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¿Puede volver el fascismo?

Tras el tremendo éxito de «M. El hijo del siglo», Antonio Scurati regresa con «M. El hombre de la providencia» para consolidar su proyecto literario sobre el ascenso de Mussolini al poder. Visto el contexto sociocultural actual, las lecturas sobre el presente se vuelven insoslayables. Por eso, el politólogo Pablo Simón recoge el guante, aborda la gran pregunta de la democracia actual (¿puede realmente volver el fascismo hoy?) y busca la respuesta en todo eso que la saga de Scurati explicita (y en lo que no). 

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Por eso, el polit\u00f3logo Pablo Sim\u00f3n recoge el guante, aborda la gran pregunta de la democracia actual (\u00bfpuede realmente volver el fascismo hoy?) y busca la respuesta en todo eso que la saga de Scurati explicita (y en lo que 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9033-pablo-simon\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">PABLO SIM\u00d3N<\/a><\/span><br \/><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/104505-federico-kukso\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br \/><br 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Europa, la familia pol\u00edtica autoritaria viene abri\u00e9ndose paso en las instituciones al menos desde los a\u00f1os noventa.<\/strong> Tanto ha sido as\u00ed que hoy en d\u00eda solo en Irlanda y Malta no hay un partido de extrema derecha en el parlamento. Incluso en algunos pa\u00edses, como la misma Italia, no es solo que exista la Lega de Mateo Salvini, sino que hasta tiene que rivalizar con un segundo partido que le disputa la hegemon\u00eda, Fratelli d'Italia, cada vez m\u00e1s fuerte en los sondeos. En Espa\u00f1a, los debates sobre la nueva extrema derecha son recientes: al fin y al cabo, el pa\u00eds tuvo su propia dictadura de cuarenta a\u00f1os, quedando al margen de la lucha antifascista del resto del continente y <strong>haciendo que nuestra intelectualidad haya estado m\u00e1s centrada en la Guerra Civil y el franquismo que en este fen\u00f3meno.<\/strong> Adem\u00e1s, solo recientemente un partido de derecha populista radical ha conseguido representaci\u00f3n institucional en el Congreso.\u00a0<\/p><p><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Ante este panorama, es inevitable echar la mirada atr\u00e1s<\/span>,<\/a>\u00a0hacia el periodo de entreguerras del siglo XX, para intentar buscar una gu\u00eda.<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4670-antonio-scurati\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">El ejercicio de Antonio Scurati<\/span>,<\/a> que es rigurosamente hist\u00f3rico, recalca esa inevitable l\u00ednea com\u00fan entre pasado y presente. 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quiz\u00e1 lo m\u00e1s interesante del trabajo de Scurati es manifestar impl\u00edcita y expl\u00edcitamente las diferencias:\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14530-m-el-hijo-del-siglo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la vanguardia del fascismo de Mussolini<\/a><\/span> plantea una toma del poder distinta al de los partidos de derecha radical en nuestro tiempo. 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Por el contrario, en el siglo XXI el camino m\u00e1s pl\u00e1cido hacia el autoritarismo se construye desde arriba, de una manera m\u00e1s indirecta y sibilina:<strong> primero se ganan elecciones y luego, desde el poder, se retuercen las reglas de juego.<\/strong> Y, aunque incluso as\u00ed sea inevitable ver semejanzas, hay una diferencia capital: la democracia hoy tiene un poder simb\u00f3lico imbatible.<br \/><br \/><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nnfxxl4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abTres de cada cuatro sistemas autoritarios del mundo celebran comicios de manera peri\u00f3dica. Un envoltorio que nos aleja del horizonte del fascismo, si bien con un elemento com\u00fan: con elecciones o sin ellas quien est\u00e1 en el poder nunca puede perderlo\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j3llzi8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A diferencia del siglo pasado, nadie plantea (abiertamente) la superaci\u00f3n de la democracia de manera nominal. Nadie plantea desbancar las urnas, nadie desnuda hoy su querencia por el estado totalitario. Desde la posguerra su pedigr\u00ed es imbatible. <strong>Lo que se hace es conservar el ritual electoral como el \u00fanico componente que le da significado.<\/strong> Se mantiene la ficci\u00f3n y la fachada de un sistema con libertades, pero este deviene en un autoritarismo electoral (un t\u00e9rmino preferible a \u00abdemocracia iliberal\u00bb). La dictadura se abre paso con una oposici\u00f3n acosada o encarcelada, una prensa atada en corto y una sociedad civil limitada. No en vano, <strong>tres de cada cuatro sistemas autoritarios del mundo celebran comicios de manera peri\u00f3dica.<\/strong> Un envoltorio que nos aleja del horizonte del fascismo, si bien con un elemento com\u00fan: con elecciones o sin ellas quien est\u00e1 en el poder nunca puede perderlo.