaban con facilidad en ninguna de las tribus.

En una entrevista en Hot Press, Gerry Adams, el líder del Sinn Féin, tuvo el valor y la ingenuidad moral de cuestionar la lucha armada que él y su partido habían apoyado, cuando no dirigido. En el mismo artículo eligió el aromático verbo «apestar» para describirme. Como juicio sobre mi higiene personal, ya se sabe que quien bien te quiere te hará sufrir, pero, como insulto, envió una tácita señal a los republicanos más empedernidos de que yo era, y no hay otra palabra para decirlo, un mierda. Para los que ya estaban cabreados porque la oposición de U2 a los paramilitares (de todo tipo) había costado al IRA financiación muy valiosa en Estados Unidos, esto era una señal polémica para sus simpatizantes en aumento, algunos en los medios, para expulsar a U2 de su elevada posición nacional. Sobre todo al cantante. 

En la práctica, nos habían aconsejado que aumentásemos nuestra seguridad después de que secuestraran a un dentista adinerado, al que habían cortado la punta de dos dedos y las habían enviado para pedir el rescate. Cuando la Special Branch vino a vernos, sin embargo, predijo que Ali era un objetivo más probable. Eso aún me molesta por todo tipo de razones.

La profunda esperanza de la banda es que algún día Irlanda vuelva a ser, por medios pacíficos y democráticos, una Irlanda unida. Irónicamente, pensamos que el mayor obstáculo es el modo en que los paramilitares usan las ofensas como armas.

U2. Crédito: Paul Slattery.

Crédito: Paul Slattery.

***

Me encanta ir a Irlanda del Norte. Para la banda, uno de los puntos culminantes de cualquier gira es el concierto que damos en Belfast. Nos encanta Irlanda del Norte, por su humor patibulario. No será por falta de cadalsos, eso seguro. 

Después de hacer de teloneros para Squeeze en 1979, nos invitaron a una fiesta después del concierto, todo muy alegre, hasta que unos soldados británicos nos rodearon e hicieron parar el coche. Un oficial, con un acento norteño inglés muy marcado, nos ordenó poner las manos sobre la cabeza y nos pidió que nos quedáramos delante de una tapia. 

–¿Qué llevan en el maletero del coche? –preguntó. 

La respuesta fue equipaje caro, en la forma de nuestro bajista, Adam Clayton, que había estado brindado con los peatones cada vez que se abría el maletero del coche... Sin darse cuenta de que en Belfast un maletero abierto puede ser el escondite utilizado por un francotirador, no un karaoke. 

Como no aprendimos la lección, esa noche nos alojamos en Belfast, en el hotel Europa, que tenía fama de ser el hotel que más atentados había sufrido de Europa: treinta y tres veces. Todavía éramos adolescentes, por lo que estábamos emocionadísimos de estar en un hotel de verdad, uno cualquiera. Paul McGuinness estaba en el bar cuando cogimos sus llaves en recepción, subimos a su habitación y la desmantelamos. Envolvimos el televisor con las sábanas, pusimos los muebles patas arriba y escribimos un mensaje con espuma de afeitar en el espejo del baño: «Sabemos dónde aparcas el coche». Supongo que creímos que a Paul le haría gracia, y, si no, seguro que apreciaría que sus clientes imitasen sofisticadamente las bromas de las estrellas de rock en habitaciones de hotel. Nunca lo sabríamos. Media hora después, cuando habíamos devuelto la llave a recepción e intentábamos disimular la risa, fuimos con él al bar y vimos que un completo desconocido llegaba y pedía esa llave. Habitación incorrecta. Nuestras más sinceras disculpas a quien fuese. 

Si vas a bromear sobre asuntos serios, lo menos que puedes hacer es tener el punchline adecuado. 

***

«Transigir» es seguramente una de las palabras más infravaloradas del diccionario. Si la esencia del Acuerdo de Viernes Santo en 1998 fue la igualdad del sufrimiento, solo fue posible porque, mucho antes, se convenció a los extremistas de ambos bandos de que considerasen la posibilidad de transigir. En el Acuerdo de Viernes Santo todos ganaron porque nadie perdió. 

Hay grandes palabras de la lengua inglesa que son muy aburridas, y algunas de las más románticas pueden ser de las más inútiles. La palabra «paz», por ejemplo, carece de sentido sin un contexto.

u2. Crédito: Patrick Brocklebank.

