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El día que nació el cartel de Medellín

«Frente a mí, veía a un Pablo Escobar que yo no conocía. Sentí por primera vez que nuestra causa tenía un gladiador, un líder nato. También pude percibir que no estábamos solos, que esta coyuntura nos había unido para proteger nuestra supervivencia y nuestros derechos como ciudadanos colombianos. Ya éramos una sólida organización de narcos». En «Vida y muerte del cartel de Medellín» (Debate), Carlos Lehder, uno de los fundadores y principales capos de la banda criminal, narra en primera persona su vida como narcotraficante: de sus inicios como delincuente de poca monta al comercio ilegal de cocaína que devino en imperio. En este relato que LENGUA publica a continuación, el mismo Lehder recuerda cómo gestionó el grupo la amenaza de la extradición a los Estados Unidos después de que los gobiernos colombiano y estadounidense llegasen a un acuerdo para que los narcos respondiesen de manera expresa ante la justicia norteamericana por los delitos cometidos en su país. La respuesta a esta medida judicial, la cual marcaría un hito en la lucha contra la droga en aquel momento, daría lugar a «Los Extraditables», el nombre oficioso de la organización que ensuciaría la historia de Colombia con plomo y sangre.

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antes se hab\u00edan visto <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-fixer-narco-miguel-angel-vega\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">tantos narcotraficantes juntos<\/a><\/span>. Convocados por Pablo Escobar a una finca que hab\u00eda alquilado para la ocasi\u00f3n, mafiosos y abogados unidos por un temor compartido nos reunimos por primera vez. La raz\u00f3n era un concepto que ninguno entend\u00eda del todo, pero que ten\u00edamos claro que era una amenaza directa: la extradici\u00f3n. Se hab\u00eda filtrado que el gobierno colombiano hab\u00eda llegado a un acuerdo con el de Estados Unidos para que nos buscaran en nuestro pa\u00eds y nos enviaran para responder ante la justicia norteamericana por los delitos cometidos all\u00e1.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La mayor\u00eda no nos conoc\u00edamos. \u00c9ramos, para ese entonces \u2014finales de 1981\u2014, un grupo de aventureros, \u00abemergentes\u00bb, para usar una palabra muy com\u00fan de la \u00e9poca, que est\u00e1bamos acumulando enormes fortunas en poco tiempo por cuenta del tr\u00e1fico ilegal de coca\u00edna. De los presentes, muy pocos hab\u00edan terminado siquiera el bachillerato, pero no hac\u00eda falta tener muchos estudios para entender el tama\u00f1o de la amenaza que ahora nos acechaba.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>En el jard\u00edn, Escobar instal\u00f3 una tarima. El primero en subirse y tomar el micr\u00f3fono fue su abogado, Guido Parra, secundado por otro experto en leyes, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Federico_Estrada_V%C3%A9lez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Federico Estrada V\u00e9lez<\/a><\/span>. A los dos los asesinar\u00edan a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde. A Estrada lo mat\u00f3 el mismo cartel en 1990, mientras que a Parra lo ejecutaron <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.infobae.com\/america\/historia-america\/2018\/11\/04\/la-historia-de-los-pepes-el-grupo-armado-ilegal-que-ayudo-a-matar-a-pablo-escobar\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Los Pepes<\/a><\/span>, la banda que aglutin\u00f3 a los enemigos del capo tres a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s. Su intervenci\u00f3n gir\u00f3 en torno a la jurisprudencia existente en Colombia sobre la extradici\u00f3n, informaci\u00f3n que ninguno entendi\u00f3 y, en cambio, s\u00ed logr\u00f3 alimentar nuestra paranoia. Lo \u00fanico claro es que no hab\u00eda nada claro. Fueron muchas las preguntas que les hicimos, ansiosos por saber qu\u00e9 iba a ocurrir con nosotros, pero no obtuvimos ninguna respuesta concreta. Ninguno de los presentes hab\u00eda podido leer el tratado firmado con Estados Unidos por el embajador de Colombia en ese pa\u00eds, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Virgilio_Barco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Virgilio Barco<\/a><\/span>. Este se manten\u00eda en el m\u00e1s estricto secreto. Tampoco ten\u00edamos idea de la ley que el Congreso acababa de aprobar y que le daba vida jur\u00eddica a la extradici\u00f3n en el pa\u00eds.