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Alemania, 1990: un viaje por la memoria de Günter Grass

A finales de la década de los 80, el editor de Günter Grass le facilitó unas libretas para que éste las llenara con los primeros borradores de sus textos. Grass, quien años después -en 1999- ganaría el premio Nobel de Literatura y el premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras, utilizó estos cuadernos como una suerte de diarios. Tras la caída del muro, en una Alemania en ebullición, Grass quiso implicarse de forma directa en el debate político de un país en proceso de cambio: viajó entonces por la que todavía era la RDA para presenciar las discusiones sobre la reunificación. De este viaje dan cuenta las páginas de «De Alemania a Alemania. Diario, 1990» (Alfaguara), un informe narrativo de una época en la que la historia se transformaba de un modo vertiginoso. A las puertas de la Feria del Libro de Fráncfort 2022, un evento que cuenta con España como País Invitado de Honor, recuperamos varias entradas de estos cuadernos de bitácora a modo de retrato de un pasado todavía presente; reflexiones que sirven para darle contexto a un país -y a un autor- que se estaba despojando de sus propios fantasmas para subirse al tren que le acabaría llevando al futuro.

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das Eiras, 3 de enero de 1990\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>El primer pescado del nuevo a\u00f1o, con guarnici\u00f3n de verduras \u2014tomate, calabac\u00edn, pimiento, cebolla y batatas\u2014, est\u00e1 en el horno. Comprado en Lagos. No hay ning\u00fan peri\u00f3dico alem\u00e1n a mano, salvo el <em>Bild Zeitung.<\/em> \u00c9ste lleva como titular de A\u00f1o Nuevo: \u00ab\u00a1Locura!\u00bb, una palabra que sobreabunda desde que se abri\u00f3 la frontera interalemana; \u00bfo anuncia, como un conjuro, una nueva y aut\u00e9ntica locura?... Malos presagios.\u00a0<\/p><p>El trabajo en el discurso de Frankfurt me fuerza a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/diario\/2006\/08\/12\/revistaverano\/1155333601_850215.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">volver la vista hacia m\u00ed mismo en las Juventudes Hitlerianas<\/a><\/span>. Desde luego no era un fan\u00e1tico riguroso, pero tampoco me asediaban las dudas. \u00bfUna persona intercambiable con otras, desde entonces? Sin duda, en lo que concierne a la formaci\u00f3n ideol\u00f3gico-pol\u00edtica del pensamiento y la acci\u00f3n; pero la obstinaci\u00f3n juvenil en grandes proyectos, casi \u00e9picos, como la elaboraci\u00f3n de tablas hist\u00f3ricas e hist\u00f3rico-culturales (presagio del \u00abitinerario cultural\u00bb de Stein), me resulta familiar. Este ego temprano ha experimentado en todo caso correcciones, pulimentos y plasmaciones profesionales, sin cambiar en lo 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20\/4\/90\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Hoy hace cuarenta y cinco a\u00f1os que estuve en este lugar, con diecisiete. Volv\u00ed a ver, si no el lugar exacto, s\u00ed la mina de carb\u00f3n surgida entretanto cerca de Senftenberg junto a la que fui herido el d\u00eda del \u00faltimo cumplea\u00f1os de Hitler. El pueblo en el que estuve bajo arresto con un cabo mayor en un s\u00f3tano por \u00abalejarme de la tropa\u00bb (orden Sch\u00f6rner), y que yo recordaba como \u00abPeterlein\u00bb, se llama Petershain y est\u00e1 entre Cottbus y Senftenberg. El azar de mi supervivencia qued\u00f3 probado aqu\u00ed en pocos d\u00edas en distintos lugares. Hoy vuelvo a Berl\u00edn en un ferrocarril que a\u00fan ostenta el nombre de <em>Reichsbahn<\/em>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xf04sm9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>As\u00ed acab\u00f3 la cosa: los alemanes, que jugaron mejor, son campeones del mundo. Luego, hubo celebraci\u00f3n a la manera alemana: en toda la rep\u00fablica, m\u00e1s ruidosa, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">m\u00e1s feliz que cuando la ca\u00edda del Muro<\/a><\/span>. Entretanto, el marco alem\u00e1n ha cumplido una semana en la RDA, y ya ha perdido una parte de su brillo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tmu92jj\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>De Behlendorf a Berl\u00edn, 9\/7\/90\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>As\u00ed acab\u00f3 la cosa: los alemanes, que jugaron mejor, son campeones del mundo. Luego, hubo celebraci\u00f3n a la manera alemana: en toda la rep\u00fablica, m\u00e1s ruidosa, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">m\u00e1s feliz que cuando la ca\u00edda del Muro<\/a><\/span>. Entretanto, el marco alem\u00e1n ha cumplido una semana en la RDA, y ya ha perdido una parte de su brillo; m\u00e1s a\u00fan, ha demostrado ser una divisa dura en un doble sentido. Los tres dibujos de gran formato, surgidos en ocho d\u00edas, me han agotado. \u00bfDeber\u00eda narrar en presente <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-historica\/33596-libro-malos-presagios-9788466333368\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Malos presagios<\/span>?