\u00a0<br \/><br \/><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zypecux\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLa extrema derecha contempor\u00e1nea no tiene ansias expansionistas. No arrastran a los pa\u00edses a la guerra, sino que cierran a sus naciones sobre s\u00ed mismas. Por eso su enemigo es aquella apertura que tiende a pacificar las costumbres: la interdependencia, la Uni\u00f3n Europea, la globalizaci\u00f3n\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3zurpci\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En los momentos de desorientaci\u00f3n social, los cirujanos de hierro siempre encuentran una oportunidad favorable. La historia ya la sabemos: <strong>resentimiento, sensaci\u00f3n de progreso estancado, miedo ante la amenaza exterior.<\/strong> No son elementos que deban ser necesariamente reales, basta con que sean veros\u00edmiles en un momento dado para generar que la propuesta del l\u00edder providencial pueda ser exitosa y atraiga a las masas. De este modo, aunque los partidos de nueva extrema derecha fueran echando sus ra\u00edces durante la \u00faltima d\u00e9cada del siglo XX, tanto la Gran Recesi\u00f3n como\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/economia-politica-y-actualidad\/231525-las-fronteras-de-ulises-9788418006227\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la crisis de los refugiados<\/a><\/span> de 2015 les dieron un poderoso empuj\u00f3n. <strong>Todo, adem\u00e1s, en un entorno de normalizaci\u00f3n creciente.<\/strong> Cuando en el a\u00f1o 2000 el FP\u00d6 austriaco entr\u00f3 en el gobierno se suspendieron relaciones con dicho pa\u00eds. Ahora la familia de las extremas derechas est\u00e1 bien sujeta al 15 % de promedio de los votos y no pocos gobiernos en Europa dependen, han dependido o los integran como un socio m\u00e1s de coalici\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Es verdad que la extrema derecha contempor\u00e1nea no tiene ansias expansionistas. No arrastran a los pa\u00edses a la guerra, como el desatado colonialismo de Mussolini o la barbarie de los nazis, sino que cierran a sus naciones sobre s\u00ed mismas. <strong>Hoy predomina la pulsi\u00f3n reaccionaria de la autarqu\u00eda.<\/strong> Por eso su enemigo es aquella apertura que, en un conato de optimismo, dir\u00edamos que tiende a pacificar las costumbres: la interdependencia, la Uni\u00f3n Europea, la globalizaci\u00f3n. Se busca el retorno a las fronteras del soberano para tener un (supuesto) mando en la plaza. Obviamente dicho retorno tambi\u00e9n es en parte artificioso, pues <strong>las grandes fortunas y empresas no suelen estar inc\u00f3modas ante un discurso que, como el antiguo fascismo, solo es anticapitalista en apariencia<\/strong> y les deja seguir haciendo. Las fronteras solo se vuelven a levantar en torno a la cultura, la inmigraci\u00f3n\u2026 todo lo que permite sofocar las brasas de la libertad tras la pesada manta del nacionalismo.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Quiz\u00e1 por eso no tenga sentido pensar que el fascismo pueda volver en su antigua f\u00f3rmula.<\/strong> Es indudable que los movimientos de extrema derecha se miran de reojo, se financian y se imitan. Sin embargo, no est\u00e1n cohesionados ni pueden expandirse hoy <em>manu militari<\/em> como el fascismo del pasado. Ahora bien, all\u00ed donde ya est\u00e1n en el poder se vuelven inexpugnables e, incluso dentro de la Uni\u00f3n Europea,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">su predominio parece imposible de romper<\/span>.<\/a> Arrastran a los partidos convencionales a sus postulados, ganan la batalla de las ideas y se aprovechan de unas sociedades que ya no recuerdan lo resbaladizas que son algunas pendientes. Las formas del siglo XXI son diferentes a la del pasado,<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/235678-m-el-hombre-de-la-providencia-9788420456010\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> <\/a><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/235678-m-el-hombre-de-la-providencia-9788420456010\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">pero Scurati, en su libro<\/a><\/span>, nos vuelve a evocar el cl\u00e1sico aserto de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36592-cuentos-completos-9788491050520\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mark Twain<\/a><\/span> que dec\u00eda que la historia no se repite, pero, indudablemente, rima.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que\u00a0recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/barack-obama-ben-rhodes-una-tierra-prometida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Barack Obama por Ben Rhodes: el legado de un presidente en palabras de un testigo excepcional<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/juan-cruz-ruiz-ciudadano-polanco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La \u00faltima defensa de Jes\u00fas 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8 minutos

