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En la retaguardia nazi: la gesta de las tropas aerotransportadas en Normandía

A las 5:45 horas de la mañana del 6 de junio de 1944, el Día D, las tropas aliadas comenzaron un ataque por aire bombardeando la costa de Normandía. Poco después, a las 6:30, la Hora H, se produjo el celebérrimo desembarco en las playas de la región del norte de Francia, en una invasión sin precedentes que marcaría el principio del fin de la II Guerra Mundial, ya que se desarrolló una operación clave para liberar a la Europa continental de la ocupación nazi. Para cuando meses después las tropas aliadas liberaron París, a finales de agosto de 1944, aproximadamente el 10% de los dos millones que formaban parte de las tropas aliadas que habían llegado a Francia estaban muertos, heridos o desaparecidos. Y muchos de ellos perdieron la vida en Normandía. Cuando se cumplen 80 años de la jornada que cambió la historia de la humanidad, en LENGUA reproducimos un extracto del libro «Historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial sin mitos ni tópicos», un texto en el que los periodistas e historiadores Manuel P. Villatoro e Israel Viana hacen foco en algunos de los sucesos más relevantes -y, quizá, menos conocidos- del día en que unos cuantos cientos de miles de héroes anónimos dieron su vida por la libertad.

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Poco despu\u00e9s, a las 6:30, la Hora H, se produjo el celeb\u00e9rrimo desembarco en las playas de la regi\u00f3n del norte de Francia, en una invasi\u00f3n sin precedentes que marcar\u00eda el principio del fin de la II Guerra Mundial, ya que se desarroll\u00f3 una operaci\u00f3n clave para liberar a la Europa continental de la ocupaci\u00f3n nazi. Para cuando meses despu\u00e9s las tropas aliadas liberaron Par\u00eds, a finales de agosto de 1944, aproximadamente el 10% de los dos millones que formaban parte de las tropas aliadas que hab\u00edan llegado a Francia estaban muertos, heridos o desaparecidos. Y muchos de ellos perdieron la vida en Normand\u00eda. Cuando se cumplen 80 a\u00f1os de la jornada que cambi\u00f3 la historia de la humanidad, en LENGUA reproducimos un extracto del libro \u00abHistoria de la Segunda Guerra Mundial sin mitos ni t\u00f3picos\u00bb, un texto en el que los periodistas e historiadores Manuel P. Villatoro e Israel Viana hacen foco en algunos de los sucesos m\u00e1s relevantes -y, quiz\u00e1, menos conocidos- del d\u00eda en que unos cuantos cientos de miles de h\u00e9roes an\u00f3nimos dieron su vida por la libertad.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"dhjv44p\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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del D\u00eda D en una imagen de 2019. 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Unos veinte minutos despu\u00e9s de que las manecillas del reloj dieran las doce, el piloto Jim Wallwork perdi\u00f3 el control de su planeador y no pudo evitar que, tras un dif\u00edcil aterrizaje, se deslizara a toda velocidad por la h\u00fameda campi\u00f1a gala. Este aparato, una suerte de autob\u00fas volador de contrachapado y tela que carec\u00eda de motor para ser m\u00e1s silencioso, solo se detuvo cuando se dio de bruces contra una alambrada. 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Y EXTRA\u00d1AS IDEAS\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>La primera pata de la guerra aerotransportada en el D\u00eda D fueron los planeadores. Saber por qu\u00e9 a los aliados se les ocurri\u00f3 una idea tan rocambolesca como arrojar a sus hombres enlatados en aviones sin motor requiere retroceder hasta 1940, cuando los alemanes dejaron boquiabierta a Europa al conquistar el fuerte belga de Eben-Emael con una t\u00e9cnica revolucionaria: remolcar este tipo de aeroplanos mediante aviones de transporte para, llegado el momento, dejarlos caer tras las l\u00edneas enemigas. Aquella jornada, brit\u00e1nicos y estadounidenses entendieron que lo que en principio parec\u00eda una locura ofrec\u00eda m\u00faltiples ventajas estrat\u00e9gicas: desde posicionar una unidad entera sobre el terreno sin que sus miembros se dispersasen \u2014cosa que no suced\u00eda con los paracaidistas\u2014 hasta transportar carros de combate y artiller\u00eda.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>El <em>premier<\/em> brit\u00e1nico <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia.nationalgeographic.com.es\/a\/winston-churchill-politico-que-cambio-rumbo-segunda-guerra-mundial_15053\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Winston Churchill<\/a><\/span>, obsesionado cual ni\u00f1o con las novedades militares, orden\u00f3 idear \u00abuna divisi\u00f3n aerotransportada que siga el modelo alem\u00e1n\u00bb e impuls\u00f3 la utilizaci\u00f3n de estos aviones como arma ofensiva. A su favor habr\u00eda que decir que, por entonces, Gran Breta\u00f1a necesitaba el acero para los cazas y que los planeadores pod\u00edan elaborarse con madera y lona. Estados Unidos, por su parte, decidi\u00f3 no usarlos en primera l\u00ednea, sino como meros transportes para hacer llegar suministros a las tropas del frente. Aunque eso no impidi\u00f3 que el pa\u00eds produjese cientos de ellos con la ayuda de carpinteros especializados en fabricar f\u00e9retros o del empresario automovil\u00edstico <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia.nationalgeographic.com.es\/a\/henry-ford-revolucion-industria-automovil_17863\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Henry Ford<\/a><\/span>, quien ofreci\u00f3 un buen precio a las fuerzas armadas a cambio de que sus antiguos negocios con Hitler quedasen olvidados.