Crédito: Patrick Brocklebank.

***

En 1997, Tony Blair y Bertie Ahern fueron elegidos para ocupar los más altos cargos del Reino Unido y de la República de Irlanda e intuyeron que tenían el mandato de sus respectivos electores de intentar conseguir una paz duradera en Irlanda. El senador George Mitchell, que era el enviado especial del presidente Clinton, se convirtió en el encargado de presidir las negociaciones de paz que vinieron después. Participaron ocho partidos políticos diferentes de Irlanda del Norte, tres de ellos ligados a grupos paramilitares (dos unionistas, uno republicano); los dos partidos principales eran el Partido Unionista del Úlster (UUP), liderado por David Trimble, y el Partido Socialdemócrata y Laborista (SDLP), con John Hume a la cabeza. David Trimble arriesgó su reputación entre la comunidad protestante más tradicional que había jurado no negociar jamás con terroristas. Hume vivió por la «no violencia» y, en unas cuantas ocasiones, estuvo a punto de morir por esos principios tan elevados. 

Muchas caras desconocidas merecen reconocimiento por su compromiso, pero desde el punto de vista de U2, John Hume fue el Martin Luther King de los Troubles. Hume también ideó la cooperativa de crédito en Derry, que ayudó a los católicos con la vivienda en Irlanda del Norte, todo un desafío, ya que hasta 1969 solo los propietarios podían votar en las elecciones locales. En agosto de 2020, cuando falleció, escribí un micropanegírico para el oficio religioso en la catedral de St. Eugene en Derry:

Buscábamos un gigante y encontramos a un hombre que hizo que nuestra vida fuese más grande. 

Buscábamos superpoderes y encontramos claridad de ideas, bondad e insistencia.

Buscábamos una revolución y la encontramos en las salas de la parroquia con té, galletas y reuniones a última hora de la noche bajo los tubos fluorescentes. 

Buscábamos un negociador que entendiera que nadie gana, a no ser que todos ganen y pierdan algo y que la paz es la única victoria.

Uno podría pensar que habría un apoyo masivo a un acuerdo de paz por parte de gente de a pie que solo quería vivir su vida libre del apartheid religioso que se estableció en Irlanda. Pero la amargura puede ser difícil de escupir, así que cuando tuvo lugar el referéndum de 1998, el voto estaba muy reñido. Se hizo famoso un cartel en el ayuntamiento de Belfast, en manos unionistas: «Belfast dice no». (En Navidad tuvieron el detalle de añadir una E y una L: «Belfast dice Noel»). No era gracioso, pero sí lo era. Como el voto joven no se veía claro, tres días antes nos pidieron a U2 que actuásemos en el Concierto por el Sí, junto con la banda de Downpatrick Ash. Estábamos encantados, pero solo accedimos con la condición de que los líderes de los partidos opositores subieran al escenario y se diesen la mano. Y otra cosa (que sonaba aún más improbable): que ni el líder del UUP, David Trimble, ni el del SDLP, John Hume, hiciesen ninguna declaración.

Pedirle a un político que reúna a una multitud y no diga nada era como pedirle a un cómico que suba al escenario y no cuente un chiste. Los dos se quedaron perplejos. Nos pareció que el simbolismo iría más allá que las palabras y además les avisamos de que cualquier político que hable en un concierto de rock se arriesga a que lo abucheen. Eso sería incómodo, así que los dos hombres aceptaron subir, uno por la izquierda y otro por la derecha, y en un momento que explica por qué John Hume y David Trumble ganaron después el Nobel de la Paz, se estrecharon la mano unos tres segundos. Cuando me adelanté para alzar sus manos en el aire, ignoraban que estaban copiando el lenguaje visual de una fotografía de Bob Marley de 1978, tomada cuando dos políticos rivales –Manley y Seaga– subieron juntos al escenario en Kingston, Jamaica, por el miedo a la violencia que envolvía a aquella isla. De nuevo, la fotografía cristalizó algo, una imagen mucho más poderosa que mil palabras. 

Faltaba un largo camino por recorrer hasta la paz duradera, pero el 22 de mayo de 1998 el Úlster dijo sí. 