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Un alterado <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/328292-ebook-la-parabola-de-pablo-nueva-edicion-9786289568707\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Pablo Escobar<\/a><\/span> le quit\u00f3 el micr\u00f3fono al abogado Parra y dijo con fuerza:\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Nosotros debemos conseguir, primeramente, una copia del tratado, y entonces s\u00ed leerlo y estudiarlo con los abogados. Lo compraremos, o si necesitamos robarlo, lo robaremos; as\u00ed, los abogados y todos nosotros podremos leerlo, los abogados estudiarlo y darnos una exacta explicaci\u00f3n sobre los peligros ante nosotros. Tenemos que descubrir qu\u00e9 intenciones tiene el hijueputa 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All\u00ed me dirig\u00ed al centro, a la oficina del doctor Pablo Salah Villamizar, famoso abogado a quien conoc\u00eda desde joven. Estaba ubicada a media cuadra del Palacio de Justicia. Me recibi\u00f3 cordialmente y me confirm\u00f3 que, en efecto, el tratado s\u00ed exist\u00eda, pero que no se podr\u00eda implementar todav\u00eda, ya que se necesitaba una ley aprobada por el Congreso para ratificarlo. Dicho esto, sac\u00f3 de un caj\u00f3n un f\u00f3lder que conten\u00eda una copia del temido documento, y me hizo prometerle que jam\u00e1s revelar\u00eda qui\u00e9n me lo hab\u00eda entregado.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Me explic\u00f3 que despu\u00e9s de que se ratificara el tratado por medio de dicha ley que hac\u00eda falta, bastar\u00eda una petici\u00f3n de la Embajada de Estados Unidos para que el gobierno colombiano ordenara la captura de aquel ciudadano requerido por la justicia de ese pa\u00eds. Una vez a buen recaudo, le corresponder\u00eda al presidente decidir si lo extraditaba o no. El doctor Salah me advirti\u00f3 que deb\u00eda tener mucho cuidado, pues pronto la extradici\u00f3n ser\u00eda un hecho.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Perplejo, abr\u00ed el f\u00f3lder y trat\u00e9 de leer el texto, pero era demasiado sofisticado para m\u00ed. Decid\u00ed que era mejor preguntarle al doctor Salah si quer\u00eda ser mi abogado. Me dijo que \u00e9l no pod\u00eda, pero que un conocido suyo s\u00ed podr\u00eda hacerlo, con su asesor\u00eda. Era el doctor Valencia, a quien inmediatamente le pidi\u00f3 que viniera a conocerme.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La puntualidad y el profesionalismo del doctor Salah eran legendarios. Era conocido por su porte de caballero y por ser siempre impecable en su vestir; adem\u00e1s, us\u00e1bamos la misma loci\u00f3n italiana, Pino Silvestre. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-fixer-narco-miguel-angel-vega\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Contacto en M\u00e9xico: vida y muertes del \u00abfixer\u00bb, el enlace entre la prensa extranjera y los capos narco<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/memorias-hunter-biden-cosas-bonitas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abTodos estamos solos en nuestra adicci\u00f3n\u00bb: auge, ca\u00edda y \u00bfresurrecci\u00f3n? de Hunter Biden<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/patrick-radden-keefe-el-imperio-del-dolor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Patrick Radden Keefe, la dinast\u00eda Sackler y la crisis de los opioides en Estados Unidos: \u00abEllos abrieron la caja de 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10 minutos
Primera foto policial de Pablo Escobar y un póster de busca y captura fotografiados en la oficina en Houston de Javier Peña, el agente de la Administración para el Control de Drogas (DEA) al cargo de la investigación sobre Escobar y el Cártel de Medellín. Crédito Getty Images.