<\/em><\/a> En estas semanas tengo que aprobar la donaci\u00f3n en vida para el archivo de la Academia y financiar y poner en marcha la nueva fundaci\u00f3n Premio Chodowiecki. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Roma, Italia. 8 de julio de 1990. El capit\u00e1n de Alemania Occidental, Lothar Matthaus (derecha), levanta la copa tras imponerse a Argentina en la final del Mundial de F\u00fatbol. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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el viaje en coche Berl\u00edn-Leipzig, 13\/9\/90\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>He superado tres d\u00edas de estr\u00e9s en Berl\u00edn que no me dejaron tiempo alguno, aunque todas las noches, despu\u00e9s de medianoche, como estaba insomne, se me ocurr\u00eda algo para\u00a0<em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14317-ebook-malos-presagios-9788420425733\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Malos presagios<\/span>.<\/a><\/em> Por ejemplo, la postura cr\u00edtica del narrador respecto al viudo, y su estilo, ocasionalmente l\u00edrico. O inscripciones en l\u00e1pidas de este tipo: \u00abS\u00f3lo en la muerte la patria le ha recuperado\u00bb. \u00abEl \u00faltimo descanso en tierra alemana.\u00bb Inscripciones, pues, que topan enseguida con el rechazo polaco. La narraci\u00f3n aporta los datos pol\u00edticos aludidos por el viudo en relaci\u00f3n con acontecimientos de la sociedad germano-polaca de enterramientos. \u00bfDeber\u00eda quiz\u00e1 contarlo en retrospectiva desde el a\u00f1o 2000?\u00a0<\/p><p>Las monta\u00f1as de correo, liquidadas. La primera versi\u00f3n del texto <em>Una ganga llamada RDA<\/em> va a quedar lista ma\u00f1ana. He preparado con Maria la exposici\u00f3n de Reinickendorf: noventa y tres dibujos y dieciocho litograf\u00edas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ayer se firm\u00f3 en Mosc\u00fa, en el encuentro Dos m\u00e1s Cuatro, un tratado que, el 3 de octubre, devolver\u00e1 la soberan\u00eda a Alemania con diez condiciones.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ayer, desde las ocho de la tarde, Jurek Becker y Peter Schneider estuvieron conmigo tomando vino tinto, queso y jam\u00f3n con pan de comino. Hablamos de las elecciones del 2 de diciembre y nos pusimos de acuerdo en escribir juntos algunas \u00abTesis para la elecci\u00f3n de los alemanes\u00bb y publicarlas en el <em>Spiegel.<\/em> Peter Schneider, que viaja a Am\u00e9rica, va a enviar sus propuestas desde all\u00ed. Jurek y yo nos encontraremos en Behlendorf. Por cansado que estuviera, fue una alegre velada.\u00a0<\/p><p>Quiz\u00e1 el viudo y la viuda no deber\u00edan tener la misma edad, sino \u00e9l sesenta y dos y ella cincuenta y cuatro. La vieja autopista de los tiempos de Hitler dificulta la escritura.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o2omz5z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Leo que el Ej\u00e9rcito se anuncia con el <em>Guernica<\/em> de Picasso y el texto \u00abLas im\u00e1genes del enemigo engendran las guerras\u00bb. No es posible abusar del Arte, ni falsear la Historia, con m\u00e1s cinismo. He recogido cinco cestas de manzanas: cada manzana, un milagro de distinta maduraci\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ggxp13i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Behlendorf, 5\/10\/90\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Extra\u00f1a mezcla de agotamiento y satisfacci\u00f3n, porque todo est\u00e1 dicho y escrito sobre el tema Alemania. Ayer regres\u00e9 tarde de Frankfurt: lo \u00fanico bueno y concentrado fue la conversaci\u00f3n con el escritor japon\u00e9s <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/penguinlibros\/status\/1079727652297154561\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Kenzabur\u014d \u014ce<\/a><\/span>, al que conoc\u00ed en Tokio hace doce a\u00f1os.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y hoy Ute ha cambiado nuestra cosecha de fruta por ochenta y cuatro botellas de zumo de manzana. Tambi\u00e9n esto es cosecha, y ayuda a pasar este oto\u00f1o alem\u00e1n. El discurso de la \u00abganga\u00bb est\u00e1 bien colocado (como se dec\u00eda en la RDA) en <em>Die Zeit.