Un neonazi húngaro con un tatuaje del lema de las Waffen-SS («Mi honor se llama lealtad») asiste al día del Orgullo en la plaza de los Héroes de Budapest el 14 de febrero de 2009. Crédito: Getty Images.

En Europa, la familia política autoritaria viene abriéndose paso en las instituciones al menos desde los años noventa. Tanto ha sido así que hoy en día solo en Irlanda y Malta no hay un partido de extrema derecha en el parlamento. Incluso en algunos países, como la misma Italia, no es solo que exista la Lega de Mateo Salvini, sino que hasta tiene que rivalizar con un segundo partido que le disputa la hegemonía, Fratelli d'Italia, cada vez más fuerte en los sondeos. En España, los debates sobre la nueva extrema derecha son recientes: al fin y al cabo, el país tuvo su propia dictadura de cuarenta años, quedando al margen de la lucha antifascista del resto del continente y haciendo que nuestra intelectualidad haya estado más centrada en la Guerra Civil y el franquismo que en este fenómeno. Además, solo recientemente un partido de derecha populista radical ha conseguido representación institucional en el Congreso. 

Ante este panorama, es inevitable echar la mirada atrás, hacia el periodo de entreguerras del siglo XX, para intentar buscar una guía. El ejercicio de Antonio Scurati, que es rigurosamente histórico, recalca esa inevitable línea común entre pasado y presente. Y, de hecho, ver la concomitancia entre lo que fue el fascismo entonces y los partidos de derecha populista radical actuales es un ejercicio recomendable. El autoritarismo y el credo en la infalibilidad del líder, el nativismo (que combina el nacionalismo con la xenofobia) o el populismo como estrategia política (sea contra las decadentes élites nacionales o contra las conspiraciones internacionales) son atributos inevitablemente familiares.

Ahora, quizá lo más interesante del trabajo de Scurati es manifestar implícita y explícitamente las diferencias: la vanguardia del fascismo de Mussolini plantea una toma del poder distinta al de los partidos de derecha radical en nuestro tiempo. La marcha sobre Roma y la afirmación, mediante un acto de fuerza, del fin del parlamentarismo liberal burgués es más complicado que pueda producirse de manera equivalente en Europa. Por el contrario, en el siglo XXI el camino más plácido hacia el autoritarismo se construye desde arriba, de una manera más indirecta y sibilina: primero se ganan elecciones y luego, desde el poder, se retuercen las reglas de juego. Y, aunque incluso así sea inevitable ver semejanzas, hay una diferencia capital: la democracia hoy tiene un poder simbólico imbatible.

