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Leer: cuántos significados en una sola palabra

¿Qué significa «leer»? ¿A dónde nos lleva el origen de la palabra? ¿Qué dice de cada pueblo y el origen que esta palabra tenga en cada idioma? En «Etimologías para sobrevivir al caos. Viaje al origen de 99 palabras», Andrea Marcolongo se sumerge en ese placer infinito que es la etimología, donde las palabras no sólo tienen significado sino también historia.

{"id":207,"id_simpleblog_post":"207","id_simpleblog_category":"66","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Andrea Marcolongo","author_url":null,"likes":"0","views":"7406","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:3:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"232811,232849","id_category_tematica":"83","id_category_autor":"7803","id_category_editorial":"11335","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Leer: cu\u00e1ntos significados en una sola palabra","meta_title":"Leer: cu\u00e1ntos significados en una sola palabra","meta_description":"Nos adentramos en \u00abEtimolog\u00edas para sobrevivir al caos. Viaje al origen de 99 palabras\u00bb, ensayo firmado por Andrea Marcolongo, para explorar un t\u00e9rmino que da sentido a nuestras vidas: \u00ableer\u00bb.","meta_keywords":"Andrea Marcolongo Etimolog\u00edas para sobrevivir al caos Viaje al origen de 99 palabras","short_content":"<p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 significa \u00ableer\u00bb? \u00bfA d\u00f3nde nos lleva el origen de la palabra? \u00bfQu\u00e9 dice de cada pueblo y el origen que esta palabra tenga en cada idioma? En \u00abEtimolog\u00edas para sobrevivir al caos. Viaje al origen de 99 palabras\u00bb, Andrea Marcolongo se sumerge en ese placer infinito que es la etimolog\u00eda, donde las palabras no s\u00f3lo tienen significado sino tambi\u00e9n historia.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"my4az3v\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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La totalidad de los individuos entrevistados cont\u00f3 que, en las figuras geom\u00e9tricas que se acercaban unas a otras y chocaban entre s\u00ed para luego alejarse, <strong>hab\u00edan percibido sucesivos episodios de amistad y de amor, marcados por discrepancias, rivalidades, enga\u00f1os y envidias.<\/strong> Hubo quien habl\u00f3 de h\u00e9roes y de antagonistas, y quien se aventur\u00f3 a describir la personalidad de los personajes imaginarios y sus problemas. 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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Todos somos dados a interpretar la realidad que nos rodea atribuy\u00e9ndole emociones, deseos, objetivos, incluso biograf\u00edas. Si algo a nuestro alrededor se mueve \u2014y nos mueve\u2014, inmediatamente\u00a0<strong>necesitamos poner orden en lo que percibimos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/uso-de-la-lengua-y-diccionarios\/232849-etimologias-para-sobrevivir-al-caos-9788430623839\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">dar sentido al caos<\/a><\/span>.<\/strong> Y, gracias al poder de las palabras, transformamos la vida en narraciones que nos hacen sentir un poco m\u00e1s seguros y un poco menos perdidos.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">\u00abCu\u00e9ntame un cuento\u00bb: desde siempre ha sido el primer instinto \u2014la primera necesidad\u2014 de los seres humanos. Para vencer el miedo a la oscuridad, a lo desconocido, a los fantasmas, a la muerte:<strong> \u00bfacaso los ni\u00f1os no piden que les cuenten \u00abcuentos\u00bb antes de dormirse, antes de que su madre apague la luz?<\/strong> Cu\u00e1ntos relatos lleva consigo el \u00e9timo de la palabra \u00ableer\u00bb \u2014en italiano <em>leggere\u2014,<\/em> de la cual derivan \u00ablectura\u00bb y \u00ablector\u00bb, \u00ableyenda\u00bb y \u00ablecci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El \u00ablibro\u00bb, en cambio, no; etimol\u00f3gicamente procede del sustantivo latino <em>liber,<\/em> literalmente: <strong>\u00abla delgada membrana entre la madera y la corteza de un \u00e1rbol\u00bb,<\/strong> que en otro tiempo se usaba para escribir. Se trata de un hom\u00f3grafo del adjetivo<em> liber,<\/em> \u00ablibre\u00bb, del que se diferenciaba solo por la duraci\u00f3n de la vocal \u00abi\u00bb, breve en el primer caso y larga en el segundo. Y es uno de los lapsus que m\u00e1s sonrisas provocan (y que m\u00e1s verg\u00fcenza me hacen sentir) cuando hablo mi segunda lengua, el franc\u00e9s. \u00a1Cu\u00e1ntas veces no habr\u00e9 dicho \u2014y cu\u00e1ntas todav\u00eda no dir\u00e9\u2014 \u00abje suis livre\u00bb, <strong>\u00absoy libro\u00bb,<\/strong> en vez de decir \u00absoy libre\u00bb, \u00abje suis 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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">En griego antiguo, el verbo \u03bb\u03ad\u03b3\u03c9 (\/l\u00e9go\/), que nos remite directamente al lat\u00edn<em> legere,<\/em> significaba tanto \u00abrecoger\u00bb \u2014amapolas en un prado, cerezas de un \u00e1rbol\u2014 como \u00abescoger\u00bb <strong>\u2014igual que en una biblioteca, poni\u00e9ndonos de puntillas, con la mano tendida hacia la estanter\u00eda\u2014<\/strong>, como \u00abcontar\u00bb, \u00abdecir\u00bb; y por ese motivo, en presente, alterna a menudo con un verbo m\u00e1s complejo, \u03c6\u03b7\u03bc\u03af (\/phem\u00ed\/), que indica exclusivamente el acto de hablar.