<\/em> Vuelvo a pensar en la conversaci\u00f3n con Kenzabur\u014d \u014ce: durante dos horas escasas, hablamos ante el p\u00fablico (con interpretaci\u00f3n simult\u00e1nea) y, a pesar de las dificultades ling\u00fc\u00edsticas y de la distancia entre las culturas, estuvimos m\u00e1s pr\u00f3ximos de lo que lo hubiera estado en conversaci\u00f3n directa con cualquier profesional de la cultura de Europa. Las experiencias parecidas, la similar forma de entender la profesi\u00f3n, los discursos pol\u00edticos igualmente in\u00fatiles, todo eso nos hizo hablar con confianza, Hero y Leandro marcados por la guerra. \u00bfSe dar\u00eda cuenta el p\u00fablico?\u00a0<\/p><p>Conversaci\u00f3n telef\u00f3nica con Peter R\u00fchmkorf, que est\u00e1 profund\u00edsimamente deprimido. Trat\u00e9 de relativizar sus penas coment\u00e1ndole las de H\u00f6llerer. Tambi\u00e9n a \u00e9l (como a m\u00ed) puede ayudarle trabajar en su manuscrito.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ute despeja con sus hermanas y sus familias la casa de Mausi. Quem\u00f3 delante del trastero cajas de cart\u00f3n que se hab\u00edan acumulado durante a\u00f1os, desde la mudanza desde Hamburgo, para hacer sitio a los muebles de Mausi.\u00a0<\/p><p>Me alegro de que la perra vuelva a estar aqu\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>He le\u00eddo las galeradas de <em>Una ganga...\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Sigo cansado, y fumo demasiado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"m7rlw7w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfMe ha cambiado este a\u00f1o? M\u00e1s de lo que debiera. Aun as\u00ed me mantuve en <em>Madera muerta.<\/em> S\u00f3lo el surgimiento, el resurgimiento de una naci\u00f3n lleva este concepto al absurdo. Prefiero ser gitano que alem\u00e1n. O, dicho de otra manera: puesto ante la disyuntiva de querer ser alem\u00e1n o polaco, mi tercera v\u00eda ser\u00eda ser gitano, ap\u00e1trida, europeo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"0ywo7lv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Behlendorf, 4 de noviembre del 90\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s. C\u00f3mo se convierte un comienzo en su contrario. La habitual historia revolucionaria a c\u00e1mara r\u00e1pida. No s\u00f3lo la RDA adopta esa velocidad en el acelerado entierro de las esperanzas. A finales de este mes, hay elecciones presidenciales en Polonia: si gana Wa\u0142\u0119sa, Polonia podr\u00eda volver a retroceder mucho.\u00a0<\/p><p>Leo que el Ej\u00e9rcito se anuncia con el <em>Guernica<\/em> de Picasso y el texto \u00abLas im\u00e1genes del enemigo engendran las guerras\u00bb. No es posible abusar del Arte, ni falsear la Historia, con m\u00e1s cinismo. He recogido cinco cestas de manzanas: cada manzana, un milagro de distinta maduraci\u00f3n. Hace un a\u00f1o, en Polonia, Gda\u0144sk. Delante del mercado, junto a los puestos de flores, campesinas cachubas vend\u00edan boletus, as\u00ed de c\u00e1lido era el oto\u00f1o. Cuando regresaba, cay\u00f3 el Muro. (En Gda\u0144sk se expon\u00edan, en el Ayuntamiento, mis dibujos de Calcuta, el bloc de Bremen. Vano intento de despertar, junto con el profesor Lipski, inter\u00e9s por la socialdemocracia en los estudiantes polacos.) Helene estaba all\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bfMe ha cambiado este a\u00f1o? M\u00e1s de lo que debiera. Aun as\u00ed me mantuve en Madera muerta. S\u00f3lo el surgimiento, el resurgimiento de una naci\u00f3n lleva este concepto al absurdo. Prefiero ser gitano que alem\u00e1n. O, dicho de otra manera: puesto ante la disyuntiva de querer ser alem\u00e1n o polaco, mi tercera v\u00eda ser\u00eda ser gitano, ap\u00e1trida, europeo. Pienso en mi viejo y ridiculizado maestro Otto Pankok; s\u00f3lo que Ute ser\u00eda una gitana con muy pocas dotes. Adem\u00e1s de lo discutible de la conversi\u00f3n. \u00bfC\u00f3mo se convierte uno en gitano? En Portugal, otra vez, se me ocurri\u00f3 que los gitanos de all\u00ed son los portugueses m\u00e1s bellos. Tambi\u00e9n si me pusieran ante la disyuntiva de ser jud\u00edo o gitano, preferir\u00eda rom\u00ed o sinto. \u00a1Y estas pueriles e in\u00fatiles especulaciones despu\u00e9s de un a\u00f1o de unidad! (El gitano voluntario tiene que ir al m\u00e9dico ma\u00f1ana.)\u00a0<\/p><p>Me encuentro aqu\u00ed los ejemplares justificativos de <em>Una ganga...<\/em> en bolsillo (sesenta p\u00e1ginas). Un escueto resumen, m\u00e1s no me fue posible.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tb6xbgd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/muerte-gorbachov-william-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Para entender a Gorbachov<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/chernobil-svetlana-alexievich-carmen-de-la-cueva\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La casa muerta: regreso a Chern\u00f3bil<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">George Orwell sobre \u00abMein Kampf\u00bb: Hitler o el m\u00e1rtir 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10 minutos