El día siguiente a la votación, Irlanda comenzó el lento desmantelamiento de los prejuicios contra las siglas –UDA, UVF, IRA– alejándose de la violencia, mientras los paramilitares prometían cambiar el fusil ArmaLite por las urnas. Esto todavía continúa.

En el bando unionista, David Ervine desempeñó un papel significativo. Gerry Adams, por más que rechazara su participación en la «lucha armada», también merece parte del mérito. Hace falta mucho valor para cambiar de rumbo cuando el coste del camino anterior ha sido tan alto. 

Martin McGuinness abandonó los focos paramilitares y pasó a la luz del día de la realpolitik. Reconoció haber pertenecido a la dirección del IRA y, cuando él también cambió de rumbo, cambió el curso de la historia… hasta que se convirtió en uno de los dos Chuckle Brothers («Hermanos Risitas») cuando se conoció su amistad con su anterior archienemigo: el pastor protestante Ian Paisley. 

U2 en el puente del Medio Penique (Ha'penny Bridge) de Dubín. Crédito: Paul Slattery.

U2 en el puente del Medio Penique (Ha'penny Bridge) de Dubín. Crédito: Paul Slattery.

Al salir de un acto en Nueva York en 2008, noté una presencia a mi espalda y, al volverme, me encontré con Gerry Adams. Hacía una temporada que él no estaba muy bien de salud, así que le pregunté qué tal se encontraba y le dije que le agradecía que, durante la campaña para anular la deuda de los países pobres hubiese hecho una discreta visita a las oficinas del Jubileo 2000 / Anulad la Deuda en Londres. Cuando me tendió la mano, se la estreché. No creo que fuese más duro para él que para mí. Aprecié el gesto. 

Mirando hacia atrás, de no haber sido por el insomnio y las discusiones a medianoche del presidente Clinton con las distintas partes en conflicto, o por la meticulosidad de su caballero andante George Mitchell, no estoy seguro de que se hubiese alcanzado la paz en Irlanda. Creo lo mismo de Bertie Ahern y del primer ministro del Reino Unido, Tony Blair, que pasaron incontables horas hablando y hablando, en lugar de luchando y luchando. 

Clinton y Blair también empezaron la transformación –aún incompleta– de las relaciones entre las antiguas potencias coloniales y el continente africano. A ambos los presionamos mucho para conseguir la anulación de la deuda. Ningún jefe de Estado trabajó con más ahínco en ello que él y su entonces ministro de Hacienda, Gordon Brown. Entre los dos duplicaron el presupuesto de ayuda al extranjero del Reino Unido. Eso puede parecer abstracto, pero morir por la picadura de un mosquito o por beber agua contaminada no lo es.

 En el tercer mandato del Gobierno de Tony Blair, disfruté de una cena tardía en el 10 de Downing Street. Siempre bromeábamos con la vida que podría haber tenido si hubiese seguido siendo el cantante de la banda de rock Ugly Rumours. Tenía buena planta, presencia escénica y una voz melódica. Gordon Brown y él eran tan prolíficos que, medio en broma, yo los llamaba los Lennon y McCartney del desarrollo internacional. Tony Blair no bebía, pero lo convencí para abrir una botella y se bebió una copa y media. Yo debí de beber dos copas y media. Tal vez él perdiera la noción del tiempo –desde luego, yo olvidé que era el primer ministro de Gran Bretaña–, pero, justo después de medianoche, recordó que llegaba tarde a un compromiso importante. Había cierto pánico y buen humor en su cara cuando pronunció una frase de uso tan común que casi pasé por alto su significado:

–¿Te importa si no te acompaño a la salida?

Heme ahí, un irlandés, libre para deambular a mi antojo en la residencia privada del primer ministro británico. Los cambios llegan de forma tan azarosa, pensé… antes de caer en la cuenta de que, en realidad, no sabía dónde se hallaba la salida.

Al ir hacia las escaleras, me pierdo enseguida, soy un niño en unos grandes almacenes, entrando y saliendo de las habitaciones, encendiendo y apagando las luces. Caras conocidas me miran desde las paredes: Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Harold Wilson. 

Y ahí está, David Lloyd George, el primer ministro que había dividido nuestra isla en norte y sur bajo la amenaza de la guerra.

–¡Oiga!, ¿puedo ayudarle?

Un adulto uniformado me encuentra y me acompaña educadamente fuera del establecimiento.

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