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Ai Weiwei: vivir en disidencia

Ai Weiwei es quizá la figura más célebre del arte contemporáneo internacional actual. En sus esculturas e instalaciones confluyen con potencia y lirismo el artista y el activista, sus convicciones políticas y su sensibilidad expresiva, la tradición china y los conflictos de la modernidad. Y en su vida, se trenza la arrolladora transformación de su país durante el último siglo. Su padre fue uno de los grandes poetas chinos del siglo XX, primero amigo de Mao Tse Tung y luego enviado junto a su familia a «la pequeña Siberia» a limpiar letrinas. Su infancia transcurrió en el exilio. Su formación en Estados Unidos lo hizo amigo de Allen Ginsberg y fue iluminado por la figura de Andy Warhol. Su obra recorrió los museos del mundo. Y en 2011, su tenebrosa detención secreta durante 81 días por parte del gobierno chino volvió su figura tan emblemática como su obra. Por eso, la publicación de sus memorias («1000 años de alegrías y penas», Debate) se volvieron todo un acontecimiento. Miguel Ángel Cajigal Vera (@elbarroquista) explica por qué sus páginas son un viaje extraordinario en el que la vida de Weiwei y la de su país se trenzan de manera tan fascinante como inescapable.

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En sus esculturas e instalaciones confluyen con potencia y lirismo el artista y el activista, sus convicciones pol\u00edticas y su sensibilidad expresiva, la tradici\u00f3n china y los conflictos de la modernidad. Y en su vida, se trenza la arrolladora transformaci\u00f3n de su pa\u00eds durante el \u00faltimo siglo. Su padre fue uno de los grandes poetas chinos del siglo XX, primero amigo de Mao Tse Tung y luego enviado junto a su familia a \u00abla peque\u00f1a Siberia\u00bb a limpiar letrinas. Su infancia transcurri\u00f3 en el exilio. Su formaci\u00f3n en Estados Unidos lo hizo amigo de Allen Ginsberg y fue iluminado por la figura de Andy Warhol. Su obra recorri\u00f3 los museos del mundo. Y en 2011, su tenebrosa detenci\u00f3n secreta durante 81 d\u00edas por parte del gobierno chino volvi\u00f3 su figura tan emblem\u00e1tica como su obra. Por eso, la publicaci\u00f3n de sus memorias (\u00ab1000 a\u00f1os de alegr\u00edas y penas\u00bb, Debate) se volvieron todo un acontecimiento. Miguel \u00c1ngel Cajigal Vera (@elbarroquista) explica por qu\u00e9 sus p\u00e1ginas son un viaje extraordinario en el que la vida de Weiwei y la de su pa\u00eds se trenzan de manera tan fascinante como inescapable.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"rszp8ep\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">1 de junio de 2017. Ai Weiwei posa delante de su obra \u00abIllumination\u00bb (de 2009) en el Museo de Israel de Jerusal\u00e9n durante la inauguraci\u00f3n de la muestra \u00abMaybe, Maybe Not\u00bb. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pofbju7\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/177070-ai-weiwei\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ai Weiwei es quiz\u00e1s la figura cultural china m\u00e1s reconocida en Occidente<\/a>. Sin embargo, de no haberse convertido en objetivo de la persecuci\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gica del gobierno de Pek\u00edn, con toda probabilidad su nombre ser\u00eda hoy tan desconocido en nuestro \u00e1mbito como el de la mayor parte de las figuras creadoras de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/economia-politica-y-actualidad\/18768-china\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">China<\/a>. Sus afiladas cr\u00edticas a la limitaci\u00f3n de las libertades en su pa\u00eds y al pobre cumplimiento de los derechos humanos por parte de su gobierno no solo le han se\u00f1alado como una personalidad inc\u00f3moda en su pa\u00eds, sino que le han dado a este artista una proyecci\u00f3n internacional desconocida para otras creadoras y creadores asi\u00e1ticos.