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Sobre el papel la idea era revolucionaria. Sin embargo, en la pr\u00e1ctica se transformaba en un verdadero reto para los pilotos. \u00abImagina dirigir un planeador completamente cargado remolcado detr\u00e1s de un avi\u00f3n [...] a trav\u00e9s de un cielo turbulento y nublado a mil pies, y luego deslizarte a trav\u00e9s de cortinas de fuego antia\u00e9reo y armas peque\u00f1as para aterrizar en el campo de patatas de un granjero... Ahora, imagina hacerlo tambi\u00e9n de noche\u00bb, explic\u00f3 el general <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Matthew_Ridgway\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Matthew B. Ridgeway<\/a><\/span>, presente el D\u00eda D. Y eso sin contar con el ruido, que desesperaba a los tripulantes. \u00abEra como viajar dentro de un bombo; una estructura rodeada por madera y tela. No hab\u00eda aislamiento alguno y el viento era ensordecedor en el interior\u00bb, recordaba el veterano de la Segunda Guerra Mundial Bob Swenson.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A las molestas turbulencias, al peligro de ser presa de la artiller\u00eda antia\u00e9rea y a la dificultad de dirigir el aeroplano hasta la zona de aterrizaje se sumaba, adem\u00e1s, el riesgo de estrellarse al tomar tierra o el de explotar al chocar con alguna de las estacas coronadas con explosivos que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.rtve.es\/television\/20220927\/rommel-general-a-quien-hitler-ordeno-elegir-suicidio-muerte\/2403910.shtml\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Erwin Rommel<\/a><\/span> hab\u00eda hecho colocar a cientos en la costa de Normand\u00eda. Las infinitas posibilidades de morir hicieron que estos aviones se ganasen pronto el apodo de \u00abata\u00fades voladores\u00bb. \u00abTe lo dir\u00e9 directamente: si tienes que entrar en combate, no lo hagas en un planeador. Camina, gatea, l\u00e1nzate en paraca\u00eddas, nada, flota... 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CONTRA FORTALEZAS\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Por su duro entrenamiento y su experiencia, el alto mando decidi\u00f3 que los comandos brit\u00e1nicos destinados en planeadores (los miembros de la <a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/6.%C2%AA_Divisi%C3%B3n_Aerotransportada_(Reino_Unido)#:~:text=La%206.,hasta%20el%20fin%20del%20conflicto.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">6.\u00aa Brigada de Desembarco A\u00e9reo<\/span>,<\/a> m\u00e1s conocidos como Red Devils, \u00abDiablos Rojos\u00bb, debido a su caracter\u00edstica boina del mismo color) ser\u00edan los encargados de acometer dos misiones clave en el sector de Sword. La primera, conquistar los puentes alemanes de B\u00e9nouville \u2014sobre el canal de Caen\u2014 y de Ranville \u2014en el r\u00edo Orne\u2014 con el objetivo de garantizar el avance aliado. La segunda, aterrizar en el interior de la bater\u00eda de Merville, una suerte de fortaleza protegida por ametralladoras, minas y alambre de espino, y silenciarla para evitar que disparara sobre las playas.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Para la primera misi\u00f3n se seleccion\u00f3 a ciento cuarenta hombres de la Infanter\u00eda Ligera de Oxfordshire y Buckinghamshire. Todos ellos a las \u00f3rdenes del mayor <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/John_Howard_(militar)\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">John Howard<\/a><\/span>, un curtido soldado que antes hab\u00eda ejercido como polic\u00eda y corredor de bolsa. Despegaron a las once en seis planeadores sabedores de que, aunque lograran conquistar los puentes, tendr\u00edan que resistir durante horas hasta que las tropas de la playa enlazaran con ellos. Durante el trayecto cada uno combati\u00f3 los nervios como pudo. El oficial, por ejemplo, pas\u00f3 casi todo el viaje con la mano en uno de los bolsillos de su guerrera; el mismo en el que guardaba el peque\u00f1o zapato de su hijo Terry, de dos a\u00f1os. Otros se limitaron a pensar. \u00ab\u00c9ramos la punta de lanza del ej\u00e9rcito m\u00e1s colosal jam\u00e1s visto. Me sent\u00eda insignificante\u00bb, record\u00f3 el sargento Oliver Boland.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>A eso de las doce, los planeadores se soltaron de sus remolcadores y se lanzaron de bruces contra los puentes. La mitad a B\u00e9nouville y el resto a Ranville. En el avi\u00f3n de Howard rein\u00f3 el silencio hasta que el piloto, Wallwork, lo destruy\u00f3 con un grito: \u00ab\u00a1Sujetaos!\u00bb. Esa era la se\u00f1al para que pasasen los brazos sobre los hombros de sus compa\u00f1eros y levantasen las piernas; una posici\u00f3n conocida como \u00abagarre del carnicero\u00bb, que imped\u00eda, en teor\u00eda, que saliesen despedidos. No les sirvi\u00f3 de nada. El impacto contra el suelo fue de tal calibre que todos quedaron inconscientes durante unos segundos. Al despertarse, el mayor crey\u00f3 que hab\u00eda perdido la visi\u00f3n, pero luego se percat\u00f3 de que el golpe hab\u00eda hecho que se le bajara el casco. As\u00ed fue como comenz\u00f3 la primera gran batalla del D\u00eda D.