Günter Grass, en Bruselas, Bélgica, en noviembre de 1996. Crédito: Getty Images.

Vale das Eiras, 3 de enero de 1990 

El primer pescado del nuevo año, con guarnición de verduras —tomate, calabacín, pimiento, cebolla y batatas—, está en el horno. Comprado en Lagos. No hay ningún periódico alemán a mano, salvo el Bild Zeitung. Éste lleva como titular de Año Nuevo: «¡Locura!», una palabra que sobreabunda desde que se abrió la frontera interalemana; ¿o anuncia, como un conjuro, una nueva y auténtica locura?... Malos presagios. 

El trabajo en el discurso de Frankfurt me fuerza a volver la vista hacia mí mismo en las Juventudes Hitlerianas. Desde luego no era un fanático riguroso, pero tampoco me asediaban las dudas. ¿Una persona intercambiable con otras, desde entonces? Sin duda, en lo que concierne a la formación ideológico-política del pensamiento y la acción; pero la obstinación juvenil en grandes proyectos, casi épicos, como la elaboración de tablas históricas e histórico-culturales (presagio del «itinerario cultural» de Stein), me resulta familiar. Este ego temprano ha experimentado en todo caso correcciones, pulimentos y plasmaciones profesionales, sin cambiar en lo fundamental.

Ayer, conversación con Ute [la esposa de Günter Grass] hasta mucho después de medianoche sobre mis propósitos de Año Nuevo para este año: desde finales de febrero hasta septiembre, quiero visitar la RDA, desde Rügen hasta Vogtland, todos los meses, a intervalos más o menos largos, para ver con mis propios ojos los cambios que siguen al gran cambio político y revolucionario. El plan prevé también una estancia en la cuenca carbonífera, en los alrededores de Spremberg. Allí fui herido en el 45 (el 20 de abril). Allí quiero dibujar el paisaje explotado. Ute sólo estará de vez en cuando. Así que compraré un saco de dormir sólo para mí. 

Quizá es demasiado pronto para hacerme una idea del profesor Alexander Reschke. Sea como fuere, enseña en la Universidad de Essen algo que aún no tiene nombre. Probablemente Historia. Un antiguo intelectual de izquierdas, al que los cambios en Alemania ponen de un humor nacional-sentimental, aunque con un quiebro irónico. Ella, la viuda Halina Piątkowska, es pediatra. Entre finales de noviembre del 89 y mayo del 90 hay un activo intercambio epistolar entre viudo y viuda, que da cada vez más cuenta de su proyecto común, de cómo poco a poco va cobrando forma hasta la primera compra de terrenos: tres hectáreas y media de territorio al sur de Brentau, que abarca un trozo de bosque, es montañoso y puede ser ampliado posteriormente en dirección a Ramkau. También hay una suma en dólares en una cuenta de ahorro, que podría bastar para comprar una finca del mismo tamaño a las afueras de Vilna (Vilnius). Ninguno de los dos, viuda y viudo, se habría creído capaz de tanto sentido práctico. 