<\/p><p>En la trayectoria de Ai Weiwei parece indudable que\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/diario\/2011\/04\/03\/economia\/1301781604_850215.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su detenci\u00f3n por parte de las autoridades chinas<\/a> en el aeropuerto de Pek\u00edn, el 3 de abril de 2011, marca un punto de inflexi\u00f3n a escala internacional. Acusado oficialmente por su gobierno de haber cometido delitos econ\u00f3micos, fue retenido durante ochenta y un d\u00edas sin cargo alguno, en una suerte de desaparici\u00f3n. Con posterioridad a esos hechos el mundo sabr\u00eda, por el testimonio del propio creador, que en esos casi tres meses fue sometido a diferentes formas de tortura psicol\u00f3gica, en una retenci\u00f3n que ten\u00eda m\u00e1s de castigo que de proceso judicial.<\/p><p>Incluso antes de que el artista pequin\u00e9s recuperase la libertad, la repercusi\u00f3n de su desaparici\u00f3n forzosa en todo el mundo fue extraordinaria. La noticia de su detenci\u00f3n, una clara muestra de persecuci\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gica en uno de los pa\u00edses que gobierna el planeta, sacudi\u00f3 el panorama art\u00edstico y salt\u00f3 a las primeras planas de los informativos. Medios de comunicaci\u00f3n, museos, galer\u00edas y artistas de todo el planeta, especialmente en el \u00e1mbito anglosaj\u00f3n, se hicieron eco de la situaci\u00f3n de privaci\u00f3n de libertad que estaba padeciendo. El impacto medi\u00e1tico de este suceso hay que entenderlo tambi\u00e9n como parte de las luchas de imagen habituales entre los pa\u00edses occidentales y\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/ciencia-ficcion\/275147-libro-el-sueno-chino-9788439737902\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el gigante asi\u00e1tico.<\/a><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"983p6nm\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/261245-libro-1000-anos-de-alegrias-y-penas-9788418056994\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La disidencia de Ai no era nueva.<\/a>\u00a0Hac\u00eda a\u00f1os que su mensaje y su trabajo se difund\u00edan por diferentes pa\u00edses y que se hab\u00eda convertido en una de las voces cr\u00edticas m\u00e1s escuchadas fuera de China. Su figura ten\u00eda una importante presencia en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Estados Unidos<\/a>, pa\u00eds en el que el artista vivi\u00f3 y estudi\u00f3 durante los ochenta, tejiendo una interesante red de contactos con artistas norteamericanos. Hoy muchos apuntan a que el grave incidente que sufri\u00f3 en 2011, junto a buena parte de sus colaboradores y familia, era un toque de atenci\u00f3n de Pek\u00edn: una forma de recordarle que, aunque en Occidente su reputaci\u00f3n le permitiese la denuncia de las sombras del r\u00e9gimen, no hab\u00eda nadie intocable dentro de China. Ni siquiera Ai Weiwei.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ti5z973\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Entenderemos mejor la magnitud de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/261245-libro-1000-anos-de-alegrias-y-penas-9788418056994\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>1.000 a\u00f1os de alegr\u00edas y penas<\/em><\/a> si tenemos en cuenta que en la cultura china el perfil de artista es mucho m\u00e1s libre que en Occidente y que, como hijo de esa tradici\u00f3n, Ai no solamente es un creador pl\u00e1stico, sino tambi\u00e9n un excelente narrador y un notable contador de historias. Esto le convierte en el notario perfecto para levantar testimonio de la realidad su pa\u00eds en el \u00faltimo siglo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mavjbj1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Su papel como figura inc\u00f3moda para el gobierno chino y su denuncia de la falta de libertades en su pa\u00eds es el germen del magn\u00edfico libro\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/261245-libro-1000-anos-de-alegrias-y-penas-9788418056994\\\"><em>1.000 a\u00f1os de alegr\u00edas y penas<\/em> (Debate).