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La palabra para expresar el placer de la \u00ablectura\u00bb, proveniente de una ra\u00edz indoeuropea <em>*lag-,<\/em> enseguida pas\u00f3 a ser panrom\u00e1nica, y no solo panrom\u00e1nica (con el a\u00f1adido de alguna que otra curiosidad etimol\u00f3gica). Pues bien, si los franceses, al mismo tiempo que \u00abdevoran\u00bb con gusto un libro (ah\u00ed tenemos la necesidad de los seres humanos, la lectura como bocado bueno que llena la tripa hambrienta de cuentos), dicen <em>lire,<\/em> y los italianos,\u00a0<em>leggere,<\/em> los espa\u00f1oles decimos \u00ableer\u00bb, los portugueses dicen <em>l\u00ear<\/em> y los alemanes,\u00a0<em>lesen,<\/em> maravilloso nos parece el lituano <em>l\u00e8sti,<\/em> que originalmente significaba \u00abrecoger con el pico\u00bb. Lo mismo que hacen los lectores en una librer\u00eda <strong>\u2014aut\u00e9ntica tienda de golosinas para aquel que ama las historias y los cuentos\u2014,<\/strong> que van planeando con la mirada mientras recorren de arriba abajo los estantes con la vista agud\u00edsima de un \u00e1guila para llevarse el libro que, entre miles y miles de t\u00edtulos, han \u00abescogido\u00bb.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">De la misma ra\u00edz procede la cosa m\u00e1s preciosa que tenemos, la \u00abpalabra\u00bb, derivada del griego \u03bb\u03ad\u03be\u03b9\u03c2 (\/l\u00e9ksis\/). Y esta, a su vez, da origen al \u00abl\u00e9xico\u00bb: \u039b\u03b5\u03be\u03b9\u03ba\u1f79\u03bd (\/leksik\u00f3n\/), forma neutra sustantivada de un adjetivo griego en la que se sobreentiende el sustantivo \u03b2\u03b9\u03b2\u03bb\u1f77\u03bf\u03bd (\/bibl\u00edon\/), el \u00ablibro de las palabras\u00bb. Y al mismo tiempo etimol\u00f3gico, el \u00ablibro de las historias\u00bb. Y, sobre todo, \u00abel libro de las elecciones\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Se hace obligatorio aqu\u00ed citar el diccionario <em>A Greek-English Lexikon,<\/em> llamado tambi\u00e9n Liddell & Scott, Liddell-Scott-Jones, por el nombre de sus autores, y al que se hace referencia simplemente con la sigla LSJ, la abreviatura de sus apellidos. Se trata del diccionario m\u00e1s autorizado del mundo por lo que respecta a la lengua griega antigua, publicado por Oxford University Press por primera vez en 1819, y que ha llegado ya a la novena revisi\u00f3n\/edici\u00f3n.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Subdividida en tres variantes, o mejor podr\u00edamos decir en tres \u00abtallas\u00bb, dada su voluminosa mole <em>\u2014The Little, The Middle y The Big<\/em> o<em> The Great Liddell\u2014,<\/em> la obra lleva aparejada, por si fuera poco, mira por d\u00f3nde, una historia: el rector del prestigioso colegio Christ Church de Oxford e infatigable supervisor del diccionario (hasta el punto de que lleg\u00f3 a aprobar ocho ediciones en una sola vida), Henry Liddell, fue el padre de Alice, la ni\u00f1a que inspir\u00f3 la novela fant\u00e1stica del reverendo, matem\u00e1tico y escritor Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, m\u00e1s conocido por su seud\u00f3nimo:\u00a0<strong><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36693-alicia-en-el-pais-de-las-maravillas-a-traves-del-espejo-la-caza-del-snark-9788491052258\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Lewis Carroll<\/span>.<\/a><\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><strong>Cu\u00e1ntos significados en una sola palabra, y en una ra\u00edz tan peque\u00f1a.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El de \u00ableer\u00bb es uno de los \u00e9timos que siempre he preferido, porque, si se le sigue la pista hacia atr\u00e1s y con atenci\u00f3n, indica que, sin \u00abpalabras\u00bb, no puede existir decisi\u00f3n alguna. Acabar\u00edamos ciegos, seres primitivos, incapaces de decir las cosas, como en el c\u00e9lebre pr\u00f3logo de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/penguinkids\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-garcia-marquez-camino-a-macondo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/em>, de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/span>:<\/a>\u00a0<strong>\u00abEl mundo era tan reciente que muchas cosas carec\u00edan de nombre, y para mencionarlas hab\u00eda que se\u00f1alarlas con el dedo\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Contar lo que sentimos con palabras honestas y precisas como \u00edntima elecci\u00f3n; eso es lo que nos pide o, mejor a\u00fan, nos implora esta etimolog\u00eda. Asunci\u00f3n de responsabilidad: si el decir las cosas tiene el poder de hacerlas reales, <strong>\u00bfqui\u00e9nes somos entonces realmente \u00aben palabras\u00bb, o sea, en hechos, o sea, en voluntad?<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">En el fondo solo es eso lo que significa \u00abhablar\u00bb, y al mismo tiempo \u00ableer\u00bb: no ya comprar un libro que tendremos durante a\u00f1os en la mesilla hasta que est\u00e9 cubierto de polvo, con la portada descolorida por el sol que se filtra cada ma\u00f1ana por los cristales de la ventana. Sino, en medio de miles y miles de grumos emotivos, saber \u00abescogernos\u00bb.<\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><strong>O sea, saber \u00abexpresarnos\u00bb.<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><strong><br \/><br \/><\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><strong>TAMBI\u00c9N\u00a0LE PUEDE INTERESAR:<\/strong><\/p><ul><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abLos documentos de Aspern\u00bb: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la cancelaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/entrevistas\/pilar-quintana-los-abismos-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Pilar Quintana: en la espesura del deseo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/lengua\/articulos\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Primero, la rebeli\u00f3n; despu\u00e9s, el futuro: la improbable g\u00e9nesis de \u00ab1984\u00bb, la obra magna de George 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8 minutos