Primera foto policial de Pablo Escobar y un póster de busca y captura fotografiados en la oficina en Houston de Javier Peña, el agente de la Administración para el Control de Drogas (DEA) al cargo de la investigación sobre Escobar y el Cártel de Medellín. Crédito Getty Images.

Nunca antes se habían visto tantos narcotraficantes juntos. Convocados por Pablo Escobar a una finca que había alquilado para la ocasión, mafiosos y abogados unidos por un temor compartido nos reunimos por primera vez. La razón era un concepto que ninguno entendía del todo, pero que teníamos claro que era una amenaza directa: la extradición. Se había filtrado que el gobierno colombiano había llegado a un acuerdo con el de Estados Unidos para que nos buscaran en nuestro país y nos enviaran para responder ante la justicia norteamericana por los delitos cometidos allá.  

La mayoría no nos conocíamos. Éramos, para ese entonces —finales de 1981—, un grupo de aventureros, «emergentes», para usar una palabra muy común de la época, que estábamos acumulando enormes fortunas en poco tiempo por cuenta del tráfico ilegal de cocaína. De los presentes, muy pocos habían terminado siquiera el bachillerato, pero no hacía falta tener muchos estudios para entender el tamaño de la amenaza que ahora nos acechaba.  

En el jardín, Escobar instaló una tarima. El primero en subirse y tomar el micrófono fue su abogado, Guido Parra, secundado por otro experto en leyes, Federico Estrada Vélez. A los dos los asesinarían años más tarde. A Estrada lo mató el mismo cartel en 1990, mientras que a Parra lo ejecutaron Los Pepes, la banda que aglutinó a los enemigos del capo tres años después. Su intervención giró en torno a la jurisprudencia existente en Colombia sobre la extradición, información que ninguno entendió y, en cambio, sí logró alimentar nuestra paranoia. Lo único claro es que no había nada claro. Fueron muchas las preguntas que les hicimos, ansiosos por saber qué iba a ocurrir con nosotros, pero no obtuvimos ninguna respuesta concreta. Ninguno de los presentes había podido leer el tratado firmado con Estados Unidos por el embajador de Colombia en ese país, Virgilio Barco. Este se mantenía en el más estricto secreto. Tampoco teníamos idea de la ley que el Congreso acababa de aprobar y que le daba vida jurídica a la extradición en el país.  

Un alterado Pablo Escobar le quitó el micrófono al abogado Parra y dijo con fuerza:  

—Nosotros debemos conseguir, primeramente, una copia del tratado, y entonces sí leerlo y estudiarlo con los abogados. Lo compraremos, o si necesitamos robarlo, lo robaremos; así, los abogados y todos nosotros podremos leerlo, los abogados estudiarlo y darnos una exacta explicación sobre los peligros ante nosotros. Tenemos que descubrir qué intenciones tiene el hijueputa gobierno.

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

Vida y muerte del Cartel de Medellín

El increíble relato en primera persona de Carlos Lehder sobre su vida como narcotraficante y sobre la creación y la evolución del cartel de Medellín.

En el aeropuerto de Medellín abordé mi avión con destino a Bogotá. Allí me dirigí al centro, a la oficina del doctor Pablo Salah Villamizar, famoso abogado a quien conocía desde joven. Estaba ubicada a media cuadra del Palacio de Justicia. Me recibió cordialmente y me confirmó que, en efecto, el tratado sí existía, pero que no se podría implementar todavía, ya que se necesitaba una ley aprobada por el Congreso para ratificarlo. Dicho esto, sacó de un cajón un fólder que contenía una copia del temido documento, y me hizo prometerle que jamás revelaría quién me lo había entregado.  

Me explicó que después de que se ratificara el tratado por medio de dicha ley que hacía falta, bastaría una petición de la Embajada de Estados Unidos para que el gobierno colombiano ordenara la captura de aquel ciudadano requerido por la justicia de ese país. Una vez a buen recaudo, le correspondería al presidente decidir si lo extraditaba o no. El doctor Salah me advirtió que debía tener mucho cuidado, pues pronto la extradición sería un hecho.  