He empezado un dibujo para Madera muerta. Y, para aumentar lo positivo hasta la locura, hoy un tercer árbol ha sido plantado en su agujero en la ladera sur: un nespereira, es decir, un níspero, que promete frutos jugosos y ácidos. Ojalá que el suelo no esté demasiado húmedo, con estas lluvias persistentes.

Cottbus, 20/4/90 

Hoy hace cuarenta y cinco años que estuve en este lugar, con diecisiete. Volví a ver, si no el lugar exacto, sí la mina de carbón surgida entretanto cerca de Senftenberg junto a la que fui herido el día del último cumpleaños de Hitler. El pueblo en el que estuve bajo arresto con un cabo mayor en un sótano por «alejarme de la tropa» (orden Schörner), y que yo recordaba como «Peterlein», se llama Petershain y está entre Cottbus y Senftenberg. El azar de mi supervivencia quedó probado aquí en pocos días en distintos lugares. Hoy vuelvo a Berlín en un ferrocarril que aún ostenta el nombre de Reichsbahn.

Así acabó la cosa: los alemanes, que jugaron mejor, son campeones del mundo. Luego, hubo celebración a la manera alemana: en toda la república, más ruidosa, más feliz que cuando la caída del Muro. Entretanto, el marco alemán ha cumplido una semana en la RDA, y ya ha perdido una parte de su brillo.

De Behlendorf a Berlín, 9/7/90 

Así acabó la cosa: los alemanes, que jugaron mejor, son campeones del mundo. Luego, hubo celebración a la manera alemana: en toda la república, más ruidosa, más feliz que cuando la caída del Muro. Entretanto, el marco alemán ha cumplido una semana en la RDA, y ya ha perdido una parte de su brillo; más aún, ha demostrado ser una divisa dura en un doble sentido. Los tres dibujos de gran formato, surgidos en ocho días, me han agotado. ¿Debería narrar en presente Malos presagios? En estas semanas tengo que aprobar la donación en vida para el archivo de la Academia y financiar y poner en marcha la nueva fundación Premio Chodowiecki. Todo eso, ante la incómoda expectativa de que Berlín se convierta en capital: ¿de qué? ¿Gran República Federal? ¿Confederación Germánica? ¿O, como a mí me gustaría, Federación de Estados Alemanes?

Roma, Italia. 8 de julio de 1990. El capitán de Alemania Occidental, Lothar Matthaus (derecha), levanta la copa tras imponerse a Argentina en la final del Mundial de Fútbol. Crédito: Getty Images.

Durante el viaje en coche Berlín-Leipzig, 13/9/90 

He superado tres días de estrés en Berlín que no me dejaron tiempo alguno, aunque todas las noches, después de medianoche, como estaba insomne, se me ocurría algo para Malos presagios. Por ejemplo, la postura crítica del narrador respecto al viudo, y su estilo, ocasionalmente lírico. O inscripciones en lápidas de este tipo: «Sólo en la muerte la patria le ha recuperado». «El último descanso en tierra alemana.» Inscripciones, pues, que topan enseguida con el rechazo polaco. La narración aporta los datos políticos aludidos por el viudo en relación con acontecimientos de la sociedad germano-polaca de enterramientos. ¿Debería quizá contarlo en retrospectiva desde el año 2000? 

Las montañas de correo, liquidadas. La primera versión del texto Una ganga llamada RDA va a quedar lista mañana. He preparado con Maria la exposición de Reinickendorf: noventa y tres dibujos y dieciocho litografías. 

Ayer se firmó en Moscú, en el encuentro Dos más Cuatro, un tratado que, el 3 de octubre, devolverá la soberanía a Alemania con diez condiciones. 

Ayer, desde las ocho de la tarde, Jurek Becker y Peter Schneider estuvieron conmigo tomando vino tinto, queso y jamón con pan de comino. Hablamos de las elecciones del 2 de diciembre y nos pusimos de acuerdo en escribir juntos algunas «Tesis para la elección de los alemanes» y publicarlas en el Spiegel. Peter Schneider, que viaja a América, va a enviar sus propuestas desde allí. Jurek y yo nos encontraremos en Behlendorf. Por cansado que estuviera, fue una alegre velada. 

Quizá el viudo y la viuda no deberían tener la misma edad, sino él sesenta y dos y ella cincuenta y cuatro. La vieja autopista de los tiempos de Hitler dificulta la escritura.