Ilustración de Tenniel de la edición de 1890 de Alicia en el país de las maravillas, de Lewis Carroll. Crédito: Getty Images.

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En 1944 los estudiosos Fritz Heider y Marianne Simmel, especialistas en el campo de la psicología cognitiva y del comportamiento, llevaron a cabo un experimento publicado ese mismo año en The American Journal of Psychology. Lo que observaron los dos investigadores fue lo que se llama habitualmente «ilusión de Heider-Simmel». Se mostró ante un grupo de voluntarios una secuencia en movimiento compuesta por dos triángulos y un círculo, todo ello contenido en un espacio en blanco, y luego se les pidió que describieran lo que habían visto. La totalidad de los individuos entrevistados contó que, en las figuras geométricas que se acercaban unas a otras y chocaban entre sí para luego alejarse, habían percibido sucesivos episodios de amistad y de amor, marcados por discrepancias, rivalidades, engaños y envidias. Hubo quien habló de héroes y de antagonistas, y quien se aventuró a describir la personalidad de los personajes imaginarios y sus problemas. Se trataba simplemente de dos triángulos y de un círculo, pero ninguno de los participantes en el experimento respondió: «Formas geométricas».

Todos somos dados a interpretar la realidad que nos rodea atribuyéndole emociones, deseos, objetivos, incluso biografías. Si algo a nuestro alrededor se mueve —y nos mueve—, inmediatamente necesitamos poner orden en lo que percibimos, dar sentido al caos. Y, gracias al poder de las palabras, transformamos la vida en narraciones que nos hacen sentir un poco más seguros y un poco menos perdidos. 

«Cuéntame un cuento»: desde siempre ha sido el primer instinto —la primera necesidad— de los seres humanos. Para vencer el miedo a la oscuridad, a lo desconocido, a los fantasmas, a la muerte: ¿acaso los niños no piden que les cuenten «cuentos» antes de dormirse, antes de que su madre apague la luz? Cuántos relatos lleva consigo el étimo de la palabra «leer» —en italiano leggere—, de la cual derivan «lectura» y «lector», «leyenda» y «lección».