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La operaci\u00f3n se llev\u00f3 a cabo a la velocidad del rayo. Seg\u00fan explic\u00f3 Howard, sus hombres se lanzaron sobre el puente levadizo de B\u00e9nouville como \u00abuna manada de sabuesos desatados\u00bb. Su \u00edmpetu, as\u00ed como su aspecto fantasmag\u00f3rico \u2014feroces y con la cara pintada de negro\u2013\u2013, hicieron que muchos defensores arrojaran sus armas al suelo y se retirasen a la carrera. Adem\u00e1s, la rapidez de soldados como Bill Gray, que consigui\u00f3 derribar a un alem\u00e1n antes de que pidiera refuerzos con su pistola de bengalas, fue tambi\u00e9n determinante. Tras su momento de gloria, por cierto, el joven apoy\u00f3 el arma en una pared, se desabroch\u00f3 la bragueta y se tom\u00f3 un minuto para orinar. El caf\u00e9 que se hab\u00eda tomado antes de partir le hab\u00eda hecho efecto.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Un cuarto de hora despu\u00e9s el asalto hab\u00eda terminado en ambos puentes. Todos acabaron asombrados. Los alemanes, los mismos soldados ingleses y, por \u00faltimo, Georges Gondr\u00e9e y su esposa, Th\u00e9r\u00e8se. Su negocio, un peque\u00f1o caf\u00e9 ubicado justo al lado del puente de B\u00e9nouville, se convirti\u00f3 en el primer edificio liberado por los aliados durante el desembarco de Normand\u00eda. Como gratitud, la amable pareja desenterr\u00f3 99 botellas de champ\u00e1n que hab\u00edan escondido en su jard\u00edn y, en las semanas siguientes, invitaron a una copa a todos los soldados que pasaron por all\u00ed. Aunque eso fue tras varias jornadas de aguerrida defensa por parte de los hombres de Howard, quienes solo pudieron descansar tranquilos cuando oyeron la m\u00fasica entonada por el gaitero personal de lord Lovat. Los refuerzos hab\u00edan llegado.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Por desgracia, esa suerte no la compartieron sus compa\u00f1eros en Merville. Al igual que sobre los puentes, tres planeadores deb\u00edan aterrizar, al abrigo del silencio absoluto, en el interior de la bater\u00eda poco despu\u00e9s de las doce. La idea era que provocaran el desconcierto en el interior mientras, desde fuera, los paracaidistas de la 6.\u00aa Divisi\u00f3n Aerotransportada brit\u00e1nica atacaban la posici\u00f3n. Pero todo fue un desastre. El primer aparato no pudo salir de Inglaterra, el segundo cay\u00f3 a un kil\u00f3metro del objetivo y el tercero a punto estuvo de explotar cuando toc\u00f3 tierra cerca de un campo de minas. Al final, el teniente coronel Terence Otway, al mando de las fuerzas exteriores, orden\u00f3 el asalto. \u00ab\u00a1Adelante todos, vamos a tomar esa maldita bater\u00eda!\u00bb, buf\u00f3 el soldado Mower antes de lanzarse contra ella. 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LA \u00c9LITE NORTEAMERICANA\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Aunque valerosos, la realidad es que el n\u00famero de hombres destinados a los planeadores era \u00ednfimo si se compara con el de paracaidistas. De estos combatientes participaron unos veinte mil; y, de ellos, m\u00e1s de quince mil pertenec\u00edan a Estados Unidos, donde se los consideraba los soldados m\u00e1s letales de las fuerzas armadas junto con otras unidades especiales, como los <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/75.%C2%BA_Regimiento_Ranger\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Rangers<\/a><\/span>. Por parte norteamericana, en el D\u00eda D lucharon la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/82.%C2%AA_Divisi%C3%B3n_Aerotransportada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">82.\u00aa Divisi\u00f3n Aerotransportada<\/a><\/span> (m\u00e1s conocida como All American por contar con soldados de todas las regiones del pa\u00eds) y la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/101.%C2%AA_Divisi%C3%B3n_Aerotransportada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">101.\u00aa Divisi\u00f3n Aerotransportada<\/a><\/span> (los Screaming Eagles o \u00ab\u00c1guilas Aulladoras\u00bb). \u00abTen\u00edamos un sentimiento especial, \u00edntimo y de unidad de \u00e9lite en la unidad\u00bb, explic\u00f3 el famoso \u00abparaca\u00bb <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Richard_Winters\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Richard Winters.\u00a0\u00a0<\/a><\/span><\/p><p>Si los Red Devils y los paracaidistas brit\u00e1nicos recibieron las \u00f3rdenes de asegurar el flanco este, los estadounidenses fueron destinados al oeste; de forma m\u00e1s concreta, a la retaguardia de la playa de Utah. A grandes rasgos, las zonas de salto de las \u00c1guilas Aulladoras fueron los pueblos de Turqueville, Angoville y Vierville. Por su parte, a la 82.\u00aa se le asignaron Sainte-M\u00e8re-\u00c9glise y sus alrededores. Su trabajo, una vez m\u00e1s, consist\u00eda en acallar las bater\u00edas alemanas y controlar los puentes sobre los r\u00edos Merderet y Douve.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Para cumplir sus objetivos contaban con un entrenamiento sin igual y un pesado equipo que, en muchos casos, superaba los cincuenta kilogramos. Entre los utensilios m\u00e1s curiosos que portaban se hallaban los famosos <em>crikets<\/em> (pulsadores de juguete para reconocerse en mitad de la noche con un \u00abcric\u00bb), los chalecos salvavidas Mae West (apodados as\u00ed porque, al inflarse, recordaban a la exuberante delantera de la susodicha actriz) o un paraca\u00eddas de reserva. Esta \u00faltima fue una ventaja que los ingleses no tuvieron hasta el a\u00f1o 1955 porque, en palabras de Napier Crookenden, oficial de la 6.\u00aa Divisi\u00f3n Aerotransportada brit\u00e1nica, \u00absu uso demostraba la falta de confianza en la fiabilidad del paraca\u00eddas principal\u00bb, \u00absupon\u00eda un gasto injustificado\u00bb y \u00abdificultaba los movimientos de los hombres\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Los d\u00edas previos al desembarco fueron los m\u00e1s tensos para los paracaidistas. En un ambiente enrarecido, los capellanes militares hicieron jornadas maratonianas y recorrieron los diferentes campamentos para confesar a estos soldados. \u00abNing\u00fan serm\u00f3n tiene m\u00e1s capacidad de hacer que un hombre se d\u00e9 cuenta de que tiene que estar en paz con Dios que la perspectiva de saltar desde un avi\u00f3n\u00bb, explic\u00f3 en sus memorias el sacerdote de las \u00c1guilas Aulladoras Francis Sampson. 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PERDIDOS<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p>Poco antes de la una de la madrugada, los primeros transportes vislumbraron la costa y las bater\u00edas antia\u00e9reas alemanas. 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Jakeway, por ejemplo, se qued\u00f3 colgado de un \u00e1rbol muy lejos de su objetivo. \u00abEstaba aterrado, pero mantuve la calma\u00bb, afirm\u00f3. Cuando se liber\u00f3 de sus ataduras, tuvo que esconderse dentro de un mont\u00f3n de esti\u00e9rcol para no ser detectado por una patrulla enemiga. Su caso es menos conocido que el de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.lavanguardia.com\/participacion\/las-fotos-de-los-lectores\/20200312\/474093179832\/historia-paracaidista-sainte-mere-eglise-john-steele-colgado-campanario-iglesia.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">John Steele<\/a><\/span>. Este soldado acab\u00f3 colgado del campanario de la iglesia de Sainte-M\u00e8re-\u00c9glise mientras, bajo sus pies, se desataba un incendio y corr\u00edan las balas. 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Y ODIO\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Existen ocasiones en las que un rayo de bondad consigue alejar la oscuridad de la batalla. Eso es lo que ocurri\u00f3 en la peque\u00f1a iglesia de Angoville-au-Plain, entre Cherburgo y Par\u00eds. Cerca de este edificio cayeron, en la noche del 5 al 6 de junio de 1944, los sanitarios Ken Moore y Robert Wright, de la 101.\u00aa Divisi\u00f3n Aerotransportada. Cuando se vieron obligados a atender a decenas de heridos, transformaron la capilla en un improvisado hospital de campa\u00f1a y sus bancos, donde todav\u00eda quedan restos de sangre, en camas. El lugar se convirti\u00f3 as\u00ed en un oasis para ambos bandos a pesar de que cambi\u00f3 de manos varias veces. \u00abAl poco lleg\u00f3 un oficial alem\u00e1n. Me pregunt\u00f3 si pod\u00eda hacerme cargo de sus heridos, y lo aceptamos\u00bb, record\u00f3 despu\u00e9s uno de los enfermeros. Ambos cuidaron de unos ochenta adultos y un ni\u00f1o durante el desembarco de Normand\u00eda.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Por desgracia, algunos paracaidistas brit\u00e1nicos y estadounidenses protagonizaron tambi\u00e9n episodios de pillaje y abusos. Un miembro de la polic\u00eda militar de las \u00c1guilas Aulladoras confirm\u00f3, por ejemplo, que hab\u00eda visto el cad\u00e1ver de un oficial germano al que hab\u00edan cortado un dedo para robarle su alianza matrimonial. Otros tantos agruparon a decenas de presos enemigos para ejecutarlos cuando las playas ya estaban aseguradas. Con todo, uno de los momentos m\u00e1s estremecedores se dio cuando un soldado aerotransportado observ\u00f3 que su compa\u00f1ero hab\u00eda cambiado sus guantes amarillos por otros. O eso cre\u00eda. \u00abLe pregunt\u00e9 d\u00f3nde hab\u00eda encontrado esos guantes rojos y, tras rebuscar en uno de los bolsillos de su pantal\u00f3n de salto, sac\u00f3 una sarta de orejas. Hab\u00eda estado cortando orejas toda la noche y las hab\u00eda cosido a un viejo cord\u00f3n de zapatos\u00bb. Era sangre 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/futbol-boxeo-y-burdeles-en-los-campos-nazis\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">F\u00fatbol, boxeo y burdeles en los campos nazis<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfPuede volver el fascismo?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich: la persona es m\u00e1s que la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/centenario-muerte-lenin-revolucion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abGood Bye, Lenin!\u00bb: 100 a\u00f1os sin el alma de la Revoluci\u00f3n rusa<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/entrevista-pierre-lemaitre\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pierre Lemaitre: siempre tendremos 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15 minutos
Veteranos del Día D en una imagen de 2019. Desde la izquierda: Loren Kissick (94 años), Dennis Thompson (96 años), Clifford Stump (95 años). Crédito: Getty Images.