Leo que el Ejército se anuncia con el Guernica de Picasso y el texto «Las imágenes del enemigo engendran las guerras». No es posible abusar del Arte, ni falsear la Historia, con más cinismo. He recogido cinco cestas de manzanas: cada manzana, un milagro de distinta maduración.

Behlendorf, 5/10/90 

Extraña mezcla de agotamiento y satisfacción, porque todo está dicho y escrito sobre el tema Alemania. Ayer regresé tarde de Frankfurt: lo único bueno y concentrado fue la conversación con el escritor japonés Kenzaburō Ōe, al que conocí en Tokio hace doce años. 

Y hoy Ute ha cambiado nuestra cosecha de fruta por ochenta y cuatro botellas de zumo de manzana. También esto es cosecha, y ayuda a pasar este otoño alemán. El discurso de la «ganga» está bien colocado (como se decía en la RDA) en Die Zeit. Vuelvo a pensar en la conversación con Kenzaburō Ōe: durante dos horas escasas, hablamos ante el público (con interpretación simultánea) y, a pesar de las dificultades lingüísticas y de la distancia entre las culturas, estuvimos más próximos de lo que lo hubiera estado en conversación directa con cualquier profesional de la cultura de Europa. Las experiencias parecidas, la similar forma de entender la profesión, los discursos políticos igualmente inútiles, todo eso nos hizo hablar con confianza, Hero y Leandro marcados por la guerra. ¿Se daría cuenta el público? 

Conversación telefónica con Peter Rühmkorf, que está profundísimamente deprimido. Traté de relativizar sus penas comentándole las de Höllerer. También a él (como a mí) puede ayudarle trabajar en su manuscrito. 

Ute despeja con sus hermanas y sus familias la casa de Mausi. Quemó delante del trastero cajas de cartón que se habían acumulado durante años, desde la mudanza desde Hamburgo, para hacer sitio a los muebles de Mausi. 

Me alegro de que la perra vuelva a estar aquí. 

He leído las galeradas de Una ganga... 

Sigo cansado, y fumo demasiado.

¿Me ha cambiado este año? Más de lo que debiera. Aun así me mantuve en Madera muerta. Sólo el surgimiento, el resurgimiento de una nación lleva este concepto al absurdo. Prefiero ser gitano que alemán. O, dicho de otra manera: puesto ante la disyuntiva de querer ser alemán o polaco, mi tercera vía sería ser gitano, apátrida, europeo.

Behlendorf, 4 de noviembre del 90 

Un año después. Cómo se convierte un comienzo en su contrario. La habitual historia revolucionaria a cámara rápida. No sólo la RDA adopta esa velocidad en el acelerado entierro de las esperanzas. A finales de este mes, hay elecciones presidenciales en Polonia: si gana Wałęsa, Polonia podría volver a retroceder mucho. 

Leo que el Ejército se anuncia con el Guernica de Picasso y el texto «Las imágenes del enemigo engendran las guerras». No es posible abusar del Arte, ni falsear la Historia, con más cinismo. He recogido cinco cestas de manzanas: cada manzana, un milagro de distinta maduración. Hace un año, en Polonia, Gdańsk. Delante del mercado, junto a los puestos de flores, campesinas cachubas vendían boletus, así de cálido era el otoño. Cuando regresaba, cayó el Muro. (En Gdańsk se exponían, en el Ayuntamiento, mis dibujos de Calcuta, el bloc de Bremen. Vano intento de despertar, junto con el profesor Lipski, interés por la socialdemocracia en los estudiantes polacos.) Helene estaba allí. 

¿Me ha cambiado este año? Más de lo que debiera. Aun así me mantuve en Madera muerta. Sólo el surgimiento, el resurgimiento de una nación lleva este concepto al absurdo. Prefiero ser gitano que alemán. O, dicho de otra manera: puesto ante la disyuntiva de querer ser alemán o polaco, mi tercera vía sería ser gitano, apátrida, europeo. Pienso en mi viejo y ridiculizado maestro Otto Pankok; sólo que Ute sería una gitana con muy pocas dotes. Además de lo discutible de la conversión. ¿Cómo se convierte uno en gitano? En Portugal, otra vez, se me ocurrió que los gitanos de allí son los portugueses más bellos. También si me pusieran ante la disyuntiva de ser judío o gitano, preferiría romí o sinto. ¡Y estas pueriles e inútiles especulaciones después de un año de unidad! (El gitano voluntario tiene que ir al médico mañana.) 

Me encuentro aquí los ejemplares justificativos de Una ganga... en bolsillo (sesenta páginas). Un escueto resumen, más no me fue posible.

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