El «libro», en cambio, no; etimológicamente procede del sustantivo latino liber, literalmente: «la delgada membrana entre la madera y la corteza de un árbol», que en otro tiempo se usaba para escribir. Se trata de un homógrafo del adjetivo liber, «libre», del que se diferenciaba solo por la duración de la vocal «i», breve en el primer caso y larga en el segundo. Y es uno de los lapsus que más sonrisas provocan (y que más vergüenza me hacen sentir) cuando hablo mi segunda lengua, el francés. ¡Cuántas veces no habré dicho —y cuántas todavía no diré— «je suis livre», «soy libro», en vez de decir «soy libre», «je suis libre»!

Una travesía cultural

En griego antiguo, el verbo λέγω (/légo/), que nos remite directamente al latín legere, significaba tanto «recoger» —amapolas en un prado, cerezas de un árbol— como «escoger» —igual que en una biblioteca, poniéndonos de puntillas, con la mano tendida hacia la estantería—, como «contar», «decir»; y por ese motivo, en presente, alterna a menudo con un verbo más complejo, φημί (/phemí/), que indica exclusivamente el acto de hablar.

La palabra para expresar el placer de la «lectura», proveniente de una raíz indoeuropea *lag-, enseguida pasó a ser panrománica, y no solo panrománica (con el añadido de alguna que otra curiosidad etimológica). Pues bien, si los franceses, al mismo tiempo que «devoran» con gusto un libro (ahí tenemos la necesidad de los seres humanos, la lectura como bocado bueno que llena la tripa hambrienta de cuentos), dicen lire, y los italianos, leggere, los españoles decimos «leer», los portugueses dicen lêr y los alemanes, lesen, maravilloso nos parece el lituano lèsti, que originalmente significaba «recoger con el pico». Lo mismo que hacen los lectores en una librería —auténtica tienda de golosinas para aquel que ama las historias y los cuentos—, que van planeando con la mirada mientras recorren de arriba abajo los estantes con la vista agudísima de un águila para llevarse el libro que, entre miles y miles de títulos, han «escogido».

De la misma raíz procede la cosa más preciosa que tenemos, la «palabra», derivada del griego λέξις (/léksis/). Y esta, a su vez, da origen al «léxico»: Λεξικόν (/leksikón/), forma neutra sustantivada de un adjetivo griego en la que se sobreentiende el sustantivo βιβλίον (/biblíon/), el «libro de las palabras». Y al mismo tiempo etimológico, el «libro de las historias». Y, sobre todo, «el libro de las elecciones». 

Se hace obligatorio aquí citar el diccionario A Greek-English Lexikon, llamado también Liddell & Scott, Liddell-Scott-Jones, por el nombre de sus autores, y al que se hace referencia simplemente con la sigla LSJ, la abreviatura de sus apellidos. Se trata del diccionario más autorizado del mundo por lo que respecta a la lengua griega antigua, publicado por Oxford University Press por primera vez en 1819, y que ha llegado ya a la novena revisión/edición.

Subdividida en tres variantes, o mejor podríamos decir en tres «tallas», dada su voluminosa mole —The Little, The Middle y The Big o The Great Liddell—, la obra lleva aparejada, por si fuera poco, mira por dónde, una historia: el rector del prestigioso colegio Christ Church de Oxford e infatigable supervisor del diccionario (hasta el punto de que llegó a aprobar ocho ediciones en una sola vida), Henry Liddell, fue el padre de Alice, la niña que inspiró la novela fantástica del reverendo, matemático y escritor Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, más conocido por su seudónimo: Lewis Carroll.

Cuántos significados en una sola palabra, y en una raíz tan pequeña. 

El de «leer» es uno de los étimos que siempre he preferido, porque, si se le sigue la pista hacia atrás y con atención, indica que, sin «palabras», no puede existir decisión alguna. Acabaríamos ciegos, seres primitivos, incapaces de decir las cosas, como en el célebre prólogo de Cien años de soledad, de Gabriel García Márquez: «El mundo era tan reciente que muchas cosas carecían de nombre, y para mencionarlas había que señalarlas con el dedo».

Contar lo que sentimos con palabras honestas y precisas como íntima elección; eso es lo que nos pide o, mejor aún, nos implora esta etimología. Asunción de responsabilidad: si el decir las cosas tiene el poder de hacerlas reales, ¿quiénes somos entonces realmente «en palabras», o sea, en hechos, o sea, en voluntad?

En el fondo solo es eso lo que significa «hablar», y al mismo tiempo «leer»: no ya comprar un libro que tendremos durante años en la mesilla hasta que esté cubierto de polvo, con la portada descolorida por el sol que se filtra cada mañana por los cristales de la ventana. Sino, en medio de miles y miles de grumos emotivos, saber «escogernos».

O sea, saber «expresarnos».



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