«Tres de cada cuatro sistemas autoritarios del mundo celebran comicios de manera periódica. Un envoltorio que nos aleja del horizonte del fascismo, si bien con un elemento común: con elecciones o sin ellas quien está en el poder nunca puede perderlo». 

A diferencia del siglo pasado, nadie plantea (abiertamente) la superación de la democracia de manera nominal. Nadie plantea desbancar las urnas, nadie desnuda hoy su querencia por el estado totalitario. Desde la posguerra su pedigrí es imbatible. Lo que se hace es conservar el ritual electoral como el único componente que le da significado. Se mantiene la ficción y la fachada de un sistema con libertades, pero este deviene en un autoritarismo electoral (un término preferible a «democracia iliberal»). La dictadura se abre paso con una oposición acosada o encarcelada, una prensa atada en corto y una sociedad civil limitada. No en vano, tres de cada cuatro sistemas autoritarios del mundo celebran comicios de manera periódica. Un envoltorio que nos aleja del horizonte del fascismo, si bien con un elemento común: con elecciones o sin ellas quien está en el poder nunca puede perderlo. 

«La extrema derecha contemporánea no tiene ansias expansionistas. No arrastran a los países a la guerra, sino que cierran a sus naciones sobre sí mismas. Por eso su enemigo es aquella apertura que tiende a pacificar las costumbres: la interdependencia, la Unión Europea, la globalización». 

En los momentos de desorientación social, los cirujanos de hierro siempre encuentran una oportunidad favorable. La historia ya la sabemos: resentimiento, sensación de progreso estancado, miedo ante la amenaza exterior. No son elementos que deban ser necesariamente reales, basta con que sean verosímiles en un momento dado para generar que la propuesta del líder providencial pueda ser exitosa y atraiga a las masas. De este modo, aunque los partidos de nueva extrema derecha fueran echando sus raíces durante la última década del siglo XX, tanto la Gran Recesión como la crisis de los refugiados de 2015 les dieron un poderoso empujón. Todo, además, en un entorno de normalización creciente. Cuando en el año 2000 el FPÖ austriaco entró en el gobierno se suspendieron relaciones con dicho país. Ahora la familia de las extremas derechas está bien sujeta al 15 % de promedio de los votos y no pocos gobiernos en Europa dependen, han dependido o los integran como un socio más de coalición.

Es verdad que la extrema derecha contemporánea no tiene ansias expansionistas. No arrastran a los países a la guerra, como el desatado colonialismo de Mussolini o la barbarie de los nazis, sino que cierran a sus naciones sobre sí mismas. Hoy predomina la pulsión reaccionaria de la autarquía. Por eso su enemigo es aquella apertura que, en un conato de optimismo, diríamos que tiende a pacificar las costumbres: la interdependencia, la Unión Europea, la globalización. Se busca el retorno a las fronteras del soberano para tener un (supuesto) mando en la plaza. Obviamente dicho retorno también es en parte artificioso, pues las grandes fortunas y empresas no suelen estar incómodas ante un discurso que, como el antiguo fascismo, solo es anticapitalista en apariencia y les deja seguir haciendo. Las fronteras solo se vuelven a levantar en torno a la cultura, la inmigración… todo lo que permite sofocar las brasas de la libertad tras la pesada manta del nacionalismo. 

Quizá por eso no tenga sentido pensar que el fascismo pueda volver en su antigua fórmula. Es indudable que los movimientos de extrema derecha se miran de reojo, se financian y se imitan. Sin embargo, no están cohesionados ni pueden expandirse hoy manu militari como el fascismo del pasado. Ahora bien, allí donde ya están en el poder se vuelven inexpugnables e, incluso dentro de la Unión Europea, su predominio parece imposible de romper. Arrastran a los partidos convencionales a sus postulados, ganan la batalla de las ideas y se aprovechan de unas sociedades que ya no recuerdan lo resbaladizas que son algunas pendientes. Las formas del siglo XXI son diferentes a la del pasado, pero Scurati, en su libro, nos vuelve a evocar el clásico aserto de Mark Twain que decía que la historia no se repite, pero, indudablemente, rima.



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