Veteranos del Día D en una imagen de 2019. Desde la izquierda: Loren Kissick (94 años), Dennis Thompson (96 años), Clifford Stump (95 años). Crédito: Getty Images.

El primer soldado aliado que tocó tierra francesa el 6 de junio de 1944 no lo hizo con los pies. Unos veinte minutos después de que las manecillas del reloj dieran las doce, el piloto Jim Wallwork perdió el control de su planeador y no pudo evitar que, tras un difícil aterrizaje, se deslizara a toda velocidad por la húmeda campiña gala. Este aparato, una suerte de autobús volador de contrachapado y tela que carecía de motor para ser más silencioso, solo se detuvo cuando se dio de bruces contra una alambrada. El golpe fue tan fuerte que el británico salió despedido de su asiento, atravesó el parabrisas de metacrilato y cayó de cabeza. «La herida fue tan escandalosa que se me llenó un ojo de sangre y, por un momento, creí que me había quedado ciego», admitió tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial.  

Segundos después, del planeador de Wallwork salió un pelotón dispuesto a conquistar los puentes de Bénouville y Ranville antes de que despuntaran las primeras luces de la mañana. Eran parte de los veintitrés mil soldados, entre infantería aerotransportada y paracaidistas, que se arrojaron tras las líneas alemanas durante el Día D para cumplir tareas clave como destruir las baterías de cañones con capacidad de abrir fuego sobre las costas de Normandía; sembrar el caos entre los germanos; proteger las salidas de las playas donde desembarcarían sus compañeros y, por último, controlar los nudos de carreteras y los pasos sobre los ríos para segar los contraataques del Tercer Reich. Y todos ellos eran voluntarios a pesar de que Trafford LeighMallory, jefe supremo de las fuerzas aéreas aliadas, había previsto que entre un 50 y un 70 por ciento morirían aquella noche.  

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

Historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial sin mitos ni tópicos

Manuel P. Villatoro

Israel Viana

La historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial como jamás nos la han contado, con una mirada experta y al mismo tiempo muy cercana

NUEVAS Y EXTRAÑAS IDEAS 

La primera pata de la guerra aerotransportada en el Día D fueron los planeadores. Saber por qué a los aliados se les ocurrió una idea tan rocambolesca como arrojar a sus hombres enlatados en aviones sin motor requiere retroceder hasta 1940, cuando los alemanes dejaron boquiabierta a Europa al conquistar el fuerte belga de Eben-Emael con una técnica revolucionaria: remolcar este tipo de aeroplanos mediante aviones de transporte para, llegado el momento, dejarlos caer tras las líneas enemigas. Aquella jornada, británicos y estadounidenses entendieron que lo que en principio parecía una locura ofrecía múltiples ventajas estratégicas: desde posicionar una unidad entera sobre el terreno sin que sus miembros se dispersasen —cosa que no sucedía con los paracaidistas— hasta transportar carros de combate y artillería.  

El premier británico Winston Churchill, obsesionado cual niño con las novedades militares, ordenó idear «una división aerotransportada que siga el modelo alemán» e impulsó la utilización de estos aviones como arma ofensiva. A su favor habría que decir que, por entonces, Gran Bretaña necesitaba el acero para los cazas y que los planeadores podían elaborarse con madera y lona. Estados Unidos, por su parte, decidió no usarlos en primera línea, sino como meros transportes para hacer llegar suministros a las tropas del frente. Aunque eso no impidió que el país produjese cientos de ellos con la ayuda de carpinteros especializados en fabricar féretros o del empresario automovilístico Henry Ford, quien ofreció un buen precio a las fuerzas armadas a cambio de que sus antiguos negocios con Hitler quedasen olvidados.  

Sobre el papel la idea era revolucionaria. Sin embargo, en la práctica se transformaba en un verdadero reto para los pilotos. «Imagina dirigir un planeador completamente cargado remolcado detrás de un avión [...] a través de un cielo turbulento y nublado a mil pies, y luego deslizarte a través de cortinas de fuego antiaéreo y armas pequeñas para aterrizar en el campo de patatas de un granjero... Ahora, imagina hacerlo también de noche», explicó el general Matthew B. Ridgeway, presente el Día D. Y eso sin contar con el ruido, que desesperaba a los tripulantes. «Era como viajar dentro de un bombo; una estructura rodeada por madera y tela. No había aislamiento alguno y el viento era ensordecedor en el interior», recordaba el veterano de la Segunda Guerra Mundial Bob Swenson.  

A las molestas turbulencias, al peligro de ser presa de la artillería antiaérea y a la dificultad de dirigir el aeroplano hasta la zona de aterrizaje se sumaba, además, el riesgo de estrellarse al tomar tierra o el de explotar al chocar con alguna de las estacas coronadas con explosivos que Erwin Rommel había hecho colocar a cientos en la costa de Normandía. Las infinitas posibilidades de morir hicieron que estos aviones se ganasen pronto el apodo de «ataúdes voladores». «Te lo diré directamente: si tienes que entrar en combate, no lo hagas en un planeador. Camina, gatea, lánzate en paracaídas, nada, flota... Cualquier cosa, pero no vayas en un planeador», explicó el corresponsal de guerra Walter Cronkite, destinado en uno de ellos durante el Día D.  

Refuerzos aliados desembarcando en Normandía en el Día D. Crédito: Getty Images.

Refuerzos aliados desembarcando en Normandía en el Día D. Crédito: Getty Images.

ATAUDES CONTRA FORTALEZAS 

Por su duro entrenamiento y su experiencia, el alto mando decidió que los comandos británicos destinados en planeadores (los miembros de la 6.ª Brigada de Desembarco Aéreo, más conocidos como Red Devils, «Diablos Rojos», debido a su característica boina del mismo color) serían los encargados de acometer dos misiones clave en el sector de Sword. La primera, conquistar los puentes alemanes de Bénouville —sobre el canal de Caen— y de Ranville —en el río Orne— con el objetivo de garantizar el avance aliado. La segunda, aterrizar en el interior de la batería de Merville, una suerte de fortaleza protegida por ametralladoras, minas y alambre de espino, y silenciarla para evitar que disparara sobre las playas.  

Para la primera misión se seleccionó a ciento cuarenta hombres de la Infantería Ligera de Oxfordshire y Buckinghamshire. Todos ellos a las órdenes del mayor John Howard, un curtido soldado que antes había ejercido como policía y corredor de bolsa. Despegaron a las once en seis planeadores sabedores de que, aunque lograran conquistar los puentes, tendrían que resistir durante horas hasta que las tropas de la playa enlazaran con ellos. Durante el trayecto cada uno combatió los nervios como pudo. El oficial, por ejemplo, pasó casi todo el viaje con la mano en uno de los bolsillos de su guerrera; el mismo en el que guardaba el pequeño zapato de su hijo Terry, de dos años. Otros se limitaron a pensar. «Éramos la punta de lanza del ejército más colosal jamás visto. Me sentía insignificante», recordó el sargento Oliver Boland.  

A eso de las doce, los planeadores se soltaron de sus remolcadores y se lanzaron de bruces contra los puentes. La mitad a Bénouville y el resto a Ranville. En el avión de Howard reinó el silencio hasta que el piloto, Wallwork, lo destruyó con un grito: «¡Sujetaos!». Esa era la señal para que pasasen los brazos sobre los hombros de sus compañeros y levantasen las piernas; una posición conocida como «agarre del carnicero», que impedía, en teoría, que saliesen despedidos. No les sirvió de nada. El impacto contra el suelo fue de tal calibre que todos quedaron inconscientes durante unos segundos. Al despertarse, el mayor creyó que había perdido la visión, pero luego se percató de que el golpe había hecho que se le bajara el casco. Así fue como comenzó la primera gran batalla del Día D.  

La operación se llevó a cabo a la velocidad del rayo. Según explicó Howard, sus hombres se lanzaron sobre el puente levadizo de Bénouville como «una manada de sabuesos desatados». Su ímpetu, así como su aspecto fantasmagórico —feroces y con la cara pintada de negro––, hicieron que muchos defensores arrojaran sus armas al suelo y se retirasen a la carrera. Además, la rapidez de soldados como Bill Gray, que consiguió derribar a un alemán antes de que pidiera refuerzos con su pistola de bengalas, fue también determinante. Tras su momento de gloria, por cierto, el joven apoyó el arma en una pared, se desabrochó la bragueta y se tomó un minuto para orinar. El café que se había tomado antes de partir le había hecho efecto.  

Un cuarto de hora después el asalto había terminado en ambos puentes. Todos acabaron asombrados. Los alemanes, los mismos soldados ingleses y, por último, Georges Gondrée y su esposa, Thérèse. Su negocio, un pequeño café ubicado justo al lado del puente de Bénouville, se convirtió en el primer edificio liberado por los aliados durante el desembarco de Normandía. Como gratitud, la amable pareja desenterró 99 botellas de champán que habían escondido en su jardín y, en las semanas siguientes, invitaron a una copa a todos los soldados que pasaron por allí. Aunque eso fue tras varias jornadas de aguerrida defensa por parte de los hombres de Howard, quienes solo pudieron descansar tranquilos cuando oyeron la música entonada por el gaitero personal de lord Lovat. Los refuerzos habían llegado.  

Por desgracia, esa suerte no la compartieron sus compañeros en Merville. Al igual que sobre los puentes, tres planeadores debían aterrizar, al abrigo del silencio absoluto, en el interior de la batería poco después de las doce. La idea era que provocaran el desconcierto en el interior mientras, desde fuera, los paracaidistas de la 6.ª División Aerotransportada británica atacaban la posición. Pero todo fue un desastre. El primer aparato no pudo salir de Inglaterra, el segundo cayó a un kilómetro del objetivo y el tercero a punto estuvo de explotar cuando tocó tierra cerca de un campo de minas. Al final, el teniente coronel Terence Otway, al mando de las fuerzas exteriores, ordenó el asalto. «¡Adelante todos, vamos a tomar esa maldita batería!», bufó el soldado Mower antes de lanzarse contra ella. Dos centenares de bajas después, la misión estaba cumplida.  

Soldado estadounidense dormido en una trinchera de Normandía durante el Día D. Crédito Getty Images.

Soldado estadounidense dormido en una trinchera de Normandía durante el Día D. Crédito Getty Images.

PARACAIDISTAS: LA ÉLITE NORTEAMERICANA 

Aunque valerosos, la realidad es que el número de hombres destinados a los planeadores era ínfimo si se compara con el de paracaidistas. De estos combatientes participaron unos veinte mil; y, de ellos, más de quince mil pertenecían a Estados Unidos, donde se los consideraba los soldados más letales de las fuerzas armadas junto con otras unidades especiales, como los Rangers. Por parte norteamericana, en el Día D lucharon la 82.ª División Aerotransportada (más conocida como All American por contar con soldados de todas las regiones del país) y la 101.ª División Aerotransportada (los Screaming Eagles o «Águilas Aulladoras»). «Teníamos un sentimiento especial, íntimo y de unidad de élite en la unidad», explicó el famoso «paraca» Richard Winters.  

Si los Red Devils y los paracaidistas británicos recibieron las órdenes de asegurar el flanco este, los estadounidenses fueron destinados al oeste; de forma más concreta, a la retaguardia de la playa de Utah. A grandes rasgos, las zonas de salto de las Águilas Aulladoras fueron los pueblos de Turqueville, Angoville y Vierville. Por su parte, a la 82.ª se le asignaron Sainte-Mère-Église y sus alrededores. Su trabajo, una vez más, consistía en acallar las baterías alemanas y controlar los puentes sobre los ríos Merderet y Douve.  

Para cumplir sus objetivos contaban con un entrenamiento sin igual y un pesado equipo que, en muchos casos, superaba los cincuenta kilogramos. Entre los utensilios más curiosos que portaban se hallaban los famosos crikets (pulsadores de juguete para reconocerse en mitad de la noche con un «cric»), los chalecos salvavidas Mae West (apodados así porque, al inflarse, recordaban a la exuberante delantera de la susodicha actriz) o un paracaídas de reserva. Esta última fue una ventaja que los ingleses no tuvieron hasta el año 1955 porque, en palabras de Napier Crookenden, oficial de la 6.ª División Aerotransportada británica, «su uso demostraba la falta de confianza en la fiabilidad del paracaídas principal», «suponía un gasto injustificado» y «dificultaba los movimientos de los hombres».  

Los días previos al desembarco fueron los más tensos para los paracaidistas. En un ambiente enrarecido, los capellanes militares hicieron jornadas maratonianas y recorrieron los diferentes campamentos para confesar a estos soldados. «Ningún sermón tiene más capacidad de hacer que un hombre se dé cuenta de que tiene que estar en paz con Dios que la perspectiva de saltar desde un avión», explicó en sus memorias el sacerdote de las Águilas Aulladoras Francis Sampson. Por si fuera poco, los nervios empeoraron cuando Eisenhower confirmó que la operación se retrasaba una jornada, aunque los mandos dominaron la situación con música a todo volumen, dónuts y café. El día 5, cuando el sol empezó a caer, subieron a los aviones. «Serían en torno a las diez cuando despegamos», afirmó Don Jakeway, de la 82.ª División. Como a sus compañeros, el exceso de comida le provocó mareos y arcadas durante el cruce del canal de la Mancha.  