<\/a> Un libro de memorias que se convierte en un relato hist\u00f3rico completo de la China\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">comunista<\/a> a trav\u00e9s de los recuerdos y la mirada del artista. Entenderemos mejor la magnitud de este texto si tenemos en cuenta que en la cultura china el perfil de artista es mucho m\u00e1s libre que en Occidente y que, como hijo de esa tradici\u00f3n, Ai no solamente es un creador pl\u00e1stico, sino tambi\u00e9n un excelente narrador y un notable contador de historias. Esto le convierte en el notario perfecto para levantar testimonio de la realidad su pa\u00eds en el \u00faltimo siglo.<\/p><p>Esta es la raz\u00f3n de que no nos encontremos ante el t\u00edpico libro de memorias de artista. Por lo general, las autobiograf\u00edas art\u00edsticas acostumbran a ser libros donde las mentes creadoras trazan su relato, diseccionan su carrera y ofrecen aquellos detalles jugosos de su vida y obra con los que sintonizan mejor para justificar de alg\u00fan modo la orientaci\u00f3n que han dado a su trayectoria creativa. Pero este libro no tiene nada que ver con eso. Como narrador de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/172781-edad-contemporanea\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la historia contempor\u00e1nea<\/a> de su pa\u00eds, aqu\u00ed el artista acomete un relato que hunde sus ra\u00edces muchos a\u00f1os antes de su nacimiento y disecciona la evoluci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica, social y pol\u00edtica de China desde el nacimiento de su padre hasta el presente.<\/p><p>Porque, quiz\u00e1s, lo m\u00e1s interesante de la biograf\u00eda de Ai sea que la disidencia es una parte indisoluble de su identidad como ciudadano de China. Dicho de otra manera, resulta muy dif\u00edcil determinar en su vida d\u00f3nde acaba el artista y comienza el activista. As\u00ed, a trav\u00e9s de su fluida prosa (levemente occidentalizada), descubrimos que Ai Weiwei no podr\u00eda haber sido de otra forma, pues es hijo del ilustre poeta chino, y tambi\u00e9n perseguido disidente, Ai Qing. Con este giro de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/58-biografias?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIvv_QzaXe9QIVh49oCR1dhwcDEAAYASAAEgIlQfD_BwE\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la narraci\u00f3n biogr\u00e1fica<\/a>, el relato familiar trasciende y se convierte en narraci\u00f3n hist\u00f3rica.<\/p><p>\u00bfQui\u00e9n era Ai Qing? Los libros nos dicen que uno de los poetas m\u00e1s importantes de la lengua china contempor\u00e1nea. Un intelectual destacado que vivi\u00f3 en primera persona los momentos clave del siglo XX en su pa\u00eds: desde la Segunda Guerra con Jap\u00f3n -parte crucial de la Segunda Guerra Mundial que en Occidente desconocemos casi por completo, a pesar de ser uno de los escenarios donde m\u00e1s sangre y destrucci\u00f3n tuvo lugar- hasta la llegada al poder de Mao, con quien tuvo un estrecho contacto. Sospechoso de derechismo, como la mayor\u00eda de intelectuales del pa\u00eds, llegar\u00eda a ser purgado por el Partido Comunista de China en un exilio forzado en Manchuria y Xinjiang, durante el cual nacer\u00eda <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/177070-ai-weiwei\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el propio Weiwei<\/a>. As\u00ed se forja la disidencia en familia que recorre las p\u00e1ginas de estas memorias.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xf3m4su\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">20 de mayo de 2013. Ai Weiwei en una reproducci\u00f3n exacta de la celda donde fue detenido durante tres meses en 2011. Las paredes y los muebles est\u00e1n cubiertos de espuma para evitar que Weiwei se lastimase voluntariamente. Al artista, adem\u00e1s, s\u00f3lo se le permit\u00eda estar de pie o sentarse y usaba la cama exclusivamente para dormir. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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destacada de la Revoluci\u00f3n Cultural, el poeta y padre de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/175026-miguel-angel-cajigal-vera-el-barroquista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">nuestro artista<\/a> fue sometido a trabajos forzados, en un estado de desnutrici\u00f3n pr\u00e1cticamente constante mientras desempe\u00f1aba los trabajos m\u00e1s degradantes, como limpiar en solitario las letrinas de m\u00e1s de doscientas personas, mientras se le se\u00f1alaba diariamente en p\u00fablico como un peligroso derechista que pon\u00eda en peligro el orden establecido por Mao. Relator y notario de lo que ha visto y vivido en el seno de su propia familia, Weiwei transmite la experiencia de su padre desde las p\u00e1ginas de sus memorias y la superpone con la suya.<\/p><p>Durante su detenci\u00f3n de 2011, Ai Weiwei seguramente tom\u00f3 conciencia del paralelismo entre su trayectoria y la de su padre. Cambian las fechas, pero no la necesidad de sentirse libres ni los problemas que esa libertad les supuso a ambos en una sociedad como la china, acostumbrada a las directrices y a penalizar a quienes se las saltan. Una historia familiar unida en la voluntad de dos personas, padre e hijo, de ser independientes en su creaci\u00f3n, ya sea literaria o art\u00edstica. \u00bfA qui\u00e9n se debe un artista? \u00bfA la sociedad o a sus ideas?\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfRepresenta el gobierno de un pa\u00eds a esa sociedad?<\/a><\/p><p>La soluci\u00f3n que ofrece el autor de estas memorias a ese dilema creativo, ejemplificada en su propia trayectoria p\u00fablica, reside en la b\u00fasqueda de un equilibrio. Un punto medio entre las dos voces que el artista lleva dentro. Ambos objetivos se superponen cuando las intenciones del artista residen en ser un reflejo de la sociedad. Hemos asimilado que una de las tareas del arte es su papel como altavoz o plataforma de comentario social, que en situaciones extremas se convierte en denuncia.<\/p><p>La obra art\u00edstica de Ai lleva d\u00e9cadas siendo el perfecto ejemplo de como una sola persona puede llevar a los \u00e1mbitos del arte las voces de millones. En su trabajo se ha reflejado, por ejemplo, la dura realidad de los refugiados, como en su impactante exposici\u00f3n en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/uy\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/teresa-arijon-la-mujer-pintada-matilde-sanchez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el Palazzo Strozzi de Florencia<\/a>, cuya refinada fachada renacentista cubri\u00f3 con los botes de goma en los que huyen y mueren miles de personas cada a\u00f1o. Tambi\u00e9n ha sido un escaparate para exponer la situaci\u00f3n de las personas perseguidas por motivos pol\u00edticos en todo el mundo, como en su instalaci\u00f3n en la prisi\u00f3n del Alcatraz, donde, a trav\u00e9s de m\u00e1s de un mill\u00f3n de piezas de Lego, puso cara y texto a la obra de disidentes que sufren persecuci\u00f3n en todos los pa\u00edses del planeta.<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sonriente y nuclear: Corea del Norte, la tierra del \u00faltimo l\u00edder comunista<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuando las puertas se abrieron: a 32 a\u00f1os de la ca\u00edda del muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lawrence-wright-la-torre-elevada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El verdadero legado de Al Qaeda<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jsm9p42\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