Perplejo, abrí el fólder y traté de leer el texto, pero era demasiado sofisticado para mí. Decidí que era mejor preguntarle al doctor Salah si quería ser mi abogado. Me dijo que él no podía, pero que un conocido suyo sí podría hacerlo, con su asesoría. Era el doctor Valencia, a quien inmediatamente le pidió que viniera a conocerme.  

La puntualidad y el profesionalismo del doctor Salah eran legendarios. Era conocido por su porte de caballero y por ser siempre impecable en su vestir; además, usábamos la misma loción italiana, Pino Silvestre. Sus hijos también eran abogados y tenían bufetes adyacentes.  

El doctor Valencia era un paisa educado y práctico. Tan pronto como le firmé el poder para que me representara, le dije:  

—Doctor, quiero coordinar una entrevista con los medios de comunicación, que presentemos este tratado y que usted le explique a la opinión pública lo que implica.  

Me dijo que no era buena idea la rueda de prensa, que mejor sería pagar un aviso en El Tiempo para darlo a conocer. Ofreció la mediación de una periodista amiga que trabajaba en ese diario, el más importante del país.  

Mi nuevo abogado hizo dos copias, una de ellas destinada a la periodista, quien le dijo que veía factible lograr la publicación. Me preguntó quién aparecería como responsable y le dije que, dado que yo no era conocido, mejor sería sacarlo en nombre de los «ciudadanos extraditables».  

—Señor Lehder, pues «Los Extraditables» será —puntualizó la periodista.  

De esa manera, nació el nombre de una organización que marcaría la historia del país. Le entregué una importante suma en dólares para que pagara el aviso y tomé rumbo al aeropuerto El Dorado.  

El exnarcotraficante Carlos Lehder en Colombia en 1986. Crédito: Getty Images

El exnarcotraficante Carlos Lehder en Colombia en 1986. Crédito: Getty Images

En el terminal de aviones privados abordé el Turbo Commander y partí hacia a Medellín. Pablo Escobar sostenía en sus tensas manos las copias del tratado de extradición. Vociferaba, se veía descompuesto y furioso tras escuchar lo que el doctor Salah me había dicho.  

Ahí estaba Pablo, este burdo joven que fue gamín y bandido y que ahora se había convertido en capo lleno de ira:  

—Si estos políticos hijueputas están dispuestos a vender a los ciudadanos colombianos a Estados Unidos, entonces también están dispuestos a vender todo lo que hay aquí.  

Frente a mí, veía a un Pablo que yo no conocía. Sentí por primera vez que nuestra causa tenía un gladiador, un líder nato. También pude percibir que no estábamos solos, que esta coyuntura nos había unido para proteger nuestra supervivencia y nuestros derechos como ciudadanos colombianos. Ya éramos una sólida organización de narcos.  

Le dije que en El Tiempo aparecería un aviso con el tratado, pero se mostró muy escéptico de que finalmente saliera por tratarse de un diario tradicionalmente defensor del establecimiento, lo que nos llevó a discutir en forma acalorada. Yo le recordé que el presidente Eduardo Santos, miembro de la familia que para ese momento era propietaria de El Tiempo, durante los primeros años de la Segunda Guerra Mundial había declarado neutral a Colombia, argumento que no convenció a Pablo, para quien esos encorbatados eran todos los mismos con las mismas.  

Encorbatados eran también muchos de nuestros clientes. De nuestra coca y de nuestros dólares. Nos separaban muchas cosas, empezando por el origen; en mi caso, quizás un poco menos. Pero teníamos en común la codicia. Como la que me llevó a salirme del camino que mis padres me habían trazado, para tomar, hace más de cincuenta años ya, un seductor atajo que al principio me condujo a La Paz (Bolivia).

Historia de la lucha contra el narcotráfico

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