Dibujo del ejército estadounidense luchando en el Día D. Crédito: Ed Vebell/Getty Images

Dibujo del ejército estadounidense luchando en el Día D. Crédito: Ed Vebell/Getty Images

HÉROES PERDIDOS 

Poco antes de la una de la madrugada, los primeros transportes vislumbraron la costa y las baterías antiaéreas alemanas. El saludo fue recíproco y los nazis contestaron con una sinfonía de disparos que alumbró el todavía negro cielo. En el mejor de los casos, los pilotos, muchos de ellos sin experiencia, se vieron obligados a modificar su rumbo original para escapar de las balas; en el peor, los aviones, los míticos C-47, fueron derribados con todos los «paracas» dentro. El infierno que se desató provocó que cientos de soldados cayeran a varios kilómetros de su zona original de salto y que perdieran sus armas en la caída debido a las sacudidas. Uno de ellos fue el mismo Winters, que pisó suelo francés solo con un cuchillo.  

El resultado fue un caos general que provocó infinidad de situaciones de película. Jakeway, por ejemplo, se quedó colgado de un árbol muy lejos de su objetivo. «Estaba aterrado, pero mantuve la calma», afirmó. Cuando se liberó de sus ataduras, tuvo que esconderse dentro de un montón de estiércol para no ser detectado por una patrulla enemiga. Su caso es menos conocido que el de John Steele. Este soldado acabó colgado del campanario de la iglesia de Sainte-Mère-Église mientras, bajo sus pies, se desataba un incendio y corrían las balas. Para sobrevivir se hizo el muerto, e interpretó tan bien su papel que un teniente norteamericano recordó años después al «paracaidista muerto que colgaba del campanario». Sobrevivió y le hicieron prisionero. Otros, con mucha menos fortuna, se ahogaron en pequeñas marismas de no más de dos palmos de profundidad por la imposibilidad de darse la vuelta debido al gran peso que portaban.  

Ya en tierra, fueron muchos los que desconocían el punto concreto en el que se hallaban. Al teniente coronel Robert Cole, de la 82.ª, la desesperación le hizo romper todas las normas y llamar a la puerta de una casa con la esperanza de poder situarse. De ella salieron unos amables franceses que le confirmaron, para su desgracia, que estaba a ocho kilómetros de la zona de salto. Más hilarante todavía fue lo que le ocurrió al teniente Smit. Tras varias horas oyó cómo se acercaba una unidad y, asustado, reptó hacia el ruido en silencio. Quería ver qué sucedía. A los pocos minutos, una figura se situó frente a él. «¿Qué haces aquí?», preguntó el oficial agazapado en el suelo. «No lo sé, pero puedo decir lo que haces tú. Estás haciendo el idiota delante del 12.º de Infantería estadounidense en pleno ataque». Para todos ellos, aquel fue el día más largo; uno que no olvidarían jamás.  

Eisenhower reunido con Líderes Supremos de Mando en Londres, 1944. Crédito: Getty Images

Eisenhower reunido con Líderes Supremos de Mando en Londres, 1944. Crédito: Getty Images

AMOR Y ODIO 

Existen ocasiones en las que un rayo de bondad consigue alejar la oscuridad de la batalla. Eso es lo que ocurrió en la pequeña iglesia de Angoville-au-Plain, entre Cherburgo y París. Cerca de este edificio cayeron, en la noche del 5 al 6 de junio de 1944, los sanitarios Ken Moore y Robert Wright, de la 101.ª División Aerotransportada. Cuando se vieron obligados a atender a decenas de heridos, transformaron la capilla en un improvisado hospital de campaña y sus bancos, donde todavía quedan restos de sangre, en camas. El lugar se convirtió así en un oasis para ambos bandos a pesar de que cambió de manos varias veces. «Al poco llegó un oficial alemán. Me preguntó si podía hacerme cargo de sus heridos, y lo aceptamos», recordó después uno de los enfermeros. Ambos cuidaron de unos ochenta adultos y un niño durante el desembarco de Normandía.  

Por desgracia, algunos paracaidistas británicos y estadounidenses protagonizaron también episodios de pillaje y abusos. Un miembro de la policía militar de las Águilas Aulladoras confirmó, por ejemplo, que había visto el cadáver de un oficial germano al que habían cortado un dedo para robarle su alianza matrimonial. Otros tantos agruparon a decenas de presos enemigos para ejecutarlos cuando las playas ya estaban aseguradas. Con todo, uno de los momentos más estremecedores se dio cuando un soldado aerotransportado observó que su compañero había cambiado sus guantes amarillos por otros. O eso creía. «Le pregunté dónde había encontrado esos guantes rojos y, tras rebuscar en uno de los bolsillos de su pantalón de salto, sacó una sarta de orejas. Había estado cortando orejas toda la noche y las había cosido a un viejo cordón de zapatos». Era sangre fresca.