1 de junio de 2017. Ai Weiwei posa delante de su obra «Illumination» (de 2009) en el Museo de Israel de Jerusalén durante la inauguración de la muestra «Maybe, Maybe Not». Crédito: Getty Images.

Ai Weiwei es quizás la figura cultural china más reconocida en Occidente. Sin embargo, de no haberse convertido en objetivo de la persecución ideológica del gobierno de Pekín, con toda probabilidad su nombre sería hoy tan desconocido en nuestro ámbito como el de la mayor parte de las figuras creadoras de China. Sus afiladas críticas a la limitación de las libertades en su país y al pobre cumplimiento de los derechos humanos por parte de su gobierno no solo le han señalado como una personalidad incómoda en su país, sino que le han dado a este artista una proyección internacional desconocida para otras creadoras y creadores asiáticos.

En la trayectoria de Ai Weiwei parece indudable que su detención por parte de las autoridades chinas en el aeropuerto de Pekín, el 3 de abril de 2011, marca un punto de inflexión a escala internacional. Acusado oficialmente por su gobierno de haber cometido delitos económicos, fue retenido durante ochenta y un días sin cargo alguno, en una suerte de desaparición. Con posterioridad a esos hechos el mundo sabría, por el testimonio del propio creador, que en esos casi tres meses fue sometido a diferentes formas de tortura psicológica, en una retención que tenía más de castigo que de proceso judicial.

Incluso antes de que el artista pequinés recuperase la libertad, la repercusión de su desaparición forzosa en todo el mundo fue extraordinaria. La noticia de su detención, una clara muestra de persecución ideológica en uno de los países que gobierna el planeta, sacudió el panorama artístico y saltó a las primeras planas de los informativos. Medios de comunicación, museos, galerías y artistas de todo el planeta, especialmente en el ámbito anglosajón, se hicieron eco de la situación de privación de libertad que estaba padeciendo. El impacto mediático de este suceso hay que entenderlo también como parte de las luchas de imagen habituales entre los países occidentales y el gigante asiático.

La disidencia de Ai no era nueva. Hacía años que su mensaje y su trabajo se difundían por diferentes países y que se había convertido en una de las voces críticas más escuchadas fuera de China. Su figura tenía una importante presencia en Estados Unidos, país en el que el artista vivió y estudió durante los ochenta, tejiendo una interesante red de contactos con artistas norteamericanos. Hoy muchos apuntan a que el grave incidente que sufrió en 2011, junto a buena parte de sus colaboradores y familia, era un toque de atención de Pekín: una forma de recordarle que, aunque en Occidente su reputación le permitiese la denuncia de las sombras del régimen, no había nadie intocable dentro de China. Ni siquiera Ai Weiwei.

Entenderemos mejor la magnitud de 1.000 años de alegrías y penas si tenemos en cuenta que en la cultura china el perfil de artista es mucho más libre que en Occidente y que, como hijo de esa tradición, Ai no solamente es un creador plástico, sino también un excelente narrador y un notable contador de historias. Esto le convierte en el notario perfecto para levantar testimonio de la realidad su país en el último siglo.

Su papel como figura incómoda para el gobierno chino y su denuncia de la falta de libertades en su país es el germen del magnífico libro 1.000 años de alegrías y penas (Debate). Un libro de memorias que se convierte en un relato histórico completo de la China comunista a través de los recuerdos y la mirada del artista. Entenderemos mejor la magnitud de este texto si tenemos en cuenta que en la cultura china el perfil de artista es mucho más libre que en Occidente y que, como hijo de esa tradición, Ai no solamente es un creador plástico, sino también un excelente narrador y un notable contador de historias. Esto le convierte en el notario perfecto para levantar testimonio de la realidad su país en el último siglo.

Esta es la razón de que no nos encontremos ante el típico libro de memorias de artista. Por lo general, las autobiografías artísticas acostumbran a ser libros donde las mentes creadoras trazan su relato, diseccionan su carrera y ofrecen aquellos detalles jugosos de su vida y obra con los que sintonizan mejor para justificar de algún modo la orientación que han dado a su trayectoria creativa. Pero este libro no tiene nada que ver con eso. Como narrador de la historia contemporánea de su país, aquí el artista acomete un relato que hunde sus raíces muchos años antes de su nacimiento y disecciona la evolución histórica, social y política de China desde el nacimiento de su padre hasta el presente.

Porque, quizás, lo más interesante de la biografía de Ai sea que la disidencia es una parte indisoluble de su identidad como ciudadano de China. Dicho de otra manera, resulta muy difícil determinar en su vida dónde acaba el artista y comienza el activista. Así, a través de su fluida prosa (levemente occidentalizada), descubrimos que Ai Weiwei no podría haber sido de otra forma, pues es hijo del ilustre poeta chino, y también perseguido disidente, Ai Qing. Con este giro de la narración biográfica, el relato familiar trasciende y se convierte en narración histórica.

¿Quién era Ai Qing? Los libros nos dicen que uno de los poetas más importantes de la lengua china contemporánea. Un intelectual destacado que vivió en primera persona los momentos clave del siglo XX en su país: desde la Segunda Guerra con Japón -parte crucial de la Segunda Guerra Mundial que en Occidente desconocemos casi por completo, a pesar de ser uno de los escenarios donde más sangre y destrucción tuvo lugar- hasta la llegada al poder de Mao, con quien tuvo un estrecho contacto. Sospechoso de derechismo, como la mayoría de intelectuales del país, llegaría a ser purgado por el Partido Comunista de China en un exilio forzado en Manchuria y Xinjiang, durante el cual nacería el propio Weiwei. Así se forja la disidencia en familia que recorre las páginas de estas memorias.

20 de mayo de 2013. Ai Weiwei en una reproducción exacta de la celda donde fue detenido durante tres meses en 2011. Las paredes y los muebles están cubiertos de espuma para evitar que Weiwei se lastimase voluntariamente. Al artista, además, sólo se le permitía estar de pie o sentarse y usaba la cama exclusivamente para dormir. Crédito: Getty Images.

Víctima destacada de la Revolución Cultural, el poeta y padre de nuestro artista fue sometido a trabajos forzados, en un estado de desnutrición prácticamente constante mientras desempeñaba los trabajos más degradantes, como limpiar en solitario las letrinas de más de doscientas personas, mientras se le señalaba diariamente en público como un peligroso derechista que ponía en peligro el orden establecido por Mao. Relator y notario de lo que ha visto y vivido en el seno de su propia familia, Weiwei transmite la experiencia de su padre desde las páginas de sus memorias y la superpone con la suya.

Durante su detención de 2011, Ai Weiwei seguramente tomó conciencia del paralelismo entre su trayectoria y la de su padre. Cambian las fechas, pero no la necesidad de sentirse libres ni los problemas que esa libertad les supuso a ambos en una sociedad como la china, acostumbrada a las directrices y a penalizar a quienes se las saltan. Una historia familiar unida en la voluntad de dos personas, padre e hijo, de ser independientes en su creación, ya sea literaria o artística. ¿A quién se debe un artista? ¿A la sociedad o a sus ideas? ¿Representa el gobierno de un país a esa sociedad?

La solución que ofrece el autor de estas memorias a ese dilema creativo, ejemplificada en su propia trayectoria pública, reside en la búsqueda de un equilibrio. Un punto medio entre las dos voces que el artista lleva dentro. Ambos objetivos se superponen cuando las intenciones del artista residen en ser un reflejo de la sociedad. Hemos asimilado que una de las tareas del arte es su papel como altavoz o plataforma de comentario social, que en situaciones extremas se convierte en denuncia.

La obra artística de Ai lleva décadas siendo el perfecto ejemplo de como una sola persona puede llevar a los ámbitos del arte las voces de millones. En su trabajo se ha reflejado, por ejemplo, la dura realidad de los refugiados, como en su impactante exposición en el Palazzo Strozzi de Florencia, cuya refinada fachada renacentista cubrió con los botes de goma en los que huyen y mueren miles de personas cada año. También ha sido un escaparate para exponer la situación de las personas perseguidas por motivos políticos en todo el mundo, como en su instalación en la prisión del Alcatraz, donde, a través de más de un millón de piezas de Lego, puso cara y texto a la obra de disidentes que sufren persecución